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AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS 
OF WORLD WAR II 




Edited by 
Maurer Maurer 



Office of Air Force History 

Washington, D.C. 

1983 



Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data 
Main entry under tide: 

Air Force combat units of World War II. 

Reprint. Originally published: Washington, D.C. : U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 
1961. 

Includes index. 

Supt. of Docs. No.: D 301.2:C73/3/983 

1. United "States. Army Air Forces — History. 
2. World War, 1939-1945 — Aerial operations, American. 
I. Maurer, Maurer. 

D790.A533 1983 940.54'4973 83-600169 

ISBN 0-912799-02-1 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C. 



Foreword 



Like all chronologies, bibliographies, and encyclopedias. Air Force 
Combat Units of World War II serves a very special historical function. 
It traces the lineage of each Army Air Corps and U.S. Air Force 
combat group or higher organization active in World War II, from its 
origins to 1956. 

It is a concise official record of those units: their assignments, 
subordinate organizations, stations, commanders, campaigns, aircraft, 
and decorations. But it is more than that. 

As an important source of ready information, this volume not only 
serves as a reference tool for historians and researchers; but it also 
provides commanders with a corporate memory of vital statistics. With 
these facts, a unit documents its heritage, the basis for unit esprit de corps. 

Originally this volume had been printed in 1961. Its worth has been 
proven, and the demand for it has been great. With this reprint, it will 
continue to serve the United States Air Force in all quarters in years to 
come. 

Richard H. Kohn 

Chief, Office of Air Force History 



ttt 



United States Air Force 
Historical Advisory Committee 

(As of September 1, 1983) 



Lt. Gen. Charles G. Cleveland, Dr. Alfred F. Hurley 
USAF Brig. Gen., USAF, Retired 

Commander, Air University, North Texas State University 



Mr. DeWitt S. Copp Mr. David E. Place 

The National Volunteer Agency The General Counsel, USAF 



Dr. Philip A. Crowl 
Annapolis, Maryland 



Gen. Bryce Poe II, USAF, Retired 
Alexandria, Virginia 



Dr. Warren W. Hassler, Jr. Lt. Gen. Winfield W. Scott, Jr. 

Pennsylvania State University Superintendent, USAF Academy 



Brig. Gen. Harris B. Hull, USAF, Dr. David A. Shannon (Chairman) 
Retired University of Virginia 

National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration 



tv 



Preface 



Purpose. Over a period of several years the USAF Historical 
Division has received hundreds of requests for brief histories of 
Air Force organizations. Air Force units ask for historical data 
they can use for the orientation of new personnel and for building 
morale and esprit de corps. USAF Headquarters and the commands 
need historical data for organizational planning. Information offi- 
cers throughout the Air Force want historical materials for public 
relations purposes. Members and former members of the Air Force 
are interested in the units with which they have served. Govern- 
ment agencies and private individuals, for various reasons, seek 
information about Air Force units and their histories. As a result 
of the great demand for and the interest in such histories, it appeared 
that a book containing brief sketches of Air Force combat organi- 
zations would be of value as a reference work. The task of pre- 
paring such a volume was undertaken by the USAF Historical 
Division as a phase of its work on World War II. 

Scope. This book is concerned primarily with the combat (or 
tactical) groups that were active during the Second World War. 
Although such groups had numerous designations, nearly all fell 
within four major categories: bombardment, fighter, reconnaissance, 
and troop carrier. The book covers both the combat groups that 
served overseas and those that remained in the United States. It 
also covers combat organizations above the group level. It does 
not deal with provisional organizations or with air base, mainte- 
nance, supply, medical, transport, and other service or support 
organizations. 

Although this book is devoted exclusively to organizations that 
were active during World War II, its coverage of those organiza- 
tions is not confined to the World War II period. Instead, each 



organization is traced back to its origin and forward to i January 
1956, with later activations being mentioned if they took place 
prior to the time the draft of the book was prepared in 1957-1958. 

The organizations are presented under the designations they 
carried on 2 September 1945. For each organization there is 
information concerning insigne, lineage, operations, assignments, 
aircraft (for groups only), components, stations, commanders, cam- 
paigns, and decorations. A guide to the way these materials are 
treated is provided in the Explanatory Notes that follow this 
Preface. 

Revision. It is impossible to handle the vast amount of detailed 
data used in the preparation of a work of this kind without spme 
errors appearing in the published volume. A considerable portion 
of the material in this book represents judgments that historians 
made in their efforts to determine facts from conflicting data found 
in various sources. Because of the nature of the volume, there was 
little opportunity to employ the qualifying words and phrases that 
historians normally use to indicate weaknesses in their sources or 
suggest the possibility of other interpretations of available data. 
Like any historical work, this book is subject to revision in the 
light of evidence that may be discovered or may become available 
in the future. 

Sources. Most of the sources used in the preparation of this 
volume are found in the archives of the USAF Historical Division. 
The most important of these are histories that Air Force organiza- 
tions at all echelons have forwarded periodically to the archives in 
accordance with directives pertaining to the Air Force historical 
program. These histories consist of narratives, plus supporting 
documents, such as plans, orders, directives, operational reports, 
organizational charts, statistical summaries, and correspondence. 
The narratives and documents for many organizations are excellent. 
Unfortunately, the coverage for some organizations is inadequate 
and in some cases is lacking for considerable periods of time. Cover- 
age is especially thin, or absent, for the years before 1943, the date 
the historical program became operative, and for the period im- 
mediately following World War II, when the program was dis- 

vi 



rupted by demobilization and by numerous changes in Air Force 
organization. Lower echelons of some commands, as well as reserve 
and national guard organizations not in active service, have not 
forwarded narratives and documents to the archives. 

Other important sources were papers of the Air Service, the Air 
Corps, and the Air Staff of Army Air Forces; numbered letters of 
the War Department and the Department of the Air Force; general 
and special orders; reports and staff studies; statistical digests; or- 
ganizational directories; personnel rosters; and station lists. 

Monographs prepared by the USAF Historical Division and by 
the historical offices of the various commands were very useful. 
Another secondary source of great value was the USAF Historical 
Division's seven-volume history, The Army Air Forces in World 
War II, edited by W. F. Craven and J. L. Cate, and published by 
the University of Chicago Press. 

Ac1{nowledgments. This volume is, in a large measure, the 
work of Miss Mary Frances Morgan (M.A., University of Georgia), 
Miss Merlin Elaine Owen (M.A., Tulane University), Mr. Sam H. 
Frank (M.A., Florida State University), Mr. Herman A. Higgins 
(M.A., Peabody College), Mr. Richard C. Lukas (B.A., Florida 
State University), and Mr. Wesley P. Newton, Jr. (M.A., Uni- 
versity of Alabama). These young graduate students, who joined 
the USAF Historical Division in the summer of 1957, were well 
qualified for the task of conducting the research and preparing the 
draft of the book. Each had excellent training in history and his- 
torical methodology. Each proved to be a first-class researcher. 
But these historians brought more than technical competence to 
their job. They had enthusiasm for their work, a vast store of good 
humor, and the personal qualities that enable people to work together 
in the finest spirit of cooperation. When this team broke up in the 
summer of 1958, Miss Morgan and Mr. Newton stayed on for 
another year to finish the draft and assist with the editing. 

Many other persons contributed to the production of this volume. 
Miss Marguerite Kennedy and her staff in the archives of the USAF 
Historical Division provided numerous services that expedited the 

vii 



research. Mr. David Schoem of the Air University Historical 
Liaison Office in Washington assisted with many administrative 
matters. Mr. Gordon W. Benson and members of his staff furnished 
copies of the unit history cards maintained by the Organization 
Branch, Directorate of Statistical Services, Headquarters USAF. 
Miss Eleanor Cox, Chief of the Heraldic Section, Directorate of 
Military Personnel, Headquarters USAF, assisted by Miss Anna D. 
Osso of the Heraldic Section, supplied the insignia and their de- 
scriptions. Dr. Chauncey E. Sanders, Mr. Robert T. Finney, Dr. 
Wilson Howell, Dr. Edith C. Rodgers, Major Ruth P. Boehner, 
Lieutenant James D. Secor, Lieutenant Eugene Pascuzzi, and other 
members or former members of the USAF Historical Division who 
at various times were associated with the Division's unit history 
program, prepared many unit histories that supplied valuable data 
for this volume. Mrs. Lois L. Lynn maintained the voluminous 
files required for the project and typed the various drafts of the 
book. Although this brief note can not name all the persons who 
assisted in one way or another, it should mention two men whose 
interest and support were vital to the project: Col. G. C. Cobb, 
Director of Research Studies Institute during the time the book was 
being written; and Dr. Albert F. Simpson, Chief, USAF Historical 
Division. 

75 September 7959 



Explanatory Notes 

These notes, which are designed as an aid to the use of this vol- 
ume, are keyed to the various kinds of information presented in the 
historical sketches of the combat organizations. 

Heading. The heading gives the numerical and general func- 
tional designation of the organization at the end of World War II. 

Insigne. The insigne is the last one approved prior to the end of 
World War II if such an insigne was available. If the organization 
had no insigne at that time but had one approved after the war, the 
latter is shown. A regulation issued in 1953 required each combat 
group to use the insigne of the combat wing of the same number; 
consequently, in this book wing insignia are given for some groups. 

Lineage. The lineage, which was traced through official docu- 
ments, is presented in a narrative that also covers the major activities 
of the organization. Organizational actions (e.g., activation, re- 
designation, etc.) relating to lineage are highlighted by means of 
italics. Minor redesignations (e.g., a change from Bombardment 
Group, H to Bombardment Group, Heavy), as well as organiza- 
tional changes that had no effect on lineage, were omitted. The 
terms used to describe actions that establish the lineage of Air Force 
organizations are defined in Appendix I : Organizational Terms. 

Operations. The narrative for each group gives a brief summary 
of the organization's major activities, especially its combat opera- 
tions. A general statement concerning major functions or area of 
operations is provided for organizations above the group level. 

Assignments. The narrative includes information concerning 
the organization's assignments, or its attachments for operational 
control. For World War II, this information is generally restricted 
to the numbered air forces with which the organization operated; 

ix 



for the post-World War II period, it is usually confined to the major 
command. Because of peculiarities and changes in the Air Force 
structure between 1946 and 1950, assignments to Air Defense, Tactical 
Air, and Continental Air Command during that time are, as a gen- 
eral rule, not shown. In references to Air National Guard (ANG) 
organizations, names of states, shown as abbreviations in paren- 
theses, indicate allotments of headquarters. 

Aircraft. The narrative for each group supplies information 
concerning the aircraft used by the organization. 

Organizational Components. The major combat elements are 
listed immediately following the narrative. The list shows only the 
components at the first subordinate echelon in any particular period. 
Components were omitted in some cases in which the structure of the 
subject organization changed frequently and the assignments of 
components usually were of brief duration. Attached components, 
as well as service and support elements, were omitted. Components 
of national guard organizations are given only for those periods in 
which the guard organizations were on extended active service. 

Only numerical designations are shown if the functional desig- 
nations (e.g., fighter, bomber) of the components and subject organ- 
ization were similar. For components assigned during World War 
II, the numerical designation shown is the one in use at the end of the 
war. If the numerical designation of a component changed during 
the period of assignment to the subject organization, the former or 
later designation is supplied in parentheses. 

A semicolon separating dates indicates that the subject organ- 
ization was inactivated. A comma indicates that the component 
was relieved of assignment and later reassigned during a period in 
which the subject organization remained active. 

Stations. The list of stations shows the locations and move- 
ments of the organization. Temporary stations are not listed. The 
name given for each base is the one in use at the time the organization 
arrived. Webster's Geographical Dictionary was used as the pri- 
mary authority for the spelling of place names. For places not 
listed there, the NIS Gazetteers were used. For places not given 
in either of those sources, it was necessary to rely on station lists 



and other Air Force documents. Geographical place names, rather 
than base names, are generally shown for stations overseas. If the 
organization moved frequently, as some organizations did in the 
Mediterranean and Pacific areas during World War II, countries, 
rather than specific places, are shown. Stations for national guard 
organizations are given only for those periods in which the guard 
organizations were on extended active service. 

A single date indicates the arrival of the organization's head- 
quarters or, if that could not be determined, the arrival of the first 
major element of the organization. Where double dates are given, 
the second date, if followed by a semicolon, shows when the organ- 
ization (or the first major element) began an extended movement 
either overseas or within a theater ; if followed by a period, the second 
date indicates that the organization was inactivated. 

Commanders. The list of commanders gives the names of the 
organization's commanding officers, the highest rank held by each 
during the period of command, and the date each assumed command. 
As a general rule, temporary or acting commanders are not shown. 
Because of difficulties encountered in obtaining data concerning com- 
manders of reserve and national guard organizations, commanders 
of such organizations are shown only for those periods the organiza- 
tions were on extended active service. 

Where double dates are shown, the second date, if followed by a 
period, indicates that the organization was inactivated; if followed 
by a semicolon, the second date indicates that there is, or may be, a 
gap in the list of commanders. 

Campaigns. The campaigns listed are those in which the or- 
ganization participated, the determination in each instance being 
based upon a careful analysis of the organization's operations. If 
the listing shows Asiatic-Pacific Theater or European-African-Mid- 
dle Eastern Theater, the organization served, but was not engaged 
in combat, in the theater. If the listing includes American Theater, 
the organization either served in the theater area outside the 
United States, or was stationed in the United States for a total time 
of one year or more. The theater is not shown if any campaign in 
the theater is listed. When some components of the organization 

xi 



were engaged in activities that could not be attributed to the entire 
organization, those activities are not covered by the list of the organ- 
ization's campaigns. For example, if a squadron on detached serv- 
ice from a group in the European-African-Middle Eastern Theater 
served in combat in the Asiatic-Pacific Theater, the campaigns listed 
for the group do not include the Asiatic-Pacific campaigns in which 
the squadron participated. A list of ail the campaigns in which Air 
Force organizations have participated is provided in Appendix II: 
Theaters and Campaigns. 

It should be emphasized that the listings in this book are for 
groups, wings, divisions, commands, and air forces rather than for 
the headquarters of these organizations or for the squadrons. Conse- 
quently, units are cautioned not to use the listings in this volume as 
the basis or authority for claiming or displaying service streamers. 
The Awards Branch, Personnel Services Division, Directorate of 
Military Personnel, Headquarters USAF is responsible for determin- 
ing what service streamers each unit is entitled to display. 

Decorations. Under decorations are listed the citations and 
other awards made to the organization. In cases where citations were 
found to be suitable for such treatment, they are mentioned in the 
narrative in connection with operations (as well as listed under 
"Decorations") in order to provide additional data about the activities 
covered by the citations. In many instances dates for citations have 
been omitted or have been revised and set in brackets because the 
dates given in orders pertaining to the citations are obviously incor- 
rect. For example, the dates given in an order may extend over a 
period before or after the organization was engaged in the activity 
for which it was cited. Information concerning the various citations 
and other awards that have been bestowed on organizational ele- 
ments of the Air Force is provided in Appendix III: Decorations. 

As in the case of the campaigns, the listings in this volume are 
not to be used by units as the basis or authority for claiming or dis- 
playing streamers and other devices that represent awards. The 
Awards Branch determines the awards to which each unit is entitled. 



xtt 



Contents 

Page 

FOREWORD Hi 

PREFACE V 

EXPLANATORY NOTES ix 

INTRODUCTION 1 

Air Force Combat Organization 1 

Commanders 14 

AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS 

Groups 19 

V^ings 373 

Divisions 431 

Commands 437 

Air Forces 457 

APPENDIXES 

I. Organizational Terms 475 

II. Theaters and Campaigns 478 

III. Decorations 492 

IV. Abbreviations 493 

INDEX OF UNITS 495 



xm 



INTRODUCTION 



AIR FORCE COMBAT ORGANIZATION 

At the peak of its strength in World War II, the United States 
Army Air Forces (AAF) had more than 2,400,000 men and women 
in uniform. There were pilots, navigators, bombardiers, gunners, 
and radio operators, clerks and typists, artists and flautists, teachers, 
mechanics, statisticians, and engineers — for it took many talents and 
skills to conduct and support the war in the air. All these persons, 
from privates to generals, had to be welded into an organization 
capable of giving direction and coordination to their diverse activ- 
ities. For combat the men were formed into squadrons, and squad- 
rons into groups. Above the groups were wings, and wings were 
organized into commands, and commands into the 16 air forces 
of the AAF. The upper part of the structure had to be built while 
the war was on, but the foundation was old. Some of the squadrons, 
two of the groups, and one wing had combat records from the First 
World War. One squadron, the oldest in the Air Force, could trace 
its history back to 1913. 

1913-1917 

The Army had established an Aeronautical Division in the Signal 
Corps on i August 1907 and had acquired its first plane in 1909. 
Army men had learned to fly, but for some time the aviators were 
not organized into units for operations. Consequently in 1913, when 
relations between the United States and Mexico were strained as a 
result of a revolution in Mexico, there was no aviation unit for service 
along the Mexican border. The Army, however, sent some of its 
flyers and planes to Texas, and on 5 March 1913 these were formed 
into the ist Aero Squadron, a provisional organization made up of 
two companies. Later that year, in December, after the provisional 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 

unit had moved to San Diego for training, it was organized officially 
as an Army squadron. Following Pancho Villa's raid on Columbui, 
New Mexico, in March 1916, the squadron joined the force that 
Brig. Gen. John J. Pershing organized to try to capture the Mexican 
bandit. Thus the ist Aero Squadron, which provided communica- 
tion and reconnaissance services during the Mexican expedition, was 
the first American aviation unit to take the field for a military 
campaign. 

Meanwhile, although war had broken out in Europe, little 
progress had been made toward expanding the Army's air arm. 
Congress created an Aviation Section in the Signal Corps by an act 
approved on 18 July 1914, but the legislators provided little money 
for the new service. Moreover, the Signal Corps naturally used the 
meager resources to develop aviation as a means of communication, 
observation, and reconnaissance, rather than as an instrument for 
combat. One company of the 2d Aero Squadron was organized in 
1915 and sent to the Philippines. The following year plans were 
made for five more squadrons. One, the 7th, was formed in February 
1917 for duty in the Panama Canal Zone. Another, the 6th, was 
organized in Hawaii in March 1917. Three others, the 3d, 4th, and 
5th, were being formed in the United States at the time the nation 
entered World War I in April 1917. 

World War I 

Pershing, who became commander of the American Expedition- 
ary Forces (AEF) soon developed a plan for the deployment of 260 
combat squadrons to France. Later the plan was revised with the 
number of squadrons reduced to 202, all of which were to be at the 
front by 30 June 1919. In Pershing's view, the main functions of the 
AEF's Air Service were to drive off hostile aircraft and to obtain in- 
formation about enemy movements. Half of the 202 squadrons, 
therefore, were to be observation units assigned to 3 armies and 16 
corps. Of the remainder, 60 were to be pursuit squadrons. But the 
plan also provided for 27 night-bombardment and 14 day-bombard- 
ment squadrons. 

The first American aviation unit to reach France was the ist 
Aero Squadron, an observation organization, which sailed from New 



INTRODUCTION 



York in August 1917 and arrived at Le Havre on 3 September. As 
other squadrons were organized at home, they too were sent overseas, 
where they continued their training. It was February 1918 before 
any American aviation squadron entered combat, but by Armistice 
Day, II November 1918, 45 combat squadrons (20 pursuit, 18 obser- 
vation, and 7 bombardment) had been assigned to the front. During 
the war the aero squadrons played important roles in such famous 
battles as the Aisne-Marne, St. Mihiel, and the Meuse-Argonne. 
Some, like the 94th Squadron that had Captain Eddie Rickenbacker 
for its commander, or the 27th that had "balloon buster" Franjc Luke 
as one of its aviators, made distinguished records in combat. 

Observation planes frequently operated individually, and pur- 
suit pilots often went out alone to attack a balloon or to meet the 
enemy in a dogfight. But the tendency was toward formation flying 
for pursuit as well as for bombardment operations. The dispersal 
of squadrons among the various army organizations made it difficult, 
however, to obtain coordination of aerial activities. Some higher 
organization was required. Squadrons with similar functions were 
formed into groups, the first of these being the ist Corps Observa- 
tion Group, organized in April 1918. The following month the ist 
Pursuit Group was formed, and by 11 November 1918 the AEF had 
14 groups (7 observation, 5 pursuit, and 2 bombardment). In July 
1918 the AEF organized its first wing, made up of the 2d and 3d Pur- 
suit Groups and, later, the ist Day Bombardment Group. 

Some airmen, including William Mitchell, were advocating the 
formation of an air force that would concentrate control over mili- 
tary aviation for heavy blows against the enemy. In September 1918, 
for the Alhed assault against the German salient at St. Mihiel, 
Mitchell brought together almost 1,500 American and French planes 
for coordinated operations in which observation and pursuit sup- 
ported ground forces, while the other two-thirds of the air force 
bombed and strafed behind the lines. Later, during the Meuse- 
Argonne offensive, Mitchell attained a somewhat smaller concentra- 
tion of air power for use in keeping the enemy on the defensive. 

In France the Air Service was part of Pershing's expeditionary 
force. In the United States the Chief Signal Officer was responsible 
for organizing, training, and equipping aviation units until 21 May 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 

1918. At that time the President created a Bureau of Aircraft Produc- 
tion and made it responsible for aeronautical equipment; training of 
personnel and units was the responsibility of the Division of Military 
Aeronautics, which had been created by the War Department on 27 
April 1918. Although the bureau and division were recognized by the 
War Department on 24 May 1918 as forming the Army's Air Service, 
no Director of Air Service was appointed until 27 August 1918. 

1919-1939 

After the war the Army quickly demobilized most of its air 
arm, including the wing, all of the groups, and most of the squadrons. 
Almost immediately, however, it began to create new organizations 
for peacetime service. In many instances these new organizations 
had no connection with those that had been active during the war. 
For example, at Selfridge Field in August 1919 the Army organized 
a 1st Pursuit Group that was in no way related to the AEF's ist 
Pursuit Group, which had been demobilized in France in December 
1918. A little later, however, the Army began a series of organiza- 
tional actions that eventually enabled many active organizations to 
trace their histories back to World War I. In the case of the ist 
Pursuit Group, for instance, the Army reconstituted the World War I 
group of that name and consolidated it with the active group. 
This process of reconstituting old units and consolidating them with 
active units has continued up to the present time. 

In 1920 an act of Congress (approved on 4 June) created the Air 
Service as a combatant arm of the United States Army. But the Air 
Service and the Air Corps that replaced it in 1926 (act of 2 July) did 
not control the combat units, for their training and operations came 
under the jurisdiction of ground forces. With this arrangement the 
Air Service and Air Corps were responsible for matters relating to 
personnel and materiel logistics, particularly training individual 
pilots and other specialists, and developing, procuring, storing, and 
distributing aeronautical equipment. 

The composition, organization, and command of the combat 
elements of the air arm during the 1920's and early 1930's were based 
on principles laid down by the War Department General Staff in 
1920. These principles, as they related to military aviation, were 



INTRODUCTION 



reflected in a war plan that called for the following aviation organiza- 
tions as part of an expeditionary force: one observation squadron for 
each of 54 divisions and one for each of 18 corps; one observation 
group (four squadrons), plus one attack wing (one attack and two 
pursuit groups), for each of 6 armies; one attack wing, one observa- 
tion group, and one bombardment group for General Headquarters 
(GHQ). Thus the war plan placed the greatest emphasis on ob- 
servation aviation. It gave lesser roles to pursuit aviation, which was 
to destroy enemy planes and assist in attacking enemy troops and 
other objectives, and to attack aviation, which was to harass the 
enemy's ground forces. It assigned a minor place to bombardment 
aviation, with the mission of destroying military objectives in the 
combat theater and in the enemy's zone of interior. Furthermore, it 
placed aviation under the command of ground officers at division, 
corps, army, and GHQ levels. As a result, the structure was con- 
demned by Billy Mitchell and other Air Service officers who dis- 
counted the importance of observation aviation, sought recognition 
for bombardment as a major instrument of warfare, desired a greater 
proportion of pursuit units for counter-air operations, and wanted 
aviation units organized as an air force under the command of air- 
men. One of the important facets of the history of the Army's air 
arm during the 1920's and 1930's was the conflict between air and 
ground officers over the composition, organization, and command of 
military aviation. While this is not the place for a detailed review 
of that subject, the progress that the airmen made toward gaining 
acceptance for their point of view is reflected in organizational 
changes mentioned in subsequent paragraphs. 

The principles behind the war plan were applied to the smaller 
peacetime organization that was to be capable of rapid expansion in 
an emergency. For several years the striking force based in the 
United States consisted of three groups, the ist Pursuit, the 2d Bom- 
bardment, and the 3d Attack. There also was one observation group 
(the 9th), and there was one observation squadron for each of the 
Army corps. During the same period there were three composite 
groups on foreign service, the 4th being in the Philippines, the 5th in 
Hawaii, and the 6th in Panama, 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 

In 1926 the Army began to expand its air arm, and in the years 
that followed new groups were activated: the i8th Pursuit (in 
Hawaii) in 1927; the 7th Bombardment in 1928; the 12th Observa- 
tion and 20th Pursuit in 1930; the 8th and 17th Pursuit in 1931; and 
the i6th Pursuit (in the Canal Zone) and the 19th Bombardment in 
1932. Consequently by the end of 1932 there were 15 groups (45 
squadrons). The distribution of the squadrons by function is sig- 
nificant. The number of attack squadrons (4) was the same as it 
had been a decade earlier, while the strength in observation aviation 
had decreased from 14 to 13 squadrons. The growth had, therefore, 
been in other types of aviation, the number of bombardment squad- 
rons having increased from 7 to 12, and pursuit squadrons from 7 to 
16. Five more pursuit squadrons were activated in 1933, bringing the 
total strength to 50 squadrons. 

The most important change in the combat organization of the 
air arm in the two decades between World Wars I and II came on i 
March 1935. At that time the War Department established General 
Headquarters Air Force (GHQAF) and placed it under the com- 
mand of an air officer to serve as an air defense and striking force. 
Some observation units remained assigned to corps areas, but all the 
pursuit, bombardment, and attack units in the United States became 
part of the new combat organization. The combat elements of 
GHQAF were organized into three wings: the ist Wing (with head- 
quarters at March Field) had two bombardment groups, one attack 
group, and three observation squadrons; the 2d Wing (Langley 
Field) had two bombardment and two pursuit groups, plus three 
observation squadrons; the 3d Wing (Barksdale Field) had an at- 
tack and a pursuit group, plus one bombardment, one attack, and 
two pursuit squadrons. The commanding general of GHQAF, who 
reported to the Army's Chief of Staff and was to report to the com- 
mander of the field force in time of war, was responsible for the or- 
ganization, training, and operations of this air force. The Chief of 
the Air Corps still retained the responsibilities associated with per- 
sonnel and materiel logistics. 

The change of the 9th Group from observation to bombardment 
in 1935 should be noted because that redesignation was an indication 
of the decline of observation and the growth of bombardment avia- 



INTRODUCTION 



tion. Two years later the 12th Observation Group was inactivated. 
And the same year ( 1937) the loth Transport Group, the first group 
of its kind, was activated. But there were no other significant 
changes, the number of groups remaining at 15 (10 in the United 
States and 5 on foreign service), until 1939. 

World War II 

In January 1939 President Frankhn D. Roosevelt asked Congress 
to strengthen America's air power, which, the President said, was 
"utterly inadequate." On i September 1939 Hitler attacked Poland, 
and the Second World War began. In the months that followed, 
as Axis forces won one victory after another, the Army's air arm 
expanded rapidly. By the end of 1940 there were 30 groups. Within 
another year, that is, by the time the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor 
and the United States entered the war, the number of active groups 
had increased to 67, but many of them were still in the process of 
being organized and few had aircraft suitable for combat. 

The air arm grew even more rapidly in the months following 
Pearl Harbor, and by the end of 1943 there were 269 groups. At that 
time 133 of the groups were in the United States: 77 were being 
manned or trained; 56, which provided the strategic reserve, served 
as part of the defense force, as operational training units (OTU's) 
that prepared new units for combat, or as replacement training units 
(RTU's) that trained replacements for organizations overseas. Early 
in 1944 most of the OTU's and RTU's were inactivated or disbanded, 
the.training activities being given to base units. As a result the num- 
ber of combat groups fell to 218, but the formation of new groups 
brought the figure up to another peak of 243 in February 1945. 
When Allied forces landed on the beaches of Normandy on 6 June 
1944, the United States had 148 combat groups in the European- 
African-Middle Eastern Theater for the war against Germany. By 
August 1945, when combat operations in the Asiatic-Pacific Theater 
came to an end, the United States had 86 groups in the war against 
Japan. 

In addition to the expansion, other important changes had taken 
place in the air arm. By 7 December 1941 more emphasis was being 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR H 

placed on bombardment. Of the 67 groups active at that time, 26 
were bombardment organizations ; half of the 26 were heavy and the 
other half were medium and light bombardment groups, the light 
groups having replaced the attack organizations of an earlier time. 
There also were 26 pursuit, 9 observation, and 6 transport groups. 
During the war, pursuit units were redesignated fighter, observation 
became reconnaissance, and transport became troop carrier. With 
the development of B-29 aircraft, very heavy bombardment organ- 
izations were added to the combat force. In the spring of 1945, 
when America's air strength in the overseas theaters of operations 
reached its peak, the 243 combat groups of the AAF were divided 
as follows: 25 very heavy, 72 heavy, 20 medium, and 8 light bombard- 
ment groups; 71 fighter groups; 29 troop carrier groups; 13 recon- 
naissance groups; and 5 composite groups. At the same time there 
were 65 separate squadrons, mostly reconnaissance and night fighter, 
which were not assigned to groups but to higher echelons of organ- 
ization. 

As the number of groups increased, the number of wings multi- 
plied. Earlier, during World War I and in GHQAF, wings had been 
composite organizations, that is, had been made up of groups with 
different kinds of missions. Most of the wings of World War II, 
however, were composed of groups with similar functions. 

The growth of the air arm resulted in important organizational 
changes and developments above the group and wing levels. The 
separation of the combat organization (GHQAF) from the logistic 
organization (Air Corps) created serious problems of coordination. 
To correct this condition, GHQAF was placed under the Chief of 
the Air Corps, Maj. Gen. Henry H. Arnold, in March 1939. The 
two organizations were separated again in November 1940, but 
about the same time Arnold joined the War Department General 
Staff as Deputy Chief of Staff for Air, a position that enabled him to 
coordinate the two sections of the air arm. On 20 June 1941 the 
War Department created the Army Air Forces with the Air Corps 
and GHQAF, the latter redesignated Air Force Combat Command, 
as its major components and with Arnold as chief. In an Army 
reorganization on 9 March 1942 the Air Corps and Air Force Com- 



INTRODUCTION 



bat Command were discontinued and Arnold was made Command- 
ing General of Army Air Forces. 

During the war most of the AAF's combat groups and wings 
were assigned to numbered air forces. The first four of these air 
forces had their origins late in 1940 when GHQAF was becoming 
so large that its headquarters could not exercise adequate control 
over the training and operations of the various GHQAF organiza- 
tions. General Headquarters Air Force was subdivided, therefore, 
into four air districts (Northeast, Northwest, Southeast, and South- 
west), which were redesignated First, Second, Third, and Fourth 
Air Forces early in 1941. These four air forces remained in the 
United States throughout the war, but others were established for 
service overseas: the Fifth, Seventh, Tenth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, 
and Twentieth served in the Asiatic-Pacific Theater; the Eighth, 
Ninth, Twelfth, and Fifteenth operated in the European-African- 
Middle Eastern Theater, the Eighth being redeployed to the Pacific 
after the war ended in Europe; the Sixth was in the Panama Canal 
Zone and the Eleventh in Alaska. 

Some air forces, particularly the larger ones, had subordinate 
commands (or sometimes divisions) that provided an additional eche- 
lon of organization, by bringing together wings (or groups) with 
similar functions. An air force, such as the Ninth, could have a 
bomber, a fighter, a troop carrier, and a tactical air command, the 
number and kind depending upon the size, functions, and peculiar 
needs of the air force. There also were some separate commands, 
such as the Antisubmarine Command, which were not assigned to 
numbered air forces. 

The arrangement of the various layers of organization is best 
seen by looking at the organizational position of some particular 
squadron, such as the 93d Bombardment Squadron, which took part 
in the B-29 offensive against Japan in 1945. That squadron was 
assigned to the 19th Bombardment Group, of the 314th Bombard- 
ment Wing, of the XXI Bomber Command, of the Twentieth Air 
Force. But the organization was much more complex than is indi- 
cated by such a chain, for operational and administrative require- 
ments resulted in the establishment of organizations above the num- 
bered air forces. There was, for example, the U.S. Strategic Air 



10 AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 

Forces in Europe, which had some administrative control over both 
the Eighth and Ninth Air Forces (the one engaged primarily in 
strategic and the other in tactical operations), and which exercised 
some operational control over the two strategic air forces in Europe 
(the Eighth in England and the Fifteenth in Italy). Furthermore, 
American organizations sometimes became part of combined (i.e.. 
Allied) commands. In April 1942, for instance, an organization 
called Allied Air Forces was created in Australia to control opera- 
tions of Australian, Dutch, and American air forces; and in Febru- 
ary 1943 American, British, and French elements in North Africa 
were combined to form the Northwest African Air Forces. The 
complexity of these organizational arrangements was compounded by 
the assignment of AAF units overseas to United States Army or- 
ganizations, and by the relationships of those Army organizations 
to joint (i.e., Army-Navy) and combined commands. 

This volume is not concerned with all of this vast organization 
but with the AAF structure from groups to numbered air forces. 
Within those limits, the major attention is focused on the groups, the 
basic operational organizations in the aerial war that America fought 
in the years between the attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941 
and the Japanese surrender on 2 September 1945. 

ig46-ig^6 

Once the victory had been gained, the United States plunged 
into demobilization, just as it had done at the end of the First World 
War. Officers and men were sent home. Bases were closed. Air- 
planes were stored or sold. And by July 1946 the Air Force had only 
2 groups that were ready for combat, although 52 were carried on the 
list of active organizations. A new Air Force had to be built on the 
ruins of demobilization, the goal being 70 groups, the strength that 
was authorized for peacetime. In addition, reserve and national 
guard forces would be available for active duty in an emergency. 
There was much opposition, however, to a large military establish- 
ment in peacetime, and to the financial burden such an establishment 
placed on the nation. Consequently, the Air Force had to cut to 48 
groups. 



INTRODUCTION 11 

Then came the Korean War, precipitated by the Communist 
attack on the Republic of Korea on 25 June 1950. The United States 
rushed combat forces across the Pacific to strengthen those already 
present in the Far East. Others were sent to Europe to meet the in- 
creasing threat of Communist aggression in that part of the world. 
At home the air defense force was expanded. Under these conditions 
the number of groups jumped from 48 to 87 within a year. In June 
1952, when the strength was stated in terms of wings rather than 
groups, the Air Force had 95. By the end of the Korean War on 27 
July 1953 the number of wings had increased to 106. The expansion 
had been accomplished in part by ordering reserve and national guard 
organizations to active duty. Those organizations were called for 21 
months, but some were relieved before the end of that period. In fact, 
some reserve organizations were in active service for only a few days, 
just long enough to assign their personnel to other organizations. 
Most of the reserve and guard elements that served the full term of 
21 months were replaced by newly-activated organizations of the 
regular Air Force. 

The program for expansion had first provided for 95 wings, but 
that goal was revised in November 1951 when the Joint Chiefs of 
Staff authorized a force of 143 wings to be attained by mid-1955. 
In 1953 the goal was reduced temporarily to 120 wings by June 1956, 
but later the same year it was changed to provide for 137 wings by 
June 1957. Under these changing programs the strength of the Air 
Force, in terms of the number of active wings, increased steadily. 
By the beginning of 1956 there were 127 wings, made up of 392 
combat squadrons. 

There had been many organizational changes in the period from 
1946 to 1956, but the most important one in the view of the profes- 
sional airmen was that which gave the Air Force its independence. 
Congress provided the necessary legislation in 1947 when it created 
a Department of the Air Force and established the United States Air 
Force as a separate service equal to the Army and the Navy in the 
nation's military establishment. On 18 September 1947, W. Stuart 
Symington became the first Secretary of the Air Force. And a week 
later, on 26 September, Gen. Carl Spaatz, who had succeeded Arnold 



12 AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 

as Commanding General o£ the Army Air Forces, became the first 
Chief of Staff, United States Air Force. 

Earher, on 21 March 1946, Spaatz had undertaken a major re- 
organization that had included the establishment of three new com- 
bat commands in the United States: Strategic Air Command (soon 
known everywhere as SAC), to provide a long-range striking force 
capable of bombardment operations in any part of the world * Air 
Defense Command (ADC), to defend the United States against 
attack from the air; and Tactical Air Command (TAC), to support 
the operations of ground forces. TAC and ADC were reduced from 
major commands to operating commands when they were assigned 
to the Continental Air Command (ConAC) at the time the latter 
was established on i December 1948. ADC was discontinued on i 
July 1950 but re-established as a major command on i January 1951. 
A month earlier, on i December 1950, TAC had been removed from 
the control of ConAC and again made a major command. As a 
result of these changes ConAC became responsible mainly for super- 
vising reserve and national guard affairs. In addition to its commands 
in the United States, the Air Force had combat forces stationed over- 
seas, with Far East Air Forces, United States Air Forces in Europe, 
Caribbean Air Command, and Alaskan Air Command as the major 
commands for the various areas of operations. 

The World War II commands, which had been subordinate to 
the numbered air forces, were eliminated in the reorganization of 
1946, and the numbered air forces were made components of the 
major commands at home and overseas. The new organizational 
hierarchy thus contained the following levels: squadron, group, 
wing, air force, command. In 1948, and afterward, wings were re- 
designated divisions, and placed immediately below the numbered 
air forces in the organizational pyramid, new wings being constituted 
and activated to take the place of the ones that had been elevated to 
the division level. In addition to support and service elements, each 
of these new wings, as a general rule, had one combat group, which 
carried the same numerical designation as the wing itself. In 1952, 
however, the Air Force began to inactivate the combat groups and 
assign their combat squadrons directly to the wings. Consequently 
no organizations in the Air Force perpetuated the histories of the 



INTRODUCTION 13 

World War II combat groups that had been inactivated. The Air 
Force decided, therefore, to bestow the histories of combat groups on 
like-numbered wings. For example, the 9th Bombardment Wing, 
created after World War II, received the history of the 9th Bombard- 
ment Group, together with the campaign credits and decorations that 
had been earned by the group during the war. 

Despite all the changes that had taken place since V-J Day, the 
Air Force in 1956 was to a large extent made up of elements that car- 
ried on the traditions of organizations that had been active during 
World War II. The history of each of those organizations had been 
shaped by many forces. Domestic poUtics, the national economy, 
and international affairs were important factors in fixing the size, 
and hence the number of active groups or wings, of the Air Force. 
Science and technology determined the kind of equipment available 
at any particular time. Fortune, too, had a part in forming the 
histories of the various organizations. It is evident, for example, that 
chance, rather than design, sometimes decided which organizations 
would be kept active and which would be retired. The results are 
reflected in the historical sketches presented in this book. Some 
groups, for instance, have lengthy records of service; others were 
created at a relatively late date or have been inactive for long periods. 
Some were sent overseas for combat ; others were kept at home. Some 
received the newest planes from the production lines; others were 
forced to use old, worn-out craft. 

But no organization had its life shaped entirely by forces beyond 
its control, for its own people, the men and women who gave the 
organization a living existence, made history in many ways. A 
fighter pilot flew out to battle and came back an ace. A gunner 
returned from a bombing mission to be decorated for bravery above 
and beyond the call of duty. But one did not have to be a hero to 
have a place in history. The mechanic armed with his wrench, the 
clerk with his typewriter — each had his own important part to play. 
And at their head to lead them was a commander who, by virtue 
of his authority and responsibility, had a special role in the historical 
process. 

Thus, through the workings of numerous and diverse forces, each 
organization acquired a historic character and personality of its own. 



14 AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 

At the same time, each contributed to the development of a larger 
history that goes back to a day in 1907 when the Army named a 
captain to take "charge of all matters pertaining to military balloon- 
ing, air machines, and all kindred subjects." 

COMMANDERS 

I. Aeronautical Division, Signal Corps 

Officer in Charge: Capt Charles DeF Chandler, i Aug 
1907; Capt A S Cowan, 1 July 1910; Capt Charles DeF 
Chandler, 20 Jun 191 1; Lt Henry H Arnold, 18 Nov 1912; 
Maj Edgar Russell, 15 Dec 1912; Lt Col Samuel Reber, 10 
Sep 1913-18 Jul 1914. 

II. Aviation Section, Signal Corps 

Officer in Charge: Lt Col Samuel Reber, 18 Jul 1914; 
Lt Col George O Squier, 20 May 1916; Lt Col J B Bennett, 
19 Feb 1917; Maj Benjamin D Foulois, 30 Jul 1917; Brig Gen 
A L Dade, 12 Nov 1917; Col Laurence Brown, 28 Feb 
1918-21 May 1918. 

Ill a. Division of Military Aeronautics 

Director: Maj Gen William L Kenly, 27 Apr 1918- 
(under Director, Air Service after 27 Aug 1918). 

Ill b. Bureau of Aircraft Production 

Director: Mr John D Ryan, 21 May I9i8-(under Director, 
Air Service after 27 Aug 1918). 

IV. Air Service 

Director: Mr John D Ryan, 27 Aug 1918; Maj Gen Charles 
T Menoher, 23 Dec 1918-4 Jun 1920. 

Chief: Maj Gen Charles T Menoher, 4 Jun 1920; Maj 
Gen Mason M Patrick, 5 Oct 192 1-2 Jul 1926. 

V a. Air Corps 

Chief: Maj Gen Mason M Patrick, 2 Jul 1926; Maj Gen 
J E Fechet, 14 Dec 1927; Maj Gen Benjamin D Foulois, 19 
Dec 1931; Maj Gen Oscar Westover, 22 Dec 1935; Maj Gen 
Henry H Arnold, 22 Sep 1938; Maj Gen George H Brett, 30 
May i94i-(under Chief, AAF after 20 Jun 1941). 



INTRODUCTION 15 

V b. General Headquarters Air Force, redesignated Air Force 
Combat Command 
Commanding General: Maj Gen Frank M Andrews, i 
Mar 1935; Lt Gen Delos C Emmons, i Mar i939-(under Chief, 
AAF after 20 Jun 1941). 

VI. Army Air Forces 

Chief: Lt Gen Henry H Arnold, 20 Jun 1941-9 Mar 1942. 

Commanding General: General of the Army Henry H 
Arnold, 9 Mar 1942; Gen Carl Spaatz, 15 Feb 1946-26 Sep 
1947. 

VII. United States Air Force 

Chief of Staff: Gen Carl Spaatz, 26 Sep 1947; Gen Hoyt 
S Vandenberg, 30 Apr 1948; Gen Nathan F Twining, 30 Jun 
1953; Gen Thomas D White, i Jul 1957^. 



AIR FORCE 
COMBAT UNITS 



GROUPS 



1st AIR COMMANDO GROUP 

Constituted as ist Air Commando 
Group on 25 Mar 1944 and activated in 
India on 29 Mar. The group, which began 
operations immediately, was organized to 
provide fighter cover, bombardment strik- 
ing power, and air transportation services 
for Wingate's Raiders, who were operating 
behind enemy lines in Burma. The or- 
ganization consisted of a headquarters 
plus the following sections: bomber 
(equipped with B-25's) ; fighter (P-51's) ; 
light-plane (L-i's, L-5's, and helicopters) ; 
transport (C-47's) ; glider (CG-4A's and 
TG-5's) ; and light-cargo (UC-64's). The 
group supported operations in Burma by 
landing and dropping troops, food, and 
equipment; evacuating casualties; and at- 
tacking airfields and transportation facili- 
ties. Received a DUG for operations 
against the enemy, Mar-May 1944. With- 
drew from the front late in May 1944 and, 
with the bomber section eliminated and 
the P-51's replaced by P-47's, began a 
training program. Reorganized later, 
with the sections being eliminated and 
with fighter, liaison, and troop carrier 
squadrons being assigned. Transported 
Chinese troops and supplies from Burma 
to China in Dec 1944, and carried out sup- 



ply, evacuation, and liaison operations for 
Allied troops in Burma until the end of the 
war. Attacked bridges, railroads, barges, 
troop positions, oil wells, and airfields in 
Burma and escorted bombers to Rangoon 
and other targets during the early months 
of 1945. Changed from P-47's to P-51's in 
May 1945, the fighter squadrons being en- 
gaged in training from then until the end 
of the war. Moved to the US in Oct 1945. 
Inactivated on 3 Nov 1945. Disbanded on 
8 Oct 1948. 

Squadrons, ^th Fighter: 1944-1945. 6th 
Fighter: 1944-1945. iS/fth Liaison: 1944- 
1945. /65M Liaison: 1944-1945. i66th 
Liaison: 1944-1945. ^igth Troop Carrier: 
1944-1945. 

Stations. Hailakandi, India, 29 Mar 
1944; Asansol, India, 20 May 1944-6 Oct 
1945; Camp Kilmer, NJ, 1-3 Nov 1945. 

Commanders. Col Philip G Cochran, 29 
Mar 1944; Col Clinton B Gaty, 20 May 
1944; Col Robert W Hall, c. 7 Apr 1945- 
unkn. 

Campaigns: India - Burma; Central 
Burma. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Burma and India, [Mar i944]-20 
May 1944. 

Insigne. None. 

19 



20 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



1st COMBAT CARGO GROUP 




Constituted as ist Combat Cargo Group 
on II Apr 1944 and activated on 15 Apr. 
Equipped with C-47's. Moved to the 
CBI theater in Aug 1944. Began opera- 
tions in Sep 1944 by transporting supplies 
and reinforcements to and evacuating 
casualties from Imphal, Burma. Contin- 
ued to support Allied operations in Burma, 
flying in men and supplies from India, 
moving equipment required to construct 
and operate airstrips, dropping dummy 
cargoes to lead the enemy away from Al- 
lied offensives, dropping paratroops for 
the assault on Rangoon (May 1945), and 
evacuating prisoners of war who were 
freed by Allied advances. Meanwhile, 
part of the group had been sent" to China, 
and for a short time (Dec 1944-Jan 1945) 
the group's headquarters was located 



there. Operations in China included 

helping to evacuate the air base at Kweilin 
during a Japanese drive in Sep 1944, mov- 
ing Chinese troops, and flying many sup- 
ply missions, some of which involved 
ferrying gasoline and materiel over the 
Hump from India. The group, partially 
re-equipped with C-46's in Jun 1945, en- 
gaged primarily in transporting men, 
food, arms, and ammunition until the end 
of the war. Redesignated 512th Troop 
Carrier Group in Sep 1945. Returned tc 
the US in Dec 1945. Inactivated on 24 
Dec 1945. 

Redesignated 512th Troop Carrier 
Group (Medium) and allotted to the re- 
serve. Activated on 2 Sep 1949. 
Equipped with C-46's. Ordered to active 
service on 15 Mar 1951. Inactivated on i 
Apr 1951. 

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 
14 Jun 1952. Equipped with C-46's. 

Squadrons, ist (later 326th): 1944- 
1945; 1949-1951; 1952-. 2d (later 327th): 
1944-1945; 1949-1951; 1952-. 3d (later 
328th): 1944-1945; 1949-1951; 1952-. ^h 
(later 329th): 1944-1945; 1949-1951. 

Stations. Bowman Field, Ky, 15 Apr- 
5 Aug 1944; Sylhet, India, 21 Aug 1944; 
Tulihal, India, 30 Nov 1944; Tsuyung, 
China, 20 Dec 1944; Dohazari, India, 30 
Jan 1945; Hathazari, India, 15 May 1945; 
Myitkyina, Burma, Jun 1945; Liuchow, 
China, 30 Aug 1945; Kiangwan, China, 
9 Oct-3 Dec 1945; Camp Anza, Calif, 23- 
24 Dec 1945. Reading Mun Aprt, Pa, 2 
Sept 1949; New Castle County Aprt, Del, 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROWS 



21 



I May 1950-1 Apr 1951. New Castle 
County Aprt, Del, 14 Jun 1952-. 

Commanders. Lt Col Robert J Rentz, 
21 Apr 1944; Lt Col Walter P Briggs, 28 
Apr 1945; Maj Samuel B Ward, 18 Aug 
1945; Maj Maurice D Watson, 9 Sep 1945; 
Maj Wilbur B Sprague, 18 Sep 1945; Col 
J H Snyder, 24 Nov 1945; Capt Dixon M 
Jordan, 29 Nov-c. 24 Dec 1945. 

Campaigns. India-Burma; China De- 
fensive; Central Burma; China Offensive. 

Decorations. None. 

iNsiGNEfc Shield: On a shield azure, 
over a sphere argent, with shading of the 
field, a stylized aircraft gules, with high- 
lights of the second, its road-like jet stream 
encircling the sphere or, shaded gules, 
with centei: dash-like markings and all 
oudines of the first. (Approved 21 Jan 
1958.) 

1st FIGHTER GROUP 

Organized as ist Pursuit Group in 
France on 5 May 1918. Began operations 
immediately and served at the front until 
the end of the war, using Nieuport-28, 
Spad, and Sopwith Camel aircraft. Pro- 
tected friendly observation balloons and 
planes, and made strafing attacks on en- 
emy ground forces, but engaged primarily 
in counter-air patrols in which the group's 
pilots gained many victories over enemy 
aircraft and destroyed numerous observa- 
tion balloons. Two of the group's pilots 
were awarded the Medal of Honor: ist 
Lt (later Capt) Edward V Rickenbacker — 




America's World War I "Ace of Aces" 
who served as commander of the 94th 
( Hat-in-the-Ring) Squadron— received 
the medal for action near Billy, France* 
on 25 Sep 1918 when, disregarding the 
heavy odds, he attacked a flight of seven 
enemy planes and shot down two of them; 
2d Lt Frank Luke Jr— the "balloon bus- 
ter" — was awarded the medal for attack- 
ing and shooting down three German bal- 
loons on 29 Sep 1918 before his plane was 
hit and forced to land near Murvaux, 
France, where he died while defending 
himself against capture by enemy groimd 
troops. Demobilized in France on 24 Dec 
1918. 

Reconstituted in 1924 and consolidated 
with ist Pursuit Group that had been 
organized in the US on 22 Aug 1919. 
Redesignated ist Pursuit Group (Inter- 
ceptor) in Dec 1939, and ist Pursuit Group 
(Fighter) in Mar 1941. Trained, partici- 
pated in exercises and maneuvers, put" on 



22 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



demonstrations, took part in National 
Air Races, tested equipment, and experi- 
mented with tactics, using Spad, Nieu- 
port, DeHavilland, SE-5, MB-3, PW-8, 
P-i, P-6, PT-3, P-16, P-26, P-35, P-36, 
P-38, P-41, P-43, and other aircraft during 
the period 1919-1941. Was the only pur- 
suit group in the Army's air arm for sev- 
eral years; later, furnished cadres for new 
units. Moved to the west coast imme- 
diately after the Japanese attack on Pearl 
Harbor and flew patrols for several weeks. 
Redesignated ist Fighter Group in May 
1942. 

Moved to England, Jun-Jul 1942. As- 
signed to Eighth AF. Entered combat 
with P-38 aircraft on 28 Aug and flew a 
number of missions to France before being 
assigned to Twelfth AF for duty in the 
Mediterranean theater. Moved to North 
Africa, part of the ground echelon landing 
with the assault forces at Arzeu beach on 
8 Nov 1942. The air echelon arrived a 
few days later and the group soon began 
operations, attacking enemy shipping, es- 
corting bombers, flying strafing missions, 
and performing reconnaissance duties dur- 
ing the campaign for Tunisia. Partici- 
pated in the reduction of Pantelleria. 
Escorted bombers to targets in Sicily and 
later aided ground forces during the con- 
quest of that island by strafing and dive- 
bombing roads, motor transports, gun 
emplacements, troop concentrations, 
bridges, and railways. Flew missions 
against the enemy in Italy and received a 
DUG for its performance on 25 Aug 1943 



when the group carried out a strafing at- 
tack on Italian airdromes, destroying great 
numbers of enemy aircraft that presented 
a serious threat to the Allies' plans for 
landing troops at Salerno. Also escorted 
bombers to Italy, receiving another DUG 
for a mission on 30 Aug 1943 when the 
group beat off enemy aircraft and thus 
enabled bombers to inflict serious damage 
on marshalling yards at Aversa. Support- 
ed the invasion at Salerno in Sep and con- 
tinued operations with Twelfth AF until 
Nov 1943. Assigned to Fifteenth AF with 
the primary mission of escorting bombers 
that attacked targets in Italy, France, Ger- 
many, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, 
Bulgaria, Rumania, Yugoslavia, and 
Greece. Received third DUG for covering 
the withdrawal of B-17's after an attack 
on Ploesti on 18 May 1944. Also flew straf- 
ing and dive-bombing missions in an area 
from France to the Balkans. Supported 
the landings at Anzio in Jan 1944 and the 
invasion of Southern France in Aug 1944. 
Continued operations until May 1945. 
Inactiuated in Italy on 16 Oct 1945. 

Activated in the US on 3 Jul 1946. 
Equipped first with P-8o's and later 
(1949) with F-86's. Redesignated ist 
Fighter-Interceptor Group in Apr 1950. 
Inactivated on 6 Feb 1952. 

Redesignated ist Fighter Group (Air 
Defense). Activated on 18 Aug 1955. As- 
signed to Air Defense Command and 
equipped with F-86 aircraft. 

Squadrons, ijth (formerly 147th): 
1918; 1919-1940. 7,yth: 1918; 1919-1945; 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



23 



1946-1952. yist: 1941-1945; 1946-1952; 
1955- 94^^: 1918; 1919-1945; 1946-1952; 
1955-. gph: 1918; 1919-1927. 185th: 
1918. 

Stations. Toul, France, 5 May 1918; 
Touquin, France, 28 Jun 1918; Saints, 
France, 9 Jul 1918; Rembercourt, France, 
c. I Sep 1918; Colombey-les-Belles, France, 
c. 9-24 Dec 1918. Selfridge Field, Mich, 
22 Aug 1919; Kelly Field, Tex, c. 31 Aug 
1919; Ellington Field, Tex, i Jul 1921; 
Selfridge Field, Mich, i Jul 1922; San 
Diego NAS, Calif, 9 Dec 194 1; Los An- 
geles, Calif, I Feb-May 1942; Goxhill, 
England, 10 Jun 1942; Ibsley, England, 24 
Aug 1942; Tafaraoui, Algeria, 13 Nov 
1942; Nouvion, Algeria, 20 Nov 1942; 
Biskra, Algeria, 14 Dec 1942 ; Chateaudun- 
du-Rhumel, Algeria, Feb 1943; Mateur, 
Tunisia, 29 Jun 1943; Sardinia, 31 Oct 
1943; Gioia del Colle, Italy, c. 8 Dec 1943; 
Salsola Airfield, Italy, 8 Jan 1944; Vin- 
cenzo Airfield, Italy, 8 Jan 1945; Salsola 
Airfield, Italy, 21 Feb 1945; Lesina, Italy, 
Mar-i6 Oct 1945. March Field, Calif, 3 
Jul 1946; George AFB, Calif, 18 Jul 1950; 
Grifliss AFB, NY, 15 Aug 1950; George 
AFB, Calif, 4 Jun 195 1; Norton AFB, 
Calif, I Dec 1951-6 Feb 1952. Selfridge 
AFB, Mich, 18 Aug 1955-. 

CoMMANDERs. Maj Bert M Atkinson, 5 
May 1918; Maj Harold E Hartney, 21 
Aug-24 Dec 1918. Lt Col Davenport 
Johnson, 22-29 Aug 1919; Capt Arthur R 
Brooks, unkn; Maj Carl Spaatz, c. Nov 
1921-Sep 1924; Maj Thomas G Lanphier, 
unkn; Maj Ralph Royce, 1928; Lt Col 



Charles H Danforth, c. 1930; Maj George 
H Brett, unkn ; Lt Col Frank M Andrews, 
c. Jul 1933; Lt Col Ralph Royce, 1934; Maj 
Edwin J House, 30 Apr 1937; Col Henry B 
Clagett, c. 1938 ; Col Lawrence P Hickey, c. 
1939; Lt Col Robert S Israel, Jul 1941; Maj 
John O Zahn, i May 1942; Col John N 
Stone, 9 Jul 1942; Col Ralph S Garman, 7 
Dec 1942; Maj Joseph S Peddie, 8 Sep 
1943; Col Robert B Richard, 19 Sep 1943; 
Col Arthur C Agan Jr, 15 Nov 1944; Lt 
Col Milton H Ashkins, 31 Mar 1945; Lt 
Col Charles W Thaxton, 11 Apr 1945; Col 
Milton H Ashkins, 28 Apr 1945-unkn. 
Col Bruce K Holloway, 3 Jul 1946; Col Gil- 
bert L Meyers, 20 Aug 1946; Col Frank S 
Perego, Jan 1948; Lt Col Jack T Bradley, 
Jul 1950; Col Dolf E Muehleisen, Jun 
1951; Col Walker M Mahurin, 1951; Capt 
Robert B Bell, Jan-c. Feb 1952. Col Nor- 
man S Orwat, 1955-. 

Campaigns. World War I: Lorraine; 
Champagne; Champagne-Marne ; Aisne- 
Marne; Oise-Aisne; St Mihiel; Meuse-Ar- 
gonne. World War II: Air Combat, 
EAME Theater; Air Offensive, Europe; 
Algeria-French Morocco; Tunisia; Sicily; 
Naples-Foggia; Anzio; Rome-Arno; Nor- 
mandy; Northern France; Southern 
France; North Apennines; Rhineland; 
Central Europe; Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Ci- 
tations: Italy, 25 Aug 1943; Italy, 30 Aug 
1943; Ploesti, Rumania, 18 May 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Vert five bendlets en- 
hanced sable fimbriated or, as many crosses 
patee in bend debased three and two of the 



24 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



second fimbriated argent. Crest: Upon a 
wreath of the colors or and vert upon a 
hurte wavy an arrow palewise reversed be- 
tween two wings displayed conjoined in 
lure or. Motto: AUT VINCERE AUT 
MORI — Conquer or Die. (Approved lo 
Feb 1924.) 

1st PHOTOGRAPHIC GROUP 




'"'oeurfRETDtuotf^^ 



Constituted as ist Photographic Group 
on 15 May 1941. Activated on 10 Jun 
1941. Redesignated ist Mapping Group 
in Jan 1942, and ist Photographic Chart- 
ing Group in Aug 1943. Charted and 
mapped areas of the US and sent detach- 
ments to perform similar functions in 
Alaska, Canada, Africa, the Middle East, 
India, the Caribbean, Mexico, Central 
and South America, and the Kurils. Used 
a variety of aircraft, including F-2's, F-3's, 
F-7's, A-29's, B-17's, B-i8's, B-24's, and 
B-25's. Disbanded on 5 Oct 1944. 

Squadrons, ist: 1941-1943. 2d: 1941- 
1944. sd: 1941-1943. 4ih: 1941-1944. 



6th: 1943-1944. igth: 1943. gist: 1943- 
1944. 

Stations. Boiling Field, DC, 10 Jun 
1941; Peterson Field, Colo, Dec 1943; 
Buckley Field, Colo, Jul-5 Oct 1944. 

Commanders. Lt Col Minton W Kaye, 
10 Jun 1941; Lt Col George G Northrup, 
c. I Feb 1942; Col Paul T CuUen, 8 Jul 
1942; Col Minton W Kaye, c. i Jul 1943; 
Col George G Northrup, c. 18 Nov 1943; 
Lt Col Frank N Graves, c. i Dec 1943- 
unkn. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Per pale, vert and 
azure, a pile or debruised by a barrulet 
arched of the field upon and over the pile 
a camera lens proper rimmed sable. 
Motto: FIDELITER ET DILIGENTER 
— Faithfully and Diligently. (Approved 
24 Oct 1942.) 

1st SEARCH ATTACK GROUP 

Constituted as ist Sea-Search Attack 
Group (Medium) on 8 Jun 1942 and 
activated on 17 Jun. Redesignated ist 
Sea-Search Attack Group (Heavy) in Jun 
1943, ist Sea-Search Attack Unit in Sep 
1943, and ist Search Attack Group in Nov 
1943. Assigned directly to AAF in Jun 
1942; assigned to First AF in Nov 
1943. Tested equipment and developed 
techniques and tactics for use against sub- 
marines and surface craft; also flew patrol 
missions and searched for enemy subma- 
rines. Late in 1943 became concerned 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VNITS— GROUPS 



25 



primarily with radar training for combat 
crews. Used B-17, B-18, and B-24 air- 
craft. Disbanded on 10 Apr 1944. 

Squadrons. 2d: 1942-1944. 5<f; 1942- 
1944. 4th (formerly i8th Antisubma- 
rine): 1943-1944. 

Stations. Langley Field, Va, 17 Jun 
1942-10 Apr 1944. 

Commanders. Col William C Dolan, 
17 Jun 1942-10 Apr 1944. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 



2d AIR COMMANDO GROUP 

Constituted as 2d Air Commando 
Group on II Apr 1944 and activated on 
22 Apr. Trained for operations with P-51, 
C-47, and L-5 aircraft. Moved to India, 
Sep-Nov 1944. Between Nov 1944 and 
May 1945 the group dropped supplies to 
Allied troops who were fighting the Japa- 
nese in the Chindwin Valley in Burma; 
moved Chinese troops from Burma to 
China; transported men, food, ammuni- 
tion, and construction equipment , to 
Burma; dropped Gurka paratroops during 
the assault on Rangoon; provided fighter 
support for Allied forces crossing the Ir- 
rawaddy River in Feb 1945; struck enemy 
airfields and transportation facilities; es- 
corted bombers to targets in the vicinity of 
Rangoon; bombed targets in Thailand; 
and flew reconnaissance missions. After 
May 1945 the fighter squadrons were in 



training; in Jun the group's C-47's were 
sent to Ledo to move road-building equip- 
ment; during Jun- Jul most of its L-5's 
were turned over to Fourteenth AF. The 
group returned to the US during Oct-Nov 
1945. Inactivated on 12 Nov 1945. Dis- 
banded on 8 Oct 1948. 

Squadrons, ist Fighter: 1944-1945. 
id Fighter: 1944-1945. i2jth Liaison: 
1944-1945. iS5th Liaison: 1944-1945. 
i^6th Liaison: 1944-1945. 317th Troop 
Carrier: 1944-1945. 

Stations. Drew Field, Fla, 22 Apr-28 
Sep 1944; Kalaikunda, India, 12 Nov 
1944-4 Oct 1945; Camp Kilmer, NJ, 11-12 
Nov 1945. 

Commanders. Capt L H Couch, 22 Apr 
1944; Col Arthur R DeBolt, i May 1944; 
Col Alfred J Ball Jr, 15 May 1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. India-Burma; Central 
Burma. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

2d BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Organized as ist Day Bombardment 
Group in France on 10 Sep 1918. 
Equipped with DH-4 and Breguet air- 
craft and entered combat on 12 Sep. At- 
tacked troop concentrations and com- 
munications to interfere with the enemy's 
movement of reinforcements and supplies 
to the front during the Allied offensive at 
St Mihiel. Also took part in the Meuse- 
Argonne campaign, attacking the enemy 
behind the line, and conducting bombing 
operations that helped to protect Allied 



26 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



.^ 




ground forces by diverting German pursuit 
planes from the battle zone. Participated 
in one of the great bombing raids of the 
war on 9 Oct when 353 Allied planes (in- 
cluding 200 bombers) under the command 
of William Mitchell struck a concentra- 
tion point where German troops were pre- 
paring for a counterattack against the 
Allied offensive in the Meuse-Argonne 
area. Demobilized in France in Nov 1918, 
soon after the armistice. 

Reconstituted (in 1924) and consoli- 
dated with a group that was organized in 
the US as ist Day Bombardment Group 
on 18 Sep 1919 and redesignated 2d Bom- 
bardment Group in 1921. Used LB-5A, 
B-io, B-17 (i937-)» B-15 (1938-), and 
other aircraft during the 1920's and 1930's. 
Engaged in routine training; tested and 
experimented with equipment and tac- 
tics; participated in maneuvers; took part 
in Mitchell's demonstrations of the effec- 
tiveness of aerial bombardment on battle- 
ships; flew mercy missions to aid victims 



of a flood in Pennsylvania in 1936 and vic- 
tims of an earthquake in Chile in 1939; 
and made good-will flights to South 
America in the late 1930's. Redesignated 
2d Bombardment Group (Heavy) in 1939. 
Trained with B-17's. 

Served on antisubmarine duty for sev- 
eral months after the US entered World 
War II. Moved to North Africa, Mar- 
May 1943, and remained in the theater 
until after V-E Day, being assigned first to 
Twelfth and later (Dec 1943) to Fifteenth 
AF. Flew many support and interdictory 
missions, bombing such targets as mar- 
shalling yards, airdromes, troop concen- 
trations, bridges, docks, and shipping. 
Participated in the defeat of Axis forces in 
Tunisia, Apr-May 1943; the reduction of 
Pantelleria and the preparations for the 
invasion of Sicily, May- Jul 1943; the in- 
vasion of Italy, Sep 1943; the drive toward 
Rome, Jan-Jun 1944; the invasion of 
Southern France, Aug 1944; and the cam- 
paigns against German forces in northern 
Italy, Jun 1944-May 1945. Engaged pri- 
marily in long-range bombardment of 
strategic targets after Oct 1943, attacking 
oil refineries, aircraft factories, steel 
plants, and other objectives in Germany, 
Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hun- 
gary, Yugoslavia, Rumania, and Greece. 
En route to bomb a vital aircraft factory 
at Steyr on 24 Feb 1944, the group was 
greatly outnumbered by enemy intercep- 
tors, but it maintained its formation and 
bombed the target, receiving a DUC for 
the performance. On the following day, 
while on a mission to attack aircraft fac- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— Gi?©^^ 



27 



tories at Regensburg, it met similar opposi- 
tion equally well and was awarded a 
second DUG. Served as part of the occupa- 
tion force in Italy after V-E Day. Inacti- 
vated in Italy on 28 Feb 1946. 

Redesignated 2d Bombardment Group 
(Very Heavy) . Activated in the US on i 
Jul 1947. Assigned to Strategic Air Com- 
mand and equipped with B-29's. Re- 
designated 2d Bombardment Group 
(Medium) in May 1948. Converted to 
B-50's early in 1950. Inactivated on 16 Jun 
1952. 

Squadrons, nth: 1918; 1919-1927. 
20th: 1918; 1919-1946; 1947-1952. 4gth 
(formerly i66th): 1918; 1919-1946; 1947- 
1952. g6th: 1918; 1919-1946; 1947-1952. 
42gth: 1942-1946. 

Stations. Amanty, France, 10 Sep 1918 ; 
Maulan, France, 23 Sep-Nov 1918. Elling- 
ton Field, Tex, 18 Sep 1919; Kelly Field, 
Tex, c. 25 Sep 1919; Langley Field, Va, i 
Jul 1922; Ephrata, Wash, 29 Oct 1942; 
Great Falls AAB, Mont, 27 Nov 1942-13 
Mar 1943; Navarin, Algeria, Apr 1943; 
Chateaudun-du-Rhumel, Algeria, 27 Apr 
1943; Ain M'lila, Algeria, 17 Jun 1943; 
Massicault, Tunisia, 31 Jul 1943; Bizerte, 
Tunisia, 2 Dec 1943; Amendola, Italy, c. 
9 Dec 1943; Foggia, Italy, 19 Nov 1945- 
28 Feb 1946. Andrews Field, Md, i Jul 
1947; Davis-Monthan Field, Ariz, 24 Sep 
1947; Chatham AFB, Ga, c. i May 1949; 
Hunter AFB, Ga, 22 Sep 1950-16 Jun 1952. 

Commanders. Unkn, Sep-Nov 191 8. 
Unkn, Sep 1919-May 1921 ; Maj Thomas J 
Hanley Jr, May-Sep 1921; Maj Lewis H 
Brereton, Jun 1925; Maj Hugh Knerr, Jul 



1927-Sep 1930; Capt Eugene L Eubank, 
26 Dec 1933; Maj Willis H Hale, i Jul 
1934; Lt Col Charles B Oldfield, 1935; Lt 
Col Robert C Olds, c. 1937-unkn; Lt Col 
Harold L George, Feb 1940-unkn ; Lt Col 
Darr H Alkire, 6 Jan 1942; Col Dale O 
Smith, c. Sep 1942; Col Ford J Lauer, 29 
Oct 1942; Lt Col Joseph A Thomas, 20 
Apr 1943; Col Herbert E Rice, 5 Sep 1943; 
Col John D Ryan, 8 Jul 1944; Col Paul T 
Cullen, 25 Sep 1944; Col Robert K Martin, 
23 May 1945-20 Feb 1946. Unkn, Jul- 
Sep 1947; Col Dalene E Bailey, 24 Sep 
1947; Col William E Eubank Jr, 3 Aug 
1948; Col James B Knapp, Jan 1950; Col 
Earl R Tash, Jan 195 1; Brig Gen Frederic 
E Glantzberg, 10 Feb 1951 ; Col John M 
Reynolds, c. 14 Feb-i6 Jun 1952. 

Campaigns. World War I: St Mihiel; 
Lorraine; Meuse-Argonne. World War 
II: Antisubmarine, American Theater; 
Air Combat, FAME Theater; Air Offen- 
sive, Europe; Tunisia; Sicily; Naples-Fog- 
gia; Anzio; Rome-Arno; Normandy; 
Northern France; Southern France; North 
Apennines; Rhineland; Central Europe; 
Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Steyr, Austria, 24 Feb 1944; Ger- 
many, 25 Feb 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Or, in fess four aerial 
bombs dropping bend sinisterwise azure, 
on a chief engrailed paly of five vert and 
sable a fleur-de-lis argent. Crest: A cloud 
(gray) rifted disclosing the firmament 
(blue) crossed by a bolt of lightning (yel- 
low) striking bend sinisterwise all proper. 
Motto: LIBERTATEM DEFENDI- 



28 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



MUS — Liberty We Defend, (Approved 
19 Jan 1924. The motto then approved 
w^as replaced on 15 Apr 1940 by the one 
shown above.) 

2d COMBAT CARGO GROUP 

Constituted as 2d Combat Cargo Group 
on 25 Apr 1944. Activated on i May 1944. 
Trained with C-46 and C-47 aircraft. 
Moved to the Southwest Pacific, Oct-Nov 

1944, and assigned to Fifth AF. Operated 
from Biak to fly passengers and cargo to 
US bases in AustraUa, New Guinea, the 
Admiralties, and the Philippines. Also 
dropped supplies to US and guerrilla forces 
in the Philippines. Moved to Leyte in May 

1945. Maintained flights to bases in Aus- 
tralia, New Guinea, and the Philippines; 
transported personnel and supplies to the 
Ryukyus, and evacuated casualties on re- 
turn flights. Moved to Okinawa in Aug 
1945. Transported personnel and equip- 
ment of the occupation forces to Japan 
and ferried liberated prisoners of war to 
the Philippines. Moved to Japan in Sep 

1945. Inactivated on 15 Jan 1946. Dis- 
banded on 8 Oct 1948. 

Squadrons, ^th: 1944-1946. 6th: 1944- 

1946. yth: 1944-1946. 8th: 1944-1946. 
Stations. Syracuse AAB, NY, i May 

1944; Baer Field, Ind, 9-27 Oct 1944; Biak, 
Nov 1944; Dulag, Leyte, May 1945; Oki- 
nawa, c. 20 Aug 1945; Yokota, Japan, c. 
22 Sep 1945-15 Jan 1946. 

Commanders. Col William J Bell, May 
1944; Maj Arthur D Thomas, 10 Dec 
1945-unkn. 



Campaigns. Air Offensive, Japan ; New 
Guinea; Western Pacific; Leyte; Luzon; 
Southern Philippines; Ryukyus. 

Decorations. Philippine Presidential 
Unit Citation. 

Insigne. None. 

2d RECONNAISSANCE GROUP 




Constituted as 2d Photographic Group 
on I May 1942 and activated on 7 May. 
Redesignated 2d Photographic Reconnais- 
sance and Mapping Group in May 1943,"" 
and 2d Photographic Reconnaissance 
Group in Aug 1943. Assigned first to 
Second AF, later to Third AF. Trained 
crews and units for photographic recon- 
naissance and mapping; occasionally pro- 
vided personnel to help man new groups 
and squadrons. Aircraft included B-17's, 
B-24's, B-25's, L-4's, L-5's, P-38's, and 
A-20's. Disbanded on i May 1944. 

Squadrons. 6th: 1942. ph: 1942- 
1944. loth: 1942-1944. nth (formerly 
5th): 1942-1944. 2gth: 1943-1944. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



29 



Stations. Bradley Field, Conn, 7 May 
1942; Colorado Springs, Colo, c. 13 May 
1942; Will Rogers Field, Okla, c. 7 Oct 
1943-1 May 1944. 

Commanders. Capt Paul C Schauer, 
9 May 1942; Lt Col Charles P HoUstein, 
c. 13 May 1942; Lt Col David W Hutchin- 
son, c. 5 Jul 1942; Lt Col Charles P HoU- 
stein, c. 13 Aug 1942; Lt Col Hillford R 
Wallace, c. 11 Sep 1942; Lt Col David W 
Hutchinson, c. 27 Feb 1943; Lt Col Karl 
L Polifka, c. 13 Mar 1943 ; Lt Col Hillford 
R Wallace, c. 29 Apr 1943; Lt Col Charles f 
P Hollstein, 18 Sep 1943; Lt Col Frank L 
Dunn, 4 Dec 1943-unkn. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Per bend nebuly and 
azure, in sinister chief a stylized camera, 
lens to base sable. Motto: IN ARDUA 
PETIT— He Aims at Difficult Things. 
(Approved 12 Nov 1942.) 

3d AIR COMMANDO GROUP 

Constituted as 3d Air Commando 
Group on 25 Apr 1944. Activated on i 
May 1944. Moved to the Philippines late 
in 1944. Assigned to Fifth AF for opera- 
tions with P-51, C-47, and L-5 aircraft. 
Attacked Japanese airfields and installa- 
tions in the Philippines, supported ground 
forces on Luzon, provided escort for mis- 
sions to Formosa and the China coast, 
made raids on airfields and railways on 
Formosa, and furnished cover for con- 
voys. Also transported personnel, dropped 
supplies to ground troops and guerrilla 



forces, evacuated casualties from front-line 
strips, adjusted artillery fire, and flew 
courier and mail routes. Moved to the 
Ryukyus in Aug 1945. Flew some patrols 
over Japan, made local liaison flights, and 
hauled cargo from the Philippines to 
Okinawa. Moved to Japan in Oct 1945. 
Inactivated on 25 Mar 1946. Disbanded 
on 8 Oct 1948. 

Squadrons, ^d Fighter: 1944-1946. 
4th Fighter: 1944-1946. i^ph Liaison: 
1944-1946. i^gth Liaison: 1944-1946. 
i6oth Liaison: 1944-1946. ^i8th Troop 
Carrier: 1944-1946. 

Stations. Drew Field, Fla, i May 
1944; Lakeland AAFld, Fla, 5 May 1944; 
Alachua AAFld, Fla, c. 20 Aug 1944; 
Drew Field, Fla, 6-24 Oct 1944; Leyte, Dec 
1944; Mangaldan, Luzon, c. 26 Jan 1945; 
Laoag, Luzon, Apr 1945; le Shima, Aug 
1945; Chitose, Japan, c. 27 Oct 1945-25 
Mar 1946. 

Commanders. Maj Klem F Kalberer, 
May 1944; Col Arvid E Olson Jr, Jun 
1944; Lt Col Walker M Mahurin, Sep 
1945; Lt Col Charles H Terhune, 20 Oct 
1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Japan; 
China Defensive; Western Pacific; Leyte; 
Luzon; China Offensive. 

Decorations. Philippine Presidential 
Unit Citation. 

Insigne. None. 

3d BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Organized as Army Surveillance Group 
on I Jul 1919. Redesignated ist Surveil- 



30 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



^ .*•■■ 



«»-:->:A^.-;:'yt 







^^'-^'^fi^'^ 



-^ 



lance Group in Aug 1919. Used DH- 
4B's to patrol the border fron\ Brownsville, 
Tex, to Nogales, Ariz, until 1921. Redes- 
ignated 3d Attack Group in 1921, and 3d 
Bombardment Group (Light) in 1939. 
Equipped with O-i, O-2, A-5, A-12, A-17, 
A-18, A-20, A-24, and other aircraft, 1921- 

194 1 . Trained, participated in maneuvers, 
tested new equipment, experimented with 
tactics, flew in aerial reviews, patrolled the 
Mexican border (1929), and carried air 
mail ( 1934) . Furnished personnel for and 
helped to train new organizations, 1939- 
1941. 

Moved to Australia early in 1942 and 
became part of Fifth AF. Redesignated 
3d Bombardment Group (Dive) in Sep 

1942, and 3d Bombardment Group 
(Light) in May 1943. Served in combat 
from I Apr 1942 until V-J Day. Used 
A-20, A-24, and B-25 aircraft for opera- 
tions. 



The group had its headquarters in 
Australia until Jan 1943, but its squadrons 
operated from New Guinea, bombing and 
strafing enemy airfields, supply lines, in- 
stallations, and shipping as the Allies 
halted the Japanese drive toward Port 
Moresby and drove the enemy back from 
Buna to Lae. At the end of that campaign 
in Jan 1943, headquarters moved to New 
Guinea. For the next year and a half the 
group continued to serve in the Southwest 
Pacific, where it played an important role 
in the offensives in which the Allies pushed 
along the northern coast of New Guinea, 
taking Salamaua, Lae, HoUandia, Wakde, 
Biak, and Noemfoor. In Mar 1943 it took 
part in the Battle of the Bismarck Sea, 
which ended Japanese attempts to send 
convoys to Lae. In Aug 1943, when Fifth 
AF struck airfields at Wewak to neutralize 
Japanese airpower that threatened the ad- 
vance of Allied forces in New Guinea, the 
group made an attack in the face of 
intense antiaircraft fire on 17 Aug, de- 
stroyed or damaged many enemy planes, 
and won a DUG for the mission. In the 
fall of 1943 the group struck Japanese naval 
and air power at Rabaul to support the as- 
saults on Bougainville and New Britain. 
In an attack on shipping at Simpson Har- 
bor, New Britain, on 2 Nov 1943, the 3d 
group encountered heavy opposition from 
enemy fighters and from antiaircraft bat- 
teries on the ships. In that attack Maj 
Raymond H Wilkins, commander of the 
8th squadron, sank two ships before he was 
shot down as he deliberately drew the fire 
of a destroyer so that other planes of his 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UTSSITS— GROUPS 



31 



squadron could withdraw safely — an ac- 
tion for which Maj Wilkins was posthu- 
mously awarded the Medal of Honor. 
The group moved to the Philippines late 
in 1944. Equipped with A-20's, it 
bombed and strafed airfields; supported 
ground forces on Mindoro, Luzon, and 
Mindanao; attacked industries and rail- 
ways on Formosa; and struck shipping 
along the China coast. Moved to Oki- 
nawa early in Aug 1945 and flew some 
missions to Japan before the war ended. 
Moved to Japan in Sep 1945 and, as part 
of Far East Air Forces, became part of the 
army of occupation. 

Served in combat in the Korean War 
from 27 Jun 1950 until the armistice on 27 
Jul 1953. Operated first from Japan and 
later from Korea, using B-26 aircraft. 
Flew most of its missions at night to at- 
tack such targets as airfields, vehicles, and 
railways. Capt John S Walmsley Jr was 
posthumously awarded the Medal of 
Honor for his actions on 14 Sep 1944: fly- 
ing a night mission in a B-26, Capt Walms- 
ley discovered and attacked an enemy sup- 
ply train, and after exhausting his ammuni- 
tion he flew at low altitude to direct other 
aircraft to the same objective; the train 
was destroyed but Walmsley's plane 
crashed in the target area. The group re- 
turned to Japan in 1954. Redesignated 
3d Bombardment Group (Tactical) in Oct 

1955- 

Squadrons. 8th: 1919-. 12th: 1919- 

1921. i^th (formerly 104th); 1919- 

1924; 1929-. 26tA: 1921-1929. 51st: 



1935-1936. 8gt/i (formerly loth): 1941- 
1946. 90th: 1919-. 

Stations. Kelly Field, Tex, i Jul 1919; 
Ft Bliss, Tex, 12 Nov 1919; Kelly Field, 
Tex, 2 Jul 1921; Ft Crockett, Tex, i Jul 
1926; Barksdale Field, La, 28 Feb 1935; 
Savannah, Ga, 6 Oct 1940-19 Jan 1942; 
Brisbane, Australia, 25 Feb 1942 ; Charters 
Towers, Australia, io Mar 1942; Port 
Moresby, New Guinea, 28 Jan 1943; 
Dobodura, New Guinea, 20 May 1943; 
Nadzab, New Guinea, 3 Feb 1944; Hol- 
landia. New Guinea, 12 May 1944; Dulag, 
Leyte, 16 Nov 1944; San Jose, Mindoro, 
c. 30 Dec 1944; Okinawa, 6 Aug 1945; 
Atsugi, Japan, c. 8 Sep 1945; Yokota, 
Japan, i Sep 1946; Johnson AB, Japan, c. 
15 Mar 1950; Iwakuni, Japan, i Jul 1950; 
Kunsan, Korea, 22 Aug 1951; Johnson 
AB, Japan, c. 5 Oct 1954-. 

CoMMANDERs. Maj B B Butler, i Jul 
1919; Maj Wilham G Schauffler Jr, i Sep 
1919; Lt Col Henry B Clagett, 27 Sep 
1919; Maj Leo A Walton, 20 Nov 1919; 
Maj Leo G Heflfernan, 10 Oct 1921; Lt 
Col Seth W Cook, 22 Aug 1922; Maj 
Lewis H Brereton, 5 Feb 1923; Maj Har- 
vey B S Burwell, 25 Jun 1924; Capt 
Joseph H Davidson, Feb 1926; Maj Frank 
D Lackland, 26 Jun 1926; Maj John H 
Jouett, 15 Aug 1928; Maj Davenport John- 
son, 27 Feb 1930; Lt Col Horace M. 
Hickam, 18 Jun 1932; Lt Col Earl L 
Naiden, 5 Nov 1934; Col J A Rader, Jul 
1937; Maj O S Ferson, Aug 1938 ; Col John 
C McDonnell, Sep 1938; Lt Col R G Breen, 
Nov 1940; Lt Col Paul L Williams, Dec 
1940; Lt Col Phillips Melville, 18 Aug 



32 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



1941; ist Lt Robert F Strickland, 19 Jan 
1942; Col John H Davies, 2 Apr 1942; Lt 
Col Robert F Strickland, 26 Oct 1942; Maj 
Donald P Hall, 28 Apr 1943; Lt Col 
James A Downs, 20 Oct 1943 ; Col John P 
Henebry, 7 Nov 1943; Lt Col Richard H 
Ellis, 27 Jun 1944; Col John P Henebry, 
30 Oct 1944 ; Col Richard H Ellis, 28 Dec 
1944; Col Charles W Howe, i May 1945; 
Lt Col James E Sweeney, 7 Dec 1945; Maj 
L B Weigold, c. 7 Feb 1946; Col Edward 
H Underbill, 23 Apr 1946; Lt Col John 
P Crocker, 3 Jan 1947; Col Edward H 
Underbill, 28 Mar 1947; Col James R 
Gunn Jr, 2 Jun 1947; Lt Col Joseph E 
Payne, 27 Sep 1948; Col Donald L Clark, 
3 Jan 1950; Lt Col Leland A Walker, Jr, 
5 Aug 1950; Col Henry C Brady, 17 Oct 
1950; Col Chester H Morgan, 4 Jan 1952; 
Col William G Moore, 17 Jan 1952; Col 
Sherman R Beaty, 1952; Col John G 
Napier, i Apr 1953; Col Straughan D 
Kelsey, 22 Jul 1953; Col William H Mat- 
thews, 18 Aug 1953; Col Sam L Barr, 2 
Feb 1954; Col Rufus H Holloway, 21 Sep 
1954; Lt Col William D Miner, 9 Jun 
1955; Lt Col Charles E Mendel, 25 Jul 
1955; Col Rufus H Holloway, 17 Aug 

I955-- 

Campaigns. World War 11: East In- 
dies; Air Offensive, Japan; China De- 
fensive; Papua; New Guinea; Bismarck 
Archipelago; Western Pacific; Leyte; 
Luzon; China Offensive. Korean War: 
UN Defensive; UN Offensive; CCF In- 
tervention; ist UN Counteroff ensive ; 
CCF Spring Offensive; UN Summer-Fall 
Offensive; Second Korean Winter; Korea 



Summer-Fall, 1952; Third Korean Win- 
ter; Korea Summer-Fall, 1953. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Papua, 23 Jul 1942-23 Jan 1943; 
New Guinea, 17 Aug 1943; Korea, 27 
Jun-31 Jul 1950; Korea, 22 Apr-8 Jul 1951 ; 
Korea, i May-27 Jul 1953. Philippine 
Presidential Unit Citation. Republic of 
Korea Presidential Unit Citation: 27 
Jun-31 Jul 1950. 

Insigne. Shield: Party per bend vert 
and sable in chief a cactus (prickly pear) 
or, a bend azure fimbriated of the third, 
all within a bordure argent charged with 
nineteen crosses patee of the second. 
Crest: On a wreath of the colors an arm 
couped near the shoulder paleways with 
hand clenched proper between two wings 
conjoined in lure argent. Motto: NON 
SOLUM ARMIS— Not by Arms Alone. 
(Approved 17 Jan 1922. This insigne was 
modified 22 Dec 1952.) 

3d COMBAT CARGO GROUP 

Constituted as 3d Combat Cargo Group 
on I Jun 1944 and activated in India on 5 
Jun. Equipped with C-47's. Supported 
ground forces during the battle for north- 
ern Burma and the subsequent Allied drive 
southward. Flew Allied troops and ma- 
teriel to the front, transporting gasoline, 
oil, vehicles, engineering and signal equip- 
ment, and other items that the group 
either landed or dropped in Burma. Also 
evacuated wounded personnel to India. 
Moved to Burma in Jun 1945. Hauled 
gasoline and other supplies to bases in 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS—GROUPS 



33 




western China. Redesignated 513th Troop 
Carrier Group in Sep 1945. Moved to 
China in Nov. Inactivated on 15 Apr 
1946. 

Redesignated 513th Troop Carrier 
Group (Special). Activated in Germany 
on 19 Nov 1948. Assigned to United 
States Air Forces in Europe. Using C-54's, 
transported food, coal, and other supplies 
during the Berlin airlift, 1948-1949. In- 
activated in Germany on 16 Oct 1949. 

Redesignated 513th Troop Carrier 
Group (Assault, Fixed Wing). Activated 
in the US on 8 Nov 1955. Assigned to 
Tactical Air Command and equipped with 
C-123 aircraft. 

Squadrons, gth (later 330th): 1944- 
1946; 1948-1949; 1955-. loth (later 
331st): 1944-1945; 1948-1949; 1955-. nth 
(later332d): 1944-1946; 1948-1949; 1955-. 
i2th (later 333d): 1944-1945; 1948-1949. 

Stations. Sylhet, India, 5 Jun 1944; Din- 
jan, India, 2 Aug 1944; Myitkyina, Burma, 
3 Jun. 1945; Shanghai, China, i Nov 1945- 



15 Apr 1946. Rhein-Main AB, Germany, 
19 Nov 1948-16 Oct 1949. Sewart AFB, 
Tenn, 8 Nov 1955-. 

Commanders. Col Charles D Farr, 5 
Jun 1944; Col Hiette S Williams Jr, 25 Oct 
1944; Col G Robert Dodson, 21 Apr 1945; 
Col Hugh D Wallace, 17 Jun 1945; Lt Col 
George H Van Deusan, unkn-1946. 
Unkn, 1948-1949. Col John R Roche, 8 
Nov 1955-. 

Campaigns. India-Burma; Central 
Burma. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: On a shield per fesse 
dancette azure and vert an American bald 
eagle volant, marked with three stars, red, 
blue, and green, wings spread upward, 
carrying with his talons an aircraft wing 
section loaded with a gun, supply box, and 
a combat soldier, all or ; in chief a lightning 
bolt of the last. Motto: SUBSIDIA 
FERIMUS— We Fly Men and Materiel. 
(Approved 3 Apr 1957.) 

3d RECONNAISSANCE GROUP 

Constituted as 3d Photographic Group 
on 9 Jun 1942 and activated on 20 Jun. 
Redesignated 3d Photographic Reconnais- 
sance and Mapping Group in May 1943, 
3d Photographic Group (Reconnaissance) 
in Nov 1943, and 3d Reconnaissance 
Group in May 1945. Moved, via England, 
to the Mediterranean theater, Nov-Dec 
1942, and assigned to Twelfth AF. Used 
F-4 and F-5 aircraft. Provided photo- 
gra'phic intelligence that assisted the cam- 
paigns for Tunisia, Pantelleria, Sardinia, 



34 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 




and Sicily. Reconnoitered airdromes, 
roads, marshalling yards, and harbors both 
before and after the Allied landings at 
Salerno. Covered the Anzio area early in 
1944 and continued to support Fifth Army 
in its drive through Italy by determining 
troop movements, gun positions, and ter- 
rain. Flew reconnaissance missions in 
connection with the invasion of Southern 
France in Aug 1944. Received a DUG 
for a mission on 28 Aug 1944 when the 
group provided photographic intelligence 
that assisted the rapid advance of Allied 
ground forces. Also mapped areas in 
France and the Balkans. Inactivated in 
Italy on 12 Sep 1945. Disbanded on 6 Mar 
1947. 

Squadrons, ^th: 1942-1945. 12th: 
1942-1945. iph: 1942-1943. 14th: 1942- 
1943. i^th: 1942-1944. 2^d: 1944-1945. 

Stations. Colorado Springs, Colo, 20 
Jun-13 Aug 1942; Membury, England, 8 
Sep 1942; Steeple Morden, England, 26 
Oct-22 Nov 1942; La Senia, Algeria, 10 
Dec 1942; Algiers, Algeria, 25 Dec 1942; 
La Marsa, Tunisia, 13 Jun 1943; San Sev- 



ero, Italy, 8 Dec 1943; Pomigliano, Italy, 
4 Jan 1944; Nettuno, Italy, 16 Jun 1944; 
Viterbo, Italy, 26 Jun 1944; Corsica, c. 
14 Jul 1944; Rosia, Italy, c. Sep 1944; Flor- 
ence, Italy, 17 Jan 1945; Pomigliano, Italy, 
26 Aug-i2 Sep 1945. 

Commanders. Capt George H Mc- 
Bride, 20 Jun 1942; Maj Harry T Eidson, 
25 Jun 1942; Maj Elliott Roosevelt, 11 Jul 
1942; Lt Col Furman H Limeburner, 13 
Aug 1942; Col Elliott Roosevelt, 30 Sep 
1942; Lt Col Frank L Dunn, c. Mar 1943; 
Lt Col James F Setchell, c. 4 Nov 1943; 
Maj Hal C Tunnell, 19 Jan 1944; Maj 
Thomas W Barfoot Jr, c. 29 May 1944; 
Col Duane L Kime, 17 Sep 1944; Lt Col 
Oscar M Blomquist, 29 May 1945; Lt Col 
James E Hill, 2 Aug-c. Sep 1945. 

Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME Thea- 
ter; Tunisia; Sicily; Naples-Foggia; An- 
zio; Rome-Arno; Southern France; North 
Apennines; Rhineland; Central Europe; 
Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Ci- 
tation: MTO, 28 Aug 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Per chevron or and 
azure, in center chief point a stylized cam- 
era, lens to base sable. Motto: ARCHEZ 
BIEN— Shoot Well. (Approved 29 Oct 
1942.) 

4th COMBAT CARGO GROUP 

Constituted as 4th Combat Cargo Group 
on 9 Jun 1944 and activated on 13 Jun. 
Trained with C-46 and C-47 aircraft. 
Moved to India in Nov 1944. Began op- 
erations with C-46's in Dec 1944. Trans- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GUOt/PS 

ported reinforcements and supplies for 
Allied forces in Burma until May 1945. 
Operations included moving equipment 
and materials for the Ledo Road in Dec 
1944; transporting men, mules, and boats 
when the Allies crossed the Irrawaddy 
River in Feb 1945; and dropping Gurkha 
paratroops during the assault on Rangoon 
in May 1945. Moved to Burma in Jun 
1945 and hauled ammunition, gasoline, 
mules, and men to China until the war 
ended. Returned to India in Nov 1945. 
Inactivated on 9 Feb 1946. Disbanded on 
8 Oct 1948. 

Squadrons. 13th: 1944-1945. 14th: 
1944-1946. i^th: 1944-1945. i6th: 1944- 
1945. 

Stations. Syracuse AAB, NY, 13 Jun 
1944; Bowman Field, Ky, 17 Aug-6 Nov 
1944; Sylhet, India, 28 Nov 1944; Agartala, 
India, Dec 1944; Chittagong, India, 5 Jan 
1945; Namponmao, Burma, Jun 1945; 
Pandaveswar, India, Nov 1945; Panagarh, 
India, 15 Jan-9 Feb 1946. 

Commanders. Col Stuart D Baird, 13 
Jun 1944-unkn. 

Campaigns. India-Burma; Central Bur- 
ma; China Offensive. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

4th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 4th Fighter Group on 22 
Aug 1942. Activated in England on 12 
Sep 1942. Former members of RAF Eagle 
Squadrons formed the nucleus of the 
group, which served in combat from Oct 



35 




1942 to Apr 1945 and destroyed more 
enemy planes in the air and on the ground 
than any other fighter group of Eighth 
AF. Operated first with Spitfires but 
changed to P-47's in Mar 1943 and to 
P-51's in Apr 1944. On numerous oc- 
casions escorted bombers that attacked fac- 
tories, submarine pens, V-weapon sites, 
and other targets in France, the Low 
Countries, or Germany. Went out some- 
times with a small force of bombers to 
draw up the enemy's fighters so they could 
be destroyed in aerial combat. At other 
times attacked the enemy's air power by 
strafing and dive-bombing airfields. Also 
hit troops, supply depots, roads, bridges, 
rail lines, and trains. Participated in the 
intensive campaign against the German 
Air Force and aircraft industry during 
Big Week, 20-25 ^^ I944- Received a 
DUC for aggressiveness in seeking out and 
destroying enemy aircraft and in attacking 
enemy air bases, 5 Mar-24 Apr 1944. Flew 
interdictory and counter-air missions dur- 



36 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



ing the invasion of Normandy in Jun 1944. 
Supported the airborne invasion of Hol- 
land in Sep. Participated in the Battle of 
the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Covered 
the airborne assault across the Rhine in 
Mar 1945. Moved to the US in Nov. In- 
activated on 10 Nov 1945. 

Activated on 9 Sep 1946. Equipped 
with P-8o's. Converted to F-86 aircraft 
in 1949. Redesignated 4th Fighter-Inter- 
ceptor Group in Jan 1950. Moved to Ja- 
pan, Nov-Dec 1950, for duty with Far 
East Air Forces in the Korean War. Be- 
gan operations from Japan on 15 Dec 1950 
and moved to Korea in Mar 1951. 
Escorted bombers, made fighter sweeps, 
engaged in interdiction of the enemy's 
lines of communications, flew armed re- 
connaissance sorties, conducted counter- 
air patrols, served as an air defense or- 
ganization, and provided close support for 
ground forces. One member of the group, 
Maj George A Davis Jr, commander of 
the 334th squadron, was awarded the 
Medal of Honor for action on 10 Feb 1952 
when, leading a flight of two F-86's, Davis 
spotted twelve enemy planes (MIG's), at- 
tacked, and destroyed three before his 
plane crashed in the mountains. The 
group returned to Japan in the fall of 1954. 
Redesignated 4th Fighter-Bomber Group 
in Mar 1955. 

Squadrons. 334ih: 1942-1945; 1946-. 
355fA: 1942-1945; 1946-. 336th: 1942- 
1945; 1946-. 

Stations. Bushey Hall, England, 12 
Sep 1942; Debden, England, Sep 1942; 
Steeple Morden, England, Jul-Nov 1945; 



Camp Kilmer, NJ, c. 9-10 Nov 1945. Self- 
ridge Field, Mich, 9 Sep 1946; Andrews 
Field, Md, Mar 1947; Langley AFB, Va, 
c. 30 Apr 1949; New Castle County Aprt, 
Del, Aug-Nov 1950; Johnson AB, Japan, 
Dec 1950; Suwon, Korea, Mar 1951; 
Kimpo, Korea, Aug 195 1; Chitose, Japan, 
c. I Nov 1954-. 

CoMMANDERs. Col Edward W Ander- 
son, Sep 1942; Col Chesley G Peterson, 
Aug 1943; Col Donald J M Blakeslee, i 
Jan 1944; Lt Col Claiborne H Kinnard Jr, 
Nov 1944; Lt Col Harry J Day huff, 7 Dec 
1944; Col Everett W Stewart, 21 Feb 1945- 
unkn. Col Ernest H Beverly, Sep 1946; 
Lt Col Benjamin S Preston Jr, Aug 1948; 
Col Albert L Evans Jr, Jun 1949; Col John 
C Meyer, c. i Sep 1950; Lt Col Glenn T 
Eagleston, May 1951; Col Benjamin S 
Preston Jr, Jul 1951 ; Col Walker M Ma- 
hurin, 18 Mar 1952; Lt Col Ralph G Kuhn, 
14 May 1952; Col Royal N Baker, i Jun 
1952; Col Thomas D Dejarnette, 18 Mar 
1953 ; Col Henry S Tyler Jr, c. 28 Dec 1953 ; 
Lt Col Dean W Dutrack, c. 19 Jul 1954; 
Col William D Gilchrist, c. 9 Aug 1954; 
Col George I Ruddell, c. 4 May 1955-. 

Campaigns. World War II: Air Of- 
fensive, Europe; Normandy; Northern 
France; Rhineland; Ardennes- Alsace ; 
Central Europe. Korean War: CCF In- 
tervention ; ist UN Counteroff ensive ; CCF 
Spring Offensive; UN Summer-Fall Of- 
fensive; Second Korean Winter; Korea 
Summer-Fall, 1952; Third Korean Win- 
ter; Korea Summer-Fall, 1953. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: France, 5 Mar-24 Apr 1944; Korea, 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROi/PS 



37 



22 Apr-8 Jul 195 1 ; Korea, 9 Jul-27 Nov 
1951. Republic of Korea Presidential Unit 
Citations: i Nov 1951-30 Sep 1952; i Oct 
1952-31 Mar 1953. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure on a bend or, a 
spear garnished with three eagle feathers 
and shaft flammant to base all proper. 
Crest: On a wreath of the colors, or and 
azure, a lion's face or. Motto: FOURTH 
BUT FIRST. (Approved 26 Sep 1949.) 

4th RECONNAISSANCE GROUP 




Constituted as 4th Photographic Group 
on 14 Jul 1942 and activated on 23 Jul. 
Trained for overseas duty with F-4's. 
Moved to the South Pacific late in 1942. 
Assigned to Thirteenth AF in Jan 1943. 
Redesignated 4th Photographic Reconnais- 
sance and Mapping Group in May 1943, 
4th Photographic Group (Reconnais- 
sance) in Nov 1943, and 4th Reconnais- 
sance Group in May 1945. From Dec 1942 
to May 1945 the group, based successively 
on New Caledonia, Espiritu Santo, Guad- 
alcanal, and Morotai, flew reconnaissance 
missions over enemy territory to supply 
air force units with target and damage- 



assessment photographs and to provide 
army and navy units with intelligence on 
Japanese troop concentrations, installa- 
tions, shore defenses, supply routes, and 
shipping. It also produced maps of Allied 
and enemy-held territory and prepared 
navigation charts for US units. During 
the last three months of the war the group 
photographed Japanese positions and in- 
stallations on Mindanao and Borneo to aid 
US and Australian operations. Moved to 
Leyte in Sep 1945. Inactivated on 15 Jan 
1946. Disbanded on 6 Mar 1947. 

Squadrons, iph: 1942-1946. i8th: 
1942-1944. igth: 1942-1943. 20th: 1942- 
1943. 5^:1945-1946. 

Stations. Colorado Springs, Colo, 23 
Jul-24 Oct 1942; New Caledonia, 22 Nov 
1942; Espiritu Santo, 22 Jan 1943; Guadal- 
canal, 6 May 1944; Morotai, 12 Dec 1944; 
Leyte, Sep 1945-15 Jan 1946. 

Commanders. 2d Lt Everett E Shaw, 23 
Jul 1942; Lt Col Francis L Rivard, 10 Aug 
1942; Lt Col Charles P HoUstein, 3 Sep 
1942; Col Paul C Schauer, 18 Jul 1943; 
Lt Col Hillford R Wallace, 7 Jun 1944; 
Maj Sidney L Hardin, 4 Aug 1944; Lt 
Col Hershell E Parsons, 20 Jan 1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. Guadalcanal ; New Guinea; 
Northern Solomons; Bismarck Archipel- 
ago; Western Pacific; Leyte; Southern 
Philippines. 

Decorations. Philippine Presidential 
Unit Citation. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, three piles and 
three like ordinaries transposed conjoined 
in honor point or. (Approved 28 Nov 
1942.) 



38 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



5th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Authorized as 2d Group (Observation) 
on 15 Aug 1919 and organized in Hawaii. 
Redesignated 5th Group (Observation) in 
Mar 1921, 5th Group (Pursuit and Bom- 
bardment) in Jun 1922, and 5th Group 
(Composite) in Jul 1922. Used DH-4, 
MB-2, B-12, LB-5, LB-6, PW-9, P-12, 
O-19, and other aircraft. Activities in- 
cluded training, participating in Army- 
Navy maneuvers, staging aerial reviews, 
sowing seeds from the air for the Terri- 
torial Forestry Division, and bombing a 
stream of lava flowing from Mauna Loa 
to divert it from the city of Hilo. Re- 
designated 5th Bombardment Group in 
Mar 1938, 5th Bombardment Group 
(Medium) in Dec 1939, and 5th Bombard- 
ment Group (Heavy) in Nov 1940. 
Equipped with B-17's and B-i8's by Dec 

1941. Assigned to Seventh AF in Feb 

1942. Engaged primarily in search and 



patrol missions off Hawaii from Dec 1941 
to Nov 1942. 

Left Hawaii in Nov 1942 and, operating 
from bases in the South and Southwest 
Pacific with B-17 and B-24 aircraft, 
served in combat with Thirteenth AF dur- 
ing the Allied drive from the Solomons to 
the Philippines. Flew long patrol and 
photographic missions over the Solomon 
Islands and the Coral Sea, attacked 
Japanese shipping off Guadalcanal, and 
raided airfields in the northern Solomons 
until Aug 1943. Then struck enemy bases 
and installations on Bougainville, New 
Britain, and New Ireland. Raided the 
heavily defended Japanese base on Woleai 
during Apr and May 1944 and received a 
DUC for the action. Helped to neutralize 
enemy bases on Yap and in the Truk and 
Palau Islands, Jun-Aug 1944, preparatory 
to the invasion of Peleliu and Leyte. Flew 
missions to the Netherlands Indies, receiv- 
ing a DUC for an attack, conducted 
through heavy flak and fighter defenses, on 
oil installations at Balikpapan, Borneo, on 
30 Sep 1944. Completed a variety of mis- 
sions from Oct 1944 until the end of the 
war, these operations including raids on 
enemy bases and installations on Luzon, 
Ceram, Halmahera, and Formosa ; support 
for ground forces in the Philippines and 
Borneo; and patrols off the China coast. 
Remained in the theater as part of Far East 
Air Forces after the war, but all personnel 
evidently had been withdrawn by early in 
1946. Redesignated 5th Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy) in Apr 1946, and 5th 
Reconnaissance Group in Feb 1947. Re- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VNITS— GROUPS 



39 



manned in Mar 1947, equipped with 
FB-17's and F-2's, and engaged in map- 
ping areas of the Philippines, Formosa, 
and the Pescadores. 

Moved to the US in May 1949. Assigned 
to Strategic Air Command. Redesignated 
5th Strategic Reconnaissance Group in Jul 
1949. Equipped with RB-29's. Redesig- 
nated 5th Strategic Reconnaissance Group 
(Heavy) in Sep 1950. Began converting 
to B-36's. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952. 

Squadrons. 6th Pursuit: 1919-1927. 
igth Pursuit: 1924-1927. 2^d: 1922-1930, 
1938-1947, 1947-1952. 26th Attack: 1930- 
1938. ^ist: 1938-1947, 1949-1952. ^8th: 
1947-1949. 72^; 1923-1930, 1938-1947, 
1949-1952. 338th: 1947-1949. 39¥h 
(formerly 4th): 1920-1922, 1927-1938, 
1939-1946. 431st (formerly 50th, later 
5th) : 1930-1938, 1946, 1947. 

Stations. Luke Field, TH, 15 Aug 
1919; Hickam Field, TH, i Jan 1939; 
Espiritu Santo, i Dec 1942; Guadalcanal, 
19 Aug 1943; Munda, New Georgia, 4 
Feb 1944; Momote Airfield, Los Negros, 
7 Apr 1944 ; Wakde, 17 Aug 1944 ; Noem- 
foor, 22 Sep 1944; Morotai, Oct 1944; 
Samar, 5 Mar 1945; Clark Field, Luzon, 
Dec 1945-6 May 1949; Mountain Home 
AFB, Idaho, 26 May 1949; Fairfield- 
Suisun AFB, Calif, 9 Nov 1949-16 Jun 
1952. 

Commanders. Unkn, 1919-1938; Col 
Shepler W FitzGerald, c. Sep 1938-unkn; 
Lt Col Edwin B Bobzien, 1941 ; Col Arthur 
W Meehan, 1942; Col Brooke E Allen, i 
Nov 1942; Col Marion D Unruh, 10 Aug 



1943; Lt Col Joseph E Reddoch Jr, 31 Dec 
1943; Col Thomas C Musgrave Jr, 4 Apr 
1944; Col Joseph E Reddoch Jr, 21 Apr 
1944; Col Thomas C Musgrave Jr, 15 Aug 
1944; Maj Albert W James, 28 Feb 1945; 
Col Isaac J Haviland, 15 Mar 1945; Lt Col 
Albert W James, 5 Jul 1945-unkn; Col 
Herbert K Baisley, 16 Jan 1947-unkn ; Col 
William E Basye, 1949; Col Walter E 
Arnold, 27 Feb 1950-16 Jun 1952. 

Campaigns. Central Pacific; Guadal- 
canal; New Guinea; Northern Solomons; 
Eastern Mandates; Bismarck Archipelago; 
Western Pacific; Leyte; Luzon; Southern 
Philippines. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Woleai Island, 18 Apr-15 May 1944; 
Borneo, 30 Sep 1944. Philippine Presi- 
dential Unit Citation. 

Insigne. Shield: Party per pale nebuly 
vert and sable a death's head argent winged 
or. Crest: On a wreath of the colors 
(argent and vert), a bull's head caboshed 
azure and armed or. Motto: KIAI O KA 
LEW A— Guardians of the Upper Regions 
(Approved 21 Jun 1924.) 

5th RECONNAISSANCE GROUP 

Constituted as 5th Photographic Group 
on 14 Jul 1942 and activated on 23 Jul. 
Redesignated 5th Photographic Recon- 
naissance and Mapping Group in May 
1943, and 5th Photographic Reconnais- 
sance Group in Aug 1943. Trained and 
participated in maneuvers. Moved to the 
Mediterranean theater, Jul-Sep 1943. As- 



40 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 




signed first to Twelfth AF and later (Oct 
1944) to Fifteenth. Flew missions to Italy, 
France, Germany, Austria, Czechoslo- 
vakia, Poland, and the Balkans, using F-5 
aircraft. Also flew some photographic 
missions at night with B-17's and B-25's. 
Photographed areas near Anzio prior to 
the Allied landings. Provided reconnais- 
sance of road and rail targets to support 
US Fifth and British Eighth Army in 
southern Italy. Made bomb-damage as- 
sessments at Cassino. Operated over 
northwest France, photographing rail 
targets to be bombed in connection with 
the invasion of Normandy. Mapped 
coastal areas in preparation for the invasion 
of Southern France. Received a DUG for 
action on 6 Sep 1944 when the group 
secured photographic intelligence of Ger- 
man Air Force installations in the Balkans 
and thus enabled fighter organizations to 
destroy large numbers of enemy transport 
and fighter planes. Provided reconnais- 
sance services for Fifteenth AF's campaign 
against the enemy's oil industry, aircraft 
production, and communications. Also 
assisted the advance of ground forces in 



northern Italy by supplying intelligence on 
enemy installations in the area. Redesig- 
nated 5th Reconnaissance Group in May 
1945. Returned to the US in Oct. Inacti- 
vated on 28 Oct 1945. Disbanded on 6 
Mar 1947, 

Squadrons, i^th: 1944-1945. 21st: 
1942-1943. 22^; 1942-1943. 2^d: 1942- 
1944. 24th: 1942-1943. pd: 1944-1945. 
3^th:. 1944-1945- 

Stations. Colorado Springs, Colo, 23 
Jul 1942-8 Aug 1943; La Marsa, Tunisia, 
8 Sep 1943; San Severo, Italy, 8 Dec 1943; 
Bari, Italy, 11 Oct 1944-Oct 1945; Camp 
Kilmer, NJ, 26-28 Oct 1945. 

Commanders. 2d Lt Frederick A Wil- 
liams, 23 Jul 1942; Maj J D Russell, 1942; 
Maj James F Setchell, 12 Jan 1943; Lt Col 
Waymond A Davis, 27 Feb 1943; Maj 
Leon W Gray, 23 Oct 1943; Maj Lloyd R 
Nuttall, 4 Feb 1944; Col Wilbur H Strat- 
ton, 21 Sep 1944; Lt Col Bernard S 
Hendler, 9 Aug 1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Air 
Combat, FAME Theater; Air Offensive, 
Europe; Naples-Foggia; Rome-Arno; 
Normandy; Northern France; Southern 
France; North Apennines; Rhineland; 
Central Europe; Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: MTO, 6 Sep 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, on a chevron 
inverted or two wings conjoined in lure 
and elevated of the field, in chief a camera 
lens proper ringed of the second. Motto: 
BEWARE, WE SNAP! (Approved 25 
Jan 1943.) 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



41 



6th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




PAR AT I DEFENDERE 



Organized as 3d Observation Group in 
the Panama Canal Zone on 30 Sep 1919. 
Redesignated 6th Group (Observation) in 
1921, 6th Group (Composite) in 1922, 6th 
Bombardment Group in 1937, 6th Bom- 
bardment Group (Medium) in 1939, and 
6di Bombardment Group (Heavy) in 
1940. Operations, which were concerned 
chiefly with defense of the canal, included 
training, participating in maneuvers, fly- 
ing patrol missions, . photographing the 
canal area, staging aerial reviews, making 
good-will flights to Central and South 
American countries, and flying mercy mis- 
sions in Jan 1939 to earthquake victims at 
Santiago, Chile. Equipped with R-4's and 
DH-4's in 1919; used SE-5A, MB-3A, and 
P-12B aircraft in the period 1922-1929; 
received B-io's in 1936 and B-i8's in 1939; 
used B-17, B-18, B-24, LB-30, and L-4E 
aircraft after the US entered World War 



II. Disbanded in the Canal Zone on i 
Nov 1943. 

Reconstituted on 29 Jun 1944 and con- 
solidated with 6th Bombardment Group 
(Very Heavy), which had been constituted 
on 28 Mar 1944 and activated in the US 
on 19 Apr 1944. Equipped first with B- 
17's; later trained for combat with B-29's. 
Moved to Tinian, Nov 1944-Feb 1945. 
Assigned to Twentieth AF. Commenced 
operations by attacking Iwo Jima and the 
Truk Islands in Feb 1945. Afterward, 
struck industrial targets in Japan, flying in 
daylight and at high altitude to carry out 
these missions. Began incendiary raids 
on area targets in Japan in Mar 1945 and 
was awarded a DUC for action on 25 May 
when the group flew at night and at low 
altitude through alerted enemy defenses 
to drop incendiaries on Tokyo. Partici- 
pated in rtiining operations in the Shi- 
monoseki Strait and received second DUC 
for contributing to the blockade of the 
Japanese Empire by mining harbors in 
Japan and Korea in Jul 1945. Assisted the 
invasion of Okinawa in Apr 1945 with 
strikes on Kyushu, hitting airfields that 
were used by kamikaze pilots. After the 
war, dropped food and supplies to Allied 
prisoners and took part in show-of -force 

flights over Japan. Moved to the Philip- 
pWes in Jan 1946 and to the Ryukyus in 

Jun 1947. Inactivated on Okinawa on 18 

Oct 1948. 
Redesignated 6th Bombardment Group 

(Medium). Activated in the US on 2 Jan 

1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Com- 



42 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



mand and equipped with B-29's. Inac- 
tivated on 16 Jun 1952. 

Squadrons. 3<^; 1940-1942. 2/}th: 1922- 
1929; 1944-1948; 1951-1952. 25M; 1922- 
1943. igth: 1943. ^gth: 1944-1948; 1951- 
1952. 40th: 1944-1948; 1951-1952. 44th: 
1930-1937- 74th: 1940-1942, 1943. 395M; 
1942-1943. ^gjth (formerly 7th): 1919- 
1940, 1942-1943. 

Stations. France Field, CZ, 30 Sep 
1919; Rio Hato, Panama, 9 Dec 1941; Al- 
brook Field, CZ, 14 Jan 1943; Howard 
Field, CZ, Oct-i Nov 1943. Dalhart 
AAFld, Tex, 19 Apr 1944; Grand Island 
AAFld, Neb, 19 May-i8 Nov 1944; North 
Field, Tinian, 28 Dec 1944; Clark Field, 
Luzon, 28 Jan 1946; Kadena, Okinawa, i 
Jun 1947-18 Oct 1948. Walker AFB, NM, 
2 Jan 1951-16 Jun 1952. 

Commanders. Unkn, 1919-1923; Maj 
Follett Bradley, 1923-1926; Lt Col Lewis 
H Brereton, Aug 1931-c. Jun 1935; Lt Col 
William O Butler, c. Jan. 1937- Jul 1939; 
Lt Col Edwin J House, 1939-1940; Maj 
Samuel M Connell, c. Sep 1940-Feb 1941 ; 
Col Henry K Mooney, 15 Sep 1941-20 
Jan 1943; unkn, 20 Jan-i Nov 1943. Maj 
William E Taylor, 19 Apr 1944; Lt Col 
Howard D Kenzie, 28 Apr 1944; Col Ken- 
neth H Gibson, 17 Jun 1944; Lt Col Theo- 
dore W Tucker, 31 Aug 1945; Col John 
P Kenny, 29 Aug 1946; Col Frank P 
Sturdivant, 4 Dec 1946-unkn. Col Wil- 
liam K Martin, 15 Jan 1951-16 Jun 1952. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater; Air Offensive, Japan; Eastern 
Mandates; Western Pacific. 



Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Tokyo, Japan, 25 May 1945; Japa- 
nese Empire, 9-19 Jul 1945. 

Insigne. Shield: Per fess debased or and 
azure issuant against the rays of the set- 
ting sun a full rigged ship (black hull and 
white sails), in the gaillard cut (light and 
dark green), in chief a biplane (black) 
diving bend sinisterwise all proper. Crest: 
On a wreath of the colors (or and azure) 
a pirate's head and shoulders tattooed on 
the chest with skull and bones proper, 
garbed and coifed or and sable. Motto: 
PARATI DEFENDERE— Ready to De- 
fend. (Approved 22 Jan 1924.) 

6th RECONNAISSANCE GROUP 

Constituted as 6th Photographic Group 
on 5 Feb 1943 and activated on 9 Feb. 
Redesignated 6th Photographic Recon- 
naissance and Mapping Group in May 
1943, 6th Photographic Reconnaissance 
Group in Aug 1943, and 6th Reconnais- 
sance Group in May 1945. Moved to the 
Southwest Pacific, Sep-Oct 1943, and as- 
signed to Fifth AF. Used F-5's and 
F-7's to photograph Japanese airfields, 
harbors, beach defenses, and personnel 
areas in New Guinea, the Bismarcks, Bor- 
neo, and the southern Philippines. Rec- 
onnoitered target areas and enemy troop 
positions to provide intelligence for air 
force and army units. Received a DUC 
for unescorted flights to Leyte during Sep 
1944 when in a minimum period of time 
the group obtained information about 
Japanese defenses, such information being 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



43 



necessary for planning the amphibious 
assault on the Philippines. After moving 
to the Philippines in Nov 1944, flew mis- 
sions to Formosa and China, engaged in 
mapping parts of Luzon and Mindanao, 
and provided intelligence for US ground 
forces concerning Japanese movements. 
Moved to Okinawa in Jul 1945 and flew 
some missions over Kyushu before the war 
ended. Moved to Japan in Sep 1945. 
Inactivated on 27 Apr 1946. Disbanded 
on 6 Mar 1947. 

Squadrons. 8th: 1943-1946. 20th: 
1943-1946. 2^th: 1943-1946. 26th: 1943- 
1945. 2'jth: 1943. ^6th: 1944-1945. 

Stations. Colorado Springs, Colo, 9 
Feb-7 Sep 1943; Sydney, Australia, 10 Oct 
1943; Brisbane, Australia, 27 Nov 1943; 
Port Moresby, New Guinea, 10 Dec 1943; 
Nadzab, New Guinea, 17 Feb 1944; Biak, 
Aug 1944; Leyte, 3 Nov 1944; Clark Field, 
Luzon, I May 1945; Okinawa, 31 Jul 1945; 
Chofu, Japan, 27 Sep 1945; Irumagawa, 
Japan, Jan-27 Apr 1946. 

Commanders. Lt Col Waymond A 
Davis, 9 Feb 1943; Maj Cecil Darnell, 27 
Feb 1943; Col David W Hutchison, 13 
Mar 1943; Lt Col Cecil Darnell, 24 Mai" 
1943; Maj Arthur L Post, 24 Jul 1944; Lt 
Col Alexander Guerry, c. i Sep 1944; Lt 
Col Ben K Armstrong Jr, 5 Jan 1945 ; Lt 
Col Joseph Davis Jr, 31 May 1945-unkn. 
Campaigns. Air Offensive, Japan; 
China Defensive; New Guinea; Bismarck 
Archipelago; Western Pacific; Leyte; 
Luzon; Ryukyus; Southern Philippines; 
China Offensive. 



Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Philippine Islands, 18-25 Sep 1944. 
Philippine Presidential Unit Citation. 

Insigne. None. 

7th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Organized as ist Army Observation 
Group on i Oct 1919. Redesignated 7th 
Group (Observation) in Mar 1921. In- 
activated on 30 Aug 1921. 

Redesignated 7th Bombardment Group 
in 1923. Activated on i Jun 1928. Re- 
designated 7th Bombardment Group 
(Heavy) in 1939. Trained, participated 
in aerial reviews, dropped food and medi- 
cal supplies to persons marooned or lost, 
and took part in maneuvers and experi- 
ments. Aircraft included B-12's, B-i8's, 
and B-17's. 

The group was on its way to the Philip- 
pines when the Japanese attacked Pearl 
Harbor on 7 Dec 1941. The ground 



44 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



echelon, on board ship, was diverted to 
Australia and later sent to Java. Six of the 
group's B-17's, which had left the US on 
6 Dec, reached Hawaii during the enemy 
attack but were able to land safely. Later 
in Dec the remainder of the air echelon 
flew B-17's from the US to Java. From 14 
Jan to I Mar 1942, during the Japanese 
drive through the Philippines and Nether- 
lands East Indies, the group operated from 
Java, being awarded a DUG for its action 
against enemy aircraft, ground installa- 
tions, warships, and transports. 

Moved to India in Mar 1942 and as- 
signed to Tenth AF. Resumed combat 
with B-17's and LB-30's; converted to 
B-24's late in 1942. Operations were di- 
rected primarily against the Japanese in 
Burma, with attacks on airfields, fuel and 
supply dumps, locomotive works, railways, 
bridges, docks, warehouses, shipping, and 
other targets. Also bombed oil refineries 
and railways in Thailand, hit power plants 
in China, attacked enemy shipping in the 
Andaman Sea, and ferried gasoline over 
the Hump to China. Received second 
DUG for damaging the enemy's line of 
supply in southeast Asia with an attack 
against rail lines and bridges in Thailand 
on 19 Mar 1945. Returned to the US in 
Dec 1945. Inactivated on 6 Jan 1946. 

Redesignated 7th Bombardment Group 
(Very Heavy). Activated on i Oct 1946. 
Assigned to Strategic Air Command. 
Equipped first with B-29's, later with 
B-36's. Redesignated 7th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) in Jul 1948. Inactivated 
on 16 Jun 1952. 



Squadrons, gth: 1919-1921; 1928-1946; 
1946-1952. iinh: 1919-1921; unkn-1942. 
22d: 1939-1942. ^oth: 1928-1931. ^ist: 
1919-1921; i928-[i939.r']. 4^1^h (for- 
merly 88th) : 1939-1946; 1946-1952. 4g2d: 
1942-1946; 1946-1952. 4g3d: 1942-1946. 

Stations. Park Field, Tenn, i Oct 1919; 
Langley Field, Va, 28 Oct 1919-30 Aug 
1921. Rockwell Field, Calif, i Jun 1928; 
March Field, Calif, 30 Oct 193 1; Hamilton 
Field, Calif, 5 Dec 1934; Merced Field, 
Calif, 5 Nov 1935; Hamilton Field, CaUf, 
22 May 1937; Ft Douglas, Utah, 7 Sep 
1940-13 Nov 1941 ; Brisbane, Australia, 22 
Dec 1941-Feb 1942; Karachi, India, 12 Mar 
1942; Dum-Dum, India, 30 May 1942; Ka- 
rachi, India, 9 Sep 1942; Pandaveswar, 
India, 12 Dec 1942; Kurmitola, India, 17 
Jan 1944; Pandaveswar, India, 6 Oct 1944; 
Tezpur, India, 7 Jun 1945; Dudhkundi, 
India, 31 Oct-7 Dec 1945; Gamp Kilmer, 
NJ, 5-6 Jan 1946. Ft Worth AAFld, Tex, 
I Oct 1946-16 Jun 1952. 

Commanders. Unkn, 1919-1921. Capt 
Frank H Pritchard, 1928-unkn; Maj Carl 
A Spaatz, c. May 1929-c. Oct 1931; Col 
Clarence I Tinker, c. Dec 1935-1938; Col 
Ralph Royce, 1938-unkn; Maj Stanley 
K Robinson, unkn-29 Jan 1942; Maj Aus- 
tin A Straubel, c. 29 Jan-3 Feb 1942; Col 
Cecil E Combs, 22 Mar 1942; Col Conrad 
F Necrason, i Jul 1942; Col Aubrey K 
Dodson, 27 Mar 1944; Col Harvey T Al- 
ness, 6 Nov 1944; Col Howard F Bronson 
Jr, 24 Jun 1945-unkn. Col John G Erik- 
sen, I Oct 1946; Col Hewitt T Wheeless, 
16 Dec 1946-unkn; Col Alan D Clark, c. 
Nov 1947-unkn ; Col Charles D Farr, 7 Feb 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



45 



1949; Col John A Roberts, 17 Aug 1949; 
Col Richard T Black, c. 24 Oct 1950; Col 
John A Roberts, Feb 195 1; Col George T 
Chadwell, c. May 1951; Col John A 
Roberts, Apr-Jun 1952. 

Campaigns. Burma, 1942; East Indies; 
India-Burma; China Defensive; Central 
Burma; China Offensive. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Netherlands Indies, 14 Jan-i Mar 
1942; Thailand, 19 Mar 1945. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, on a bend or 
three crosses pattee sable. Crest: On a 
wreath of the colors (or and azure) a drop 
bomb palewise sable piercing a cloud 
proper. Motto: MORS AB ALTO— 
Death from Above. (Approved 30 Jan 
1933. This insigne was modified 12 Sep 
1952.) 

7th RECONNAISSANCE GROUP 

Constituted as 7th Photographic Group 
on 5 Feb 1943. Activated on i May 1943. 
Redesignated 7th Photographic Recon- 
naissance and Mapping Group in May 
1943, 7th Photographic Group (Reconnais- 
sance) in Nov 1943, and 7th Reconnais- 
sance Group in Jun 1945. Transferred, 
without personnel and equipment, to Eng- 
land on 7 Jul 1943 and assigned to Eighth 
AF. Used Spitfires and L-5's to obtain 
information about bombardment targets 
and damage inflicted by bombardment 
operations; provide mapping service for 
air and ground units; observe and report 
on enemy transportation, installations, and 
positions; and obtain data on weather con- 



ditions. Prior to Jun 1944, photographed 
airfields, cities, industrial establishments, 
and ports in France, the Low Countries, 
and Germany. Received a DUC for oper- 
ations during the period, 31 May-30 Jun 

1944, when its coverage of bridges, mar- 
shalling yards, canals, highways, rivers, 
and other targets contributed much to the 
success of the Normandy campaign. 
Covered missile sites in France during Jul, 
and in Aug carried out photographic map- 
ping missions for ground forces advancing 
across France. Provided reconnaissance 
support for the airborne attack on Holland 
in Sep and for the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 
1944-Jan 1945. Used P-51's to escort its 
own reconnaissance planes during the last 
months of the war as the group supported 
the Allied drive across the Rhine and into 
Germany. Took part in the final bomb- 
damage assessment following V-E Day. 
Inactivated in England on 21 Nov 1945. 
Disbanded on 6 Mar 1947. 

Squadrons, i^th: 1943-1945. i^h: 
1943-1945- 22^; 1943-1945. 27/^; 1943- 

1945. 28th: 1943. 29/^; 1943. ^oth: 

1943- 
Stations. Peterson Field, Colo, i May- 

7 Jul 1943; Mount Farm, England, 7 Jul 
1943; Chalgrove, England, Mar 1945; 
Hitcham, England, Oct-21 Nov 1945. 

Commanders. Col James G Hall, 7 Jul 
1943; Col Homer L Saunders, Sep 1943; 
Col Paul T CuUen, i Jan 1944; Lt Col 
George A Lawson, 17 Feb 1944; Lt Col 
Norris E Hartwell, 7 May 1944; Lt Col 
Clarence A Shoop, 9 Aug 1944; Col George 



46 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



W Humbrecht, Oct 1944; Maj Hubert M 
Childress, 18 Jun 1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. Air OflFensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion : France, 31 May-30 Jun 1944. French 
Croix de Guerre With Palm : 1944. 

Insigne. None. 

8th FIGHTER GROUP 




Authorized on the inactive list as 8th 
Pursuit Group on 24 Mar 1923. Activated 
on I Apr 1931. Redesignated 8th Pursuit 
Group (Fighter) in 1939, and 8th Pursuit 
Group (Interceptor) in 1941. Trained, 
took part in maneuvers and reviews, and 
tested planes and equipment, using PB-2, 
P-6, P-12, P-35, P-36, P-39, and P-40 air- 
craft prior to World War II. In Dec 1941, 
became part of the defense force for the 
New York metropolitan area. Moved to 
the Asiatic-Pacific Theater early in 1942. 



Redesignated 8th Fighter Group in May 
1942. Became part of Fifth AF. 
Equipped first with P-39's, added P-38's 
and P-40's in 1943, and used P-38's after 
May 1944. 

Established headquarters in Australia 
in Mar 1942 but sent detachments to New 
Guinea for operations. Moved to New 
Guinea in Sep 1942 and served in com- 
bat until malaria forced the organization 
to withdraw to Australia in Feb 1943. 
Resumed operations in Apr 1943 and 
served in the theater through the rest of 
the war. Covered Allied landings, 
escorted bombers, and attacked enemy air- 
fields in New Guinea; supported opera- 
tions of the US Marines at Cape Glouces- 
ter, Feb-Mar 1944; flew long-range 
escort and attack missions to Borneo, 
Ceram, Halmahera, and the southern 
Philippines; provided cover for convoys, 
attacked enemy shipping, and won a DUC 
for strafing a strong Japanese naval force 
off Mindoro (26 Dec 1944) ; covered land- 
ings at Lingayen; supported ground forces 
on Luzon ; escorted bombers to targets on 
the Asiatic mainland and on Formosa; 
and, in the last days of the war, attacked 
airfields and railways in Japan. Remained 
in the theater after V-J Day, being based 
in Japan for duty with Far East Air Forces. 
Converted to P-51's early in 1946 and to 
F-80's early in 1950. Redesignated 8th 
Fighter-Bomber Group in Jan 1950. 

Began operations in the Korean War on 
26 Jun 1950 by providing cover for the 
evacuation of US personnel from Seoul. 
Entered combat the following day. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



47 



Shifted to F-51 aircraft in Oct 1950 but 
converted back to F-80's in Dec 1950. 
Began operating from bases in Korea in 
Oct 1950, but resumed operations from 
Japan in Dec 1950 when Communist forces 
drove far south in Korea. Returned to 
Korea in Jun 1951. Served in combat until 
the end of the war, supporting UN ground 
forces and attacking such targets as air- 
fields, supply lines, and troop concentra- 
tions. Maj Charles J Loring Jr was 
awarded the Medal of Honor for his action 
on 22 Nov 1952: after his plane had been 
hit and badly crippled as he was leading 
a flight of four F-8o's against enemy ar- 
tillery at Sniper Ridge, Maj Loring de- 
liberately dived his plane into the gun 
emplacements. The group converted to 
F-86's in the spring of 1953 and returned 
to Japan the following year. 

Squadrons, ^^d: 1932-1941. 35ih: 
1932-. 36th: 1931, 1932-. 55M: 193 1- 
1932. 68th: 1945-1947. 80th: 1942-1945, 
1947-. 

Stations. Langley Field, Va, i Apr 
1931; Mitchel Field, NY, c. 5 Nov 1940- 
26 Jan 1942; Brisbane, Australia, 6 Mar 
1942; Townsville, Australia, 29 Jul 1942; 
Milne Bay, New Guinea, 18 Sep 1942; 
Mareeba, Australia, Feb 1943; Port 
Moresby, New Guinea, 16 May 1943; 
Finschhafen, New Guinea, 23 Dec 1943; 
Cape Gloucester, New Britain, c. 20 Feb 
1944; Nadzab, New Guinea, 14 Mar 1944; 
Owi, Schouten Islands, 17 Jun 1944; 
Morotai, 19 Sep 1944; San Jose, Mindoro, 
20 Dec 1944; le Shima, 6 Aug 1945; 
Fukuoka, Japan, 22 Nov 1945; Ashiya, 



Japan, 20 May 1946; Itazuke, Japan, Sep 
1946; Ashiya, Japan, 13 Apr 1947; Itazuke, 
Japan, 25 Mar 1949; Tsuiki, Japan, 11 Aug 
1950; Suwon, Korea, 7 Oct 1950; Kimpo, 
Korea, 28 Oct 1950; Pyongyang, Korea, 25 
Nov 1950; Seoul, Korea, 3 Dec 1950; 
Itazuke, Japan, 10 Dec 1950; Kimpo, 
Korea, 25 Jun 1951; Suwon, Korea, 24 
Aug 1951; Itazuke, Japan, 20 Oct 1954-. 
Commanders. Unkn, 1931-1932; Maj 
Byron Q Jones, 25 Jun 1932; Capt Albert 
M Guidera, 31 Mar 1934; Lt Col Adlai H 
Gilkeson, i Jul 1935; Lt Col William E 
Kepner, 7 Jul 1938; Lt Col Edward M 
Morris, i Feb 1940; Lt Col Frederic H 
Smith Jr, 17 Jan 1941; Lt Col William H 
Wise, 22 May 1942; Lt Col Leonard B 
Storm, 8 Mar 1943; Lt Col Philip H Greas- 
ley, 10 Apr 1943; Lt Col Emmett S Davis, 
18 Jan 1944; Lt Col Philip H Greasley, 
28 Jun 1944 ; Col Earl H Dunham, 8 Aug 
1944; Lt Col Emmett S Davis, 16 Jun 1945; 
Lt Col Robert L Harriger, Dec 1945; Lt 
Col Fergus C Fay, 24 May 1946; Lt Col 
Luther H Richmond, Jul 1946; Col Stan- 
ley R Stewart, Feb 1947; Col Henry G 
Thorne Jr, 12 Apr 1947; Col Charles T 
Olmstead, c. 28 May 1948; Lt Col Richard 
C Banbury, 18 Aug 1948; Lt Col Woodrow 
W Ramsey, 18 Mar 1949; Lt Col Charles 
D Chitty Jr, 21 May 1949; Col William T 
Samways, i May 1950; Col Edward O 
McComas, 19 May 195 1; Col Harvey L 
Case Jr, 31 Jul 195 1; Col Levi R Chase, 22 
Jan 1952; Col Walter G Benz Jr, 12 Sep 
1952; Col John L Locke, 16 Sep 1953; Lt 
Col Walter A Rosenfield, 13 May 1954; 
Col Woodrow B Wilmot, 16 Jul 1954-. 



48 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Campaigns. World War II: East In- 
dies; Air Offensive, Japan; China Defen- 
sive; Papua; New Guinea; Bismarck 
Archipelago; Western Pacific; Leyte; 
Luzon; Southern Philippines. Korean 
War: UN Defensive; UN Offensive; CCF 
Intervention; ist UN Counteroffensive; 
CCF Spring Offensive ; UN Summer-Fall 
Offensive; Second Korean Winter; Korea 
Summer-Fall, 1952; Third Korean Win- 
ter; Korea Summer-Fall, 1953. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Papua, [Sep] 1942-23 Jan 1943; 
Philippine Islands, 26 Dec 1944; Korea, 
16 Sep-2 Nov 1950. Philippine Presiden- 
tial Unit Citation. Republic of Korea 
Presidential Unit Citations: 27 Jun 1950- 
31 Jan 1951; I Feb 1951-31 Mar 1953. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a chevron ne- 
bule or. Crest: On a wreath of the colors 
(or and azure) three fleur-de-lis or in front 
of a propeller fesswise azure. Motto: AT- 
TAQUEZ ET CONQUEREZ— Attack 
and Conquer. (Approved 6 Sep 1934.) 



French Indochina, and Thailand. Also 
bombed and strafed enemy installations 
and provided escort for bombardment 
units. Redesignated 8th Reconnaissance 
Group in Jun 1945. Returned to the US, 
Oct-Nov 1945. Inactivated on 5 Nov 1945. 
Disbanded on 6 Mar 1947. 

Squadrons, gth: 1944-1945. 20th: 
1944-1945. 2^h: 1944-1945. 40th: 1944- 
1945. 

Stations. Peterson Field, Colo, i Oct 
1943; Gainesville AAFld, Tex, 26 Oct 
1943 — 12 Feb 1944; Bally, India, 31 Mar 
1944-7 Oct 1945; Camp Kilmer, NJ, 3-5 
Nov 1945. 

Commanders. Lt Col Paul A Zartman, 
I Oct 1943; Col Charles P HoUstein, 12 
Dec 1943; Col James W Anderson Jr, 24 
Jan 1945 ; Lt Col John R Gee, Oct 1945-c. 
5 Nov 1945. 

Campaigns. India-Burma; China De- 
fensive; Central Burma. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 



8th RECONNAISSANCE GROUP 9th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 



Constituted as 8th Photographic Recon- 
naissance Group on 15 Sep 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Oct 1943. Trained to provide 
photographic inteUigence for air and 
ground forces. Moved to India, Feb-Mar 
1944. Equipped with F-5, F-6, F-7, and 
P-40 aircraft. Conducted photographic- 
reconnaissance, photographic - mapping, 
and visual-reconnaissance missions. 
Produced maps, mosaics, terrain models, 
and target charts of areas in Burma, China, 



Authorized as 9th Group (Observation) 
on 19 Jul 1922. Organized on i Aug 1922. 
Redesignated 9th Bombardment Group in 
1935, 9th Bombardment Group (Medium) 
in 1939, and 9th Bombardment Group 
(Heavy) in 1940. Trained, took part in 
maneuvers, and participated in air shows, 
during the period 1922-1940. Equipped 
with B-io's and B-i8's in the late 1930's 
and early 1940's. Moved to Panama late 
in 1940 to serve as part of the defense force 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



49 




[ T tP t 1? j 

for the canal. Used B-17's for antisub- 
marine operations in the Caribbean. Re- 
turned to the US in 1942. Equipped with 
B-17, B-24, and B-26 aircraft. Trained 
cadres for bombardment units and tested 
equipment. 

Redesignated 9th Bombardment Group 
(Very Heavy) in Mar 1944. Prepared for 
combat with B-29's, Moved to the Pacific 
theater, Nov 1944-Feb 1945, and assigned 
to Twentieth AF. Commenced opera- 
tions late in Jan 1945 with attacks against 
Japanese-held Maug. After that, struck 
industrial targets in Japan, conducting the 
missions in daylight and at high altitude. 
Received a DUG for bombing the indus- 
trial area of Kawasaki in Apr 1945. Be- 
ginning in Mar 1945 the group carried 
out incendiary raids at night on area tar- 
gets in Japan. During Apr and May it 
assisted the Allied assault on Okinawa by 
hitting airfields that the Japanese were 
using to launch planes against the invasion 



force. Also conducted mining operations 
against Japanese shipping, receiving sec- 
ond DUC for such actions in the Inland 
Sea during May 1945. After the war, 
dropped food and supplies to Allied pris- 
oners and took part in show-of-force mis- 
sions over the Japanese home islands. 
Moved to the Philippines in Apr 1946 and 
to the Marianas in Jun 1947. Inactivated 
on Guam on 20 Oct 1948. 

Redesignated 9th Strategic Reconnais- 
sance Group. Activated in the US on i 
May 1949. Assigned to Strategic Air 
Command. Equipped primarily with 
B-29's although a few B-36's were as- 
signed during 1949-1950. Redesignated 
9th Bombardment Group (Heavy) in Apr 
1950, and 9th Bombardment Group (Me- 
dium) in Oct 1950. Inactivated on 16 
Jun 1952. 

Squadrons, ist: 1922-1923; 1929-1948; 
1949-1952. ^th: 1922-1923; 1929-1948; 
1949-1952. ggth: 1929-1948; 1949-1952. 
4S0th: 1943-1944. 

Stations. Mitchel Field, NY, i Aug 
1922-6 Nov 1940; Rio Hato, Panama, 12 
Nov 1940; Waller Field, Trinidad, 30 Oct 
1941; Orlando AB, Fla, 31 Oct 1942; Dal- 
hart AAFld, Tex, 9 Mar 1944; McCook 
AAFld, Neb, 19 May-i8 Nov 1944; North 
Field, Tinian, 28 Dec 1944; Clark Field, 
Luzon, 15 Apr 1946; Harmon Field, 
Guam, 9 Jun 1947-20 Oct 1948. Fairfield- 
Suisun AFB, Calif, i May 1949-16 Jun 
1952. 

Commanders. Unkn, 1922-1929; Maj 
William O Ryan, 1929-unkn; Col Follett 
Bradley, Jun 1933-May 1934; Col Walter 



50 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



H Frank, Aug 1934-1936; Lt Col Carl W 
Connell, i Sep 1936-unkn; Col Ross F 
Cole, Apr 1940 ; Maj Charles F Born, Aug 
1941-unkn; Lt Col Stuart P Wright, 1942; 
Lt Col Gerald E Williams, 1942; Col 
Harry G Montgomery, 10 Nov 1942; Col 
James T Connally, 15 Dec 1942; Col Don- 
ald W Eisenhart, i May 1944; Col Henry 
C Huglin, 6 Mar-Aug 1945; Col David 
Wade, Sep 1945-c. 25 Apr 1947; unkn, 
Apr 1947-20 Oct 1948. Lt Col Walter Y 
Lucas, I May 1949; Col Donald W Eisen- 
hart, 24 Aug 1949; Col William P. Brett, 
27 Mar 1950; Lt Col Walter Y Lucas, 24 
Jun 1950; Col Clifford J Heflin, 6 Jul 
1950-16 Jun 1952. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater; Air Offensive, Japan; Western 
Pacific. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Ci- 
tations: Kawasaki, Japan, 15/16 Apr 1945; 
Japan, 13-28 May 1945. 

Insigne. Shield: Per pale vert and sable 
a pallet wavy argent; over all on a fess or 
four crosses patee of the second (sable). 
Crest: On a wreath of the colors (argent 
and vert) a rattlesnake entwined about a 
prickly pear cactus all proper. Motto: 
SEMPER PARATUS— Always Ready. 
(Approved 20 Mar 1924.) 

9th RECONNAISSANCE GROUP 

Constituted as 9th Photographic Recon- 
naissance Group on 15 Sep 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Oct 1943. Assigned to Third 
AF. With -squadrons attached but none 
assigned, the group trained crews and 



units for photographic reconnaissance and 
combat mapping. Aircraft included B- 
17's, B-24's, F-4's, F-5's, F-7's, and A- 
2o's. Disbanded on 6 May 1944. 

Squadrons. (See narrative.) 

Stations. Will Rogers Field, Okla, i 
Oct 1943-6 May 1944. 

Commanders. Lt Col Paul A Zartman, 
II Nov 1943; Lt Col Hiette S Williams 
Jr, c. 5 Dec 1943-unkn. 

Campaigns. None. 

Decoration. None. 

Insigne. None. 

10th RECONNAISSANCE 
GROUP 




Constituted as 73d Observation Group 
on 21 Aug 1941. Activated on i Sep 1941. 
Engaged in training activities, participat- 
ing in the Tennessee Maneuvers in 1943. 
Redesignated 73d Reconnaissance Group 
in Apr 1943, 73d Tactical Reconnaissance 
Group in Aug 1943, and loth Photo- 
graphic Group (Reconnaissance) in Dec 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



51 



1943. Moved to the European theater, 
Jan-Feb 1944, for duty with Ninth AF. 
Used F-3, F-5, F-6, L-i, L-4, and L-5 
aircraft for operations, Feb 1944-May 1945. 
Photographed airfields, coastal defenses, 
and ports, and made bomb-damage assess- 
ment photographs of airfields, marshalling 
yards, bridges, and other targets, in prep- 
aration for the Normandy invasion; re- 
ceived a DUC for flying at low altitude to 
photograph the coast from Blankenberghe 
to Dunkirk and from Le Touquet to St- 
Vaast-Ia-Hougue, 6-20 May 1944. Sup- 
ported the invasion in Jun by making 
visual and photographic reconnaissance 
of bridges, artillery, road and railroad 
junctions, traffic centers, airfields, and 
other targets. Assisted the Allied drive 
toward the German border during the 
summer and early fall of 1944 by flying 
daylight and night photographic missions; 
also performed tactical reconnaissance for 
ground and air units, directing artillery 
to enemy positions and fighter-bombers 
to opportune targets. Aided Third Army 
and other Allied organizations in the bat- 
tle to breach the Siegfried Line, Sep-Dec 

1944. Participated in the Battle of the 
Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945, by flying recon- 
naissance missions in the combat zone. 
From Feb 1945 to V-E Day, assisted the 
advance of Third Army across the Rhine, 
to Czechoslovakia, and into Austria. Re- 
mained in Germany after the war as part 
of the army of occupation, being assigned 
to United States Air Forces in Europe. 
Redesignated loth Reconnaissance Group 
in Jun 1945. Transferred, without per- 



sonnel and equipment, to the US in Jun 
1947. Remanned and equipped with RF- 
51's. Redesignated loth Tactical Recon- 
naissance Group in Jun 1948. Inactivated 
on I Apr 1949. 

Activated in Germany on 10 Jul 1952. 
Assigned to United States Air Forces in 
Europe. Equipped with RB-26, RB-57, 
RF-80, and RF-84 aircraft. 

Squadrons, ist: 1945-1949; 1952-. 
i2th: 1941-1942, 1944-1946. 14th: 1943. 
i^th (formerly Observation): 1942-1943, 
1944-1945, 1947-1949. i$th (formerly 
Photographic): 1947. i6th: 1941-1942. 
22^; 1941-1942. ^oth'- 1944. ^ist: 1944- 
1945. S2d: 1952-. 33d: 1944. 34th: 
1944, 1945. 36th (formerly 28th): 1942- 
1943. 38th: 1952-. 3gth: 1945. 42d: 
1952-. gist: 1941-1942, 1942-1943. 
iiith: 1945. i^2d: 1943. i^^th (for- 
merly 423d, later 45th) : 1944-1945, 1945- 
1947. i6oth: 1945-1947. i62d: 1945. 

Stations. Harrisburg, Pa, i Sep 1941; 
Godman Field, Ky, c. 7 Nov 1941 ; Camp 
Campbell AAFld, Ky, c. 23 Jun 1943; Key 
Field, Miss, Nov 1943- Jan 1944; Chal- 
grove, England, Feb 1944; Rennes/St- 
Jacques, France, c. 11 Aug 1944; Chateau- 
dun, France, c. 24 Aug 1944; St-Dizier/ 
Robinson, France, Sep 1944; Conflans/ 
Doncourt, France, Nov 1944 ; Trier/Evren, 
Germany, Mar 1945; Ober Olm, Germany, 
c. 5 Apr 1945 ; Furth, Germany, c. 28 Apr 
1945; Furstenfeldbruck, Germany, Apr- 
Jun 1947; Langley Field, Va, 25 Jun 1947; 
Lawson Field, Ga, c. 8 Sep 1947; Pope 
Field, NC, c. 27 Sep 1947-1 Apr 1949. 
Furstenfeldbruck AB, Germany, 10 Jul 



52 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



1952; Toul/Rosiere AB, France, Nov 
1952; Spangdahlcm AB, Gerrtikny, May 

I953-- 

Commanders. Maj Edgar M Scatter- 
good Jr, I Sep 1941 ; Lt Col John C Ken- 
nedy, c. 6 Nov 1941 ; Capt Phillip H Hatch, 
c. 24 Jan 1942; Lt Col Robert M Lee, c. 9 
Feb 1942; Maj Burton L Austin, c. 26 Dec 
1942; Lt Col Bernard C Rose, c. 19 Jan 
1943; Lt Col Crawford H Hollidge, c. 28 
Jan 1943; Maj William A Daniel, c. 4 Aug 
1943; Col William B Reed, 9 Sep 1943; Col 
Russell A Berg, 20 Jun 1944-unkn; Lt 
Col W D Hayes Jr, 1945; Col Marvin S 
Zipp, II Jan 1946-19 Jun 1947; Lt Col 
James L Rose, i Oct 1947; Lt Col Harrison 
R Christy Jr, 16 Dec 1947; Lt Col Edward 
O McComas, 6 Jan 1948; Col William A 
Daniel, 26 Jan 1948-unkn. Lt Col Barnie 
B McEntirc Jr, 10 Jul 1952; Col Willie O 
Jackson Jr, Dec 1952; Lt Col Steven R 
Wilkerson, c. 22 Sep 1953; Col Howard J 
Withycombe, 23 Feb 1954; Col Arthur E 
Smith, 13 Jul 1954; Col Fred W Dyer, c, 
23 Jun 1955-. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Air 
Offensive, Europe; Normandy; Northern 
France; Rhineland; Ardennes- Alsace; 
Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: France, 6-20 May 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure a sphere or, 
latitude and longitude lines sable, in chief 
the head and arms of the Greek mythical 
god Argus, head facing base, arms f esswise 
both hands toward dexter of the second, 
outlined of the field. Motto: ARGUS— 



Ceaseless Watch. (Approved 29 Dec 
1942.) 

10th TROOP CARRIER GROUP 




Constituted on the inactive list as ist 
Transport Group on i Oct. 1933. Con- 
solidated with the loth Observation Group 
(which had been constituted on the inac- 
tive list on I Oct 1933), redesignated loth 
Transport Group, and activated, on 20 May 
1937. Trained with C-27's and C-33's. 
As part of the logistic organization, as- 
signed first to Office of Chief of the Air 
Corps and later ( 1941) to Air Service Com- 
mand, the group transported supplies, 
materiel, and personnel within the US. 
Assigned to Air Transport Command 
(later 1 Troop Carrier Command) in Apr 
1942. Redesignated loth Troop Carrier 
Group in Jul 1942. Converted to C-47's. 
Trained cadres for troop carrier groups 
and in 1943 was given the additional duty 
of training replacement crews. Disbanded 
on 14 Apr 1944. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VNITS— GROUPS 



53 



Squadrons, ist: 1937-1943. 2d: 1937- 

1943. 3d: 193^1940. 4th: 1937-1940. 
5th: 1937-1944. 2yth: 1942-1943, 1943- 

1944. s8th: 1942-1944. soyth: 1943- 
1944. 308th: 1943-1944. 

Stations. Patterson Field, Ohio, 20 May 
1937; Wright Field, Ohio, 20 Jun 1938; 
Patterson Field, Ohio, 17 Jan 194 1; Gen- 
eral Billy Mitchell Field, Wis, 25 May 
1942; Pope Field, NC, 4 Oct 1942; Dunnel- 
lon AAFld, Fla, 13 Feb 1943; Lawson 
Field, Ga, 30 Nov 1943; Grenada AAFld, 
Miss, 21 Jan 1944; Alliance AAFld, Neb, 8 
Mar-14 Apr 1944. 

Commanders. Maj Hugh A Bevins, 
May 1937; Capt Lyman Whitten, Jun 
1938; Maj Fred Borum, 1939; Capt Murray 
E Woodbury, Jan 1941 ; Capt Theodore Q 
Graff, 2 Sep 1941 ; Capt Maurice Beach, i 
Apr 1:942; Maj Loren Cornell, i Aug 1942; 
Maj Douglas M Swisher, 30 Aug 1942; Lt 
Col Boyd R Ertwine, 25 Oct 1942; Lt Col 
Erickson S Nichols, 28 Jan 1943; Lt Col 
Henry P King, 12 May 1943-14 Apr 1944. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, ten bendlets or 
surmounted by a torteau fimbriated of the 
second charged with a wheel winged bend 
sinisterwise of the like. Motto : ALATUM 
SERVITIUM— Winged Service. (Ap- 
proved 9 Dec 1941.) 

11th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as nth Observation Group 
in 1933. Redesignated nth Bombardment 
Group (Medium) in 1938. Activated in 




Hawaii on i Feb 1940. Redesignated i ith 
Bombardment Group (Heavy) in Nov 
1940. Assigned to Seventh AF in Feb 
1942. Trained with B-i8's; received 
B-17's for operations. Flew patrol and 
search missions off Hawaii after the Japa- 
nese attacked Pearl Harbor. Moved to the 
New Hebrides in Jul 1942. Became part 
of Thirteenth AF. Struck airfields, supply 
dumps, ships, docks, troop positions, and 
other objectives in the South Pacific, Jul- 
Nov 1942, and received a DUC for those 
operations. Continued operations, attack- 
ing Japanese airfields, installations, and 
shipping in the Solomons, until late in 
Mar 1943. Returned to Hawaii, reassigned 
to Seventh AF, and trained with B-24's. 
Resumed combat in Nov 1943 and par- 
ticipated in the Allied offensive through 
the Gilberts, Marshalls, and Marianas, 
while operating from Funafuti, Tarawa, 
and Kwajalein. Moved to Guam in Oct 
1944 and attacked shipping and airfields 
in the Volcano and Bonin Islands. Moved 
to Okinawa in Jul 1945 to take part in 



54 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



the final phases of the air offensive against 
Japan, bombing railways, airfields, and 
harbor facilities on Kyushu and striking 
airfields in China. After the war, flew 
reconnaissance and surveillance missions 
to China and ferried liberated prisoners of 
war from Okinawa to Luzon. Remained 
in the theater as part of Far East Air 
Forces but had no personnel assigned after 
mid-Dec 1945 when the group was trans- 
ferred to the Philippines. Redesignated 
nth Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) 
in Apr 1946. Transferred to Guam in May 
J946, remanned, and equipped with B-29's. 
Terminated training and operations in 
Oct 1946. Inactivated on Guam on 20 
Oct 1948. 

Redesignated nth Bombardment Group 
(Heavy). Activated in the US on i Dec 
1948. Assigned to Strategic Air Com- 
mand. Equipped with B-36 aircraft. 
Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952. 

Squadrons. 14th: 1940-194 1. 26th: 
1940-1948; 1948-1952. 42d: 1940-1948; 
1948-1952. gSth: 1941-1948; 1948-1952. 
4^ist: 1942-1946. 

Stations. Hickam Field, TH, i Feb 
1940; New Hebrides, Jul 1942; Hickam 
Field, TH, 8 Apr 1943; Funafuti, Nov 
1943; Tarawa, 20 Jan 1944; Kwajalein, 5 
Apr 1944; Guam, 25 Oct 1944; Okinawa, 
2 Jul 1945; Manila, Dec 1945; Guam, May 
1946-20 Oct 1948. Carswell AFB, Tex, i 
Dec 1948-16 Jun 1952. 

Commanders. Lt Col Walter F Kraus, 
Feb 1940; Lt Col St Clair Streett, 15 Jun 
1940; Lt Col Albert F Hegenberger, i Apr 
1941 ; Col LaVerne G Saunders, Mar 1942; 



Col Frank F Everest, Dec 1942; Col Wil- 
liam J. Holzapfel Jr, 26 Apr 1943; Col 
Russell L. Waldron, 7 Jul 1944; Col John 
J Morrow, Mar 1945-c. Dec 1945; Col 
Vincent M Miles Jr, 20 May 1946; Capt 
Thomas B Ragland Jr, Nov 1946; Capt 
Thomas B Hoxie, 27 Dec 1947-20 Oct 
1948. Maj Russell F Ireland, Dec 1948; 
Lt Col Harry E Goldsworthy, 11 Jan 1949; 
Col Richard H Carmichael, May 1949; 
Col Bertram C Harrison, 4 Mar 1950 ; Col 
Thomas P Gerrity, 3 Apr 1950-16 Jun 
1952. 

Campaigns. Central Pacific; Air Of- 
fensive, Japan; Guadalcanal; Northern 
Solomons; Eastern Mandates; Western 
Pacific; Ryukyus; China Offensive. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: South Pacific, 31 Jul-30 Nov 1942. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure (Air Force 
blue), on a bend or (Air Force yellow), 
three grey geese volant proper (in their 
natural colors). Crest: On a wreath or 
and azure a grey goose proper with wings 
displayed and inverted. Motto: PRO- 
GRESSIO SINE TIMORE AUT 
PRAEJUDICIO— Progress without Fear 
or Prejudice. (Approved 11 Jun 1941.) 

11th PHOTOGRAPHIC GROUP 

Constituted as i ith Photographic Group 
(Mapping) on 19 Nov 1943. Activated on 
I Dec 1943. Engaged in photographic 
mapping in the US and sent detachments 
to carry out similar operations in Africa, 
the CBI theater, the Near and Middle 
East, Mexico, Canada, Alaska, and the 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VNirS— GROUPS 



55 



Caribbean. Used B-17, B-24, B-25, 
B-29, F-2, F-9, F-io, and A-20 aircraft. 
Disbanded on 5 Oct 1944. 

Squadrons, ist: 1943-1944. ^d: 1943- 
1944. igth: 1943-1944. 

Stations. Reading AAFld, Pa, i Dec 
1943; MacDill Field, Fla, Jan-5 C^t 1944. 

Commanders. Lt Col Thomas D 
Brown, 8 Jan-5 Oct 1944. 

Campaigns. None. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

12th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 12th Bombardment 
Group (Light) on 20 Nov 1940. Acti- 
vated on 15 Jan 1941. Trained with B-18, 
B-23, and PT-17 aircraft. Patrolled the 
west coast after the Japanese attack on 
Pearl Harbor. Redesignated 12th Bom- 
bardment Group (Medium) in Dec 1941. 
Using B-25's, began training early in 1942 
for duty overseas. Moved to the Middle 
East, Jul-Aug 1942, and assigned to Ninth 



AF. Attacked storage areas, motor trans- 
ports, troop concentrations, airdromes, 
bridges, shipping, marshalling yards, and 
other targets in Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, 
Pantelleria, Lampedusa, Crete, Sicily, and 
Italy, Aug 1942-Jan 1944. Supported the 
Allied drive from Egypt to Tunisia, Oct 
1942-Apr 1943. Early in 1943 two squad- 
rons operated with Twelfth AF, assisting 
Allied forces moving eastward across 
North Africa, while the other squadrons 
continued operations with Ninth AF, 
bombing enemy defenses along the 
Mareth Line. Received a DUC for action 
against the enemy in North Africa and 
Sicily from Oct 1942 to Aug 1943. While 
attached to Twelfth AF, Jun-Aug 1943, 
the group operated from bases in Tunisia 
and Sicily against targets in Pantelleria, 
Lampedusa, Sicily, and Italy. Assigned to 
Twelfth AF in Aug 1943 and operated 
primarily against targets in Italy until Jan 
1944. Flew some missions to Albania and 
Yugoslavia. 

Moved to India, Feb-Apr 1944, and 
assigned to Tenth AF. Engaged chiefly 
in missions against the enemy in Burma, 
Apr 1944-May 1945. Bombed communi- 
cations, military installations, and other 
objectives. Delivered ammunition to 
Allied forces at Imphal. Also attacked 
some targets in China. Began training 
with A-26 aircraft in the summer of 1945. 
Returned to the US, Dec 1945-Jan 1946. 
Inactivated on 22 Jan 1946. 

Redesignated 12th Bombardment Group 
(Light). Activated oni<)yi3.y 1%^]. Not 



56 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



manned during 1947-1948. lnactiv0ted 
on 10 Sep 1948. 

Redesignated 12th Fighter-Escort 
Group. Activated on i Nov 1950. As- 
signed to Strategic Air Command. 
Trained with F-84's. Inactivated on 16 
Jun 1952. 

Squadrons. 8ist: 1941-1946; 1947-1948. 
82d: 1941-1946; 1947-1948. 8^d: 1941- 
1946; 1947-1948. 4^4th (formerly 94th) : 
1941-1942, 1942- 1946. 559^A." 1950-1952. 
$6oth: 1950-1952. $61 St: 1950-1952. 

Stations. McChord Field, Wash, 15 
Jan 1941; Esler Field, La, c. 21 Feb-3 Jul 
1942; Deversoir, Egypt, c. 31 Jul 1942; 
Egypt and Libya, Oct 1942; Medenine, 
Tunisia, 3 Apr 1943; Sfax, Tunisia, c. 15 
Apr 1943; Hergla, Tunisia, 2 Jun 1943; 
Ponte Olivo, Sicily, c. 2 Aug 1943; Ger- 
bini, Sicily, c. 22 Aug 1943; Foggia, Italy, 
c. 2 Nov 1943; Gaudo Airfield, Italy, 19 
Jan-6 Feb 1944; Tezgaon, India, c. 21 Mar 
1944; Pandaveswar, India, 13 Jun 1944; 
Fenny, India, 16 Jul 1944; Pandaveswar, 
India, 8 Jun 1945; Karachi, India, 15 Nov- 
24 Dec 1945; Ft Lawton, Wash, 21-22 Jan 
1946. Langley Field, Va, 19 May 1947- 
10 Sep 1948. Turner AFB, Ga, i Nov 
1950; Bergstrom AFB, Tex, Dec 1950-16 
Jun 1952. 

Commanders. Unkn, Jan-May 194 1; 
Col Charles G Goodrich, 6 May 1941; 
Col Edward N Backus, 16 Sep 1942; Lt 
Col William W Wilcox, 21 Sep 1943; Col 
Lloyd H Dalton Jr, c. 29 Sep 1944; Lt Col 
Samuel C Galbreath, 4 Sep 1945; Lt Col 
Lewis B Wilson, 23 Sep 1945-22 Jan 1946. 
Capt H Carney, Nov 1950; Col Charles 



A Gayle, 20 Nov 1950; Col Cy Wilson, 
Feb 195 1 ; Col Charles A Gayle, Apr-16 
Jun 1952. 

Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME Thea- 
ter; Egypt-Libya; Tunisia; Sicily; Naples- 
Foggia; Rome-Arno; India-Burma; China 
Defensive; Central Burma. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: North Africa and Sicily, Oct 1942- 
17 Aug 1943. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a sword point 
to base or, hilt flamant proper; a bordure 
gyronny of twelve of the second and the 
first. Motto: SPIRITUS OMNIA VIN- 
CET — The Spirit Conquers All. (Ap- 
proved 3 Feb 1942.) 

13th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 13th Bombardment 
Group (Medium) on 20 Nov 1940. Acti- 
vated on 15 Jan 1941. After the US en- 
tered the war the group searched for 
enemy U-boats and covered friendly con- 
voys off the east coast of the US. Served 
with First AF and later with AAF Anti- 




AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



57 



submarine Command, using B-18, B-25, 
and A-29 aircraft for operations. Inacti- 
vated on 30 Nov 1942. 

Squadrons, ^d Antisubmarine (for- 
merly 39th Bombardment): 1941-1942. 
4th Antisubmarine (formerly 40th Bom- 
bardment): 1941-1942. 5M Antisubma- 
rine (formerly 41st Bombardment) : 1941- 
1942. 6th Antisubmarine (formerly 393d 
Bombardment): 1942. 

Stations. Langley Field, Va, 15 Jan 
1941; Orlando, Fla, c. 6 Jun 1941; West- 
over Field, Mass, 20 Jan-30 Nov 1942. 

Commanders. Brig Gen Westside T 
Larson, 21 Jan 1941; Col Walter G Bryte 
Jr, c. 4 Mar 1942 ; Col John G Fowler, c. 2 
May-c. Nov 1942. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Per bend azure and or, 
a sword point to base with wings displayed 
and inverted argent, that portion to base 
fimbriated of the first. Motto: ALERT 
DAY OR NIGHT. (Approved 2 Jan 
1942.) 

14th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 14th Pursuit Group 
(Fighter) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 
15 Jan 1941. Trained with P-40's and 
P-43's. Converted to P-38's, which were 
used in flying patrols on the west coast of 
the US after the Japanese attack on Pearl 
Harbor. Redesignated 14th Fighter 
Group in May 1942. Moved to England, 
Jul-Aug 1942. Began operations with 




Eighth AF in Oct 1942, escorting bombers 
to targets in France. Arrived in North 
Africa shortly after the campaign for 
Algeria and French Morocco (8-11 Nov 
1942) had ended, and remained in the 
Mediterranean theater until the end of the 
war, being assigned first to Twelfth AF 
and later (Nov 1943) to Fifteenth. 
Flew escort, strafing, and reconnaissance 
missions from the middle of Nov 1942 
to late in Jan 1943 and then withdrew 
from combat, some of the men and 
planes being reassigned. Resumed op- 
erations in May. Flew dive-bombing 
missions during the Allied assault on Pan- 
telleria. Helped prepare for and support 
the invasions of Sicily and Italy. Engaged 
primarily in escort work after Nov 1943, 
flying many missions to cover bombers en- 
gaged in long-range operations against 
strategic objectives in Italy, France, Ger- 
many, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, 
Yugoslavia, Rumania, and Bulgaria. Re- 
ceived a DUC for a mission on 2 Apr 1944 
when the group, by beating off attacks by 
enemy fighters, enabled bombers to strike 



58 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



important ball-bearing works in Austria. 
Also provided escort for reconnaissance 
operations, supported the invasion of 
Southern France in Aug 1944, and on 
numerous occasions Aew long-range mis- 
sions to strafe and dive-bomb motor 
vehicles, trains, bridges, supply areas, air- 
dromes, and troop concentrations in an 
area extending from France to the Bal- 
kans. Inactivated in Italy on 9 Sep 1945. 

Activated in the US on 20 Nov 1946. 
Equipped first with P-47's and later with 
F-84's. Inactivated on 2 Oct 1949. 

Redesignated 14th Fighter Group (Air 
Defense). Activated oni^ Pi.\xgig$'$. As- 
signed to Air Defense Command and 
equipped with F-86 aircraft. 

Squadrons, ^jth: 1943-1945; 1946- 
1949; 1955-. 48th: 1941-1945- 1946-1949. 
4gth: 1941-1945; 1946-1949. $oth: 1941- 
1942. 

Stations. Hamilton Field, Calif, 15 Jan 
1941; March Field, Calif, c. 10 Jun 1941; 
Hamilton Field, CaUf, 7 Feb-i6 Jul 1942; 
Atcham, England, 18 Aug-Nov 1942; 
Tafaraoui, Algeria, 15 Nov 1942; Maison 
Blanche, Algeria, 18 Nov 1942; Youks-les- 
Bains, Algeria, 22 Nov 1942; Berteaux, Al- 
geria, 9 Jan 1943; Mediouna, French Mo- 
rocco, 5 Mar 1943; Telergma, Algeria, 5 
May 1943; El Bathan, Tunisia„3 Jun 1943; 
Ste-Marie-du-Zit, Tunisia, 25 Jul -1943; 
Triolo Airfield, Italy, 12 Dec 1943; Lesina, 
Italy, Sep-9 Sep 1945. Dow Field, Maine, 
20 Nov 1946-2 Oct 1949. Ethan Allen 
AFB, Vt, 18 Aug 1955-. 

CoMMANDERs. ist Lt Troy Keith, 15 
Jan 1941 ; Col Thayer S Olds, 18 Apr 1941 ; 



Lt Col Troy Keith, 28 Jan 1943; Col Oliver 
B Taylor, 26 Sep 1943; Col Daniel S 
Campbell, 18 Jul 1944; Col Thomas B 
Whitehouse, Mar 1945-unkn. Lt Col 
Lewis W Chick Jr, 24 Dec 1946; Col Lor- 
ing F Stetson Jr, 7 Jan 1948; Col George A 
McHenry, Jul 1949; Lt Col Arvie E Olson 
Jr, Aug 1949-unkn. Col Harry L Down- 
ing, 1955-. 

Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME 
Theater; Air Offensive, Europe; Tunisia; 
Sicily; Naples-Foggia ; Rome-Arno; Nor- 
mandy; Northern France; Southern 
France; North Apennines; Rhineland; 
Central Europe; Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Ci- 
tation: Austria, 2 Apr 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Per bend argent and 
sable. Motto: TO FIGHT TO DEATH. 
(Approved 17 Jun 1942.) 

15th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 15th Pursuit Group 
(Fighter) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated in 
Hawaii on i Dec 1940. Redesignated 15th 




AIR FORCE COMBAT VNITS— GROUPS 



59 



Pursuit Group (Interceptor) in Feb 1942, 
and 15th Fighter Group in May 1942. 
Served as part of the defense force for the 
Hawaiian Islands, using A-12, OA-9, 
B-12, P-36, P-39, and P-40 aircraft. The 
Japanese attack on Hawaii on 7 Dec 1941 
caused numerous casualties in the group 
and destroyed many of its aircraft; never- 
theless, during the raid several of the 
group's pilots succeeded in taking off and 
in destroying some enemy planes, includ- 
ing four shot down by Lt George Welch 
and two credited to Lt Kenneth M Taylor. 
Afterward the group, which was re- 
manned, reorganized, and assigned to 
Seventh AF, remained part of the Ha- 
waiian defense system. Sent squadrons 
(including some that had been attached) 
to the Central or South Pacific at various 
times for operations against the Japanese. 
Began training in Apr 1944 for very-long- 
range escort missions. Obtained P-51 air- 
craft late in 1944. Moved to Iwo Jima in 
Feb 1945. Supported the invasion force 
on Iwo early in Mar by bombing and 
strafing trenches, cave entrances, troop 
concentrations, and storage areas. Began 
strikes against enemy airfields, shipping, 
and military installations in the Bonin 
Islands by the middle of Mar. Flew its 
first mission to Japan on 7 Apr 1945, re- 
ceiving a DUG for escorting B-29's that 
bombed the Nakajima aircraft plant near 
Tokyo. Struck Japanese airfields on 
Kyushu late in Apr and early in May 1945 
to curtail the enemy's suicide attacks 
against the invasion force at Okinawa. 
Also hit enemy troop trains, small fac- 



tories, gun positions, and hangars in the 
Bonins and Japan. Assigned to Twenti- 
eth AF during the summer of 1945. Con- 
tinued its fighter sweeps against Japanese 
airfields and other targets, and flew long- 
range escort missions to Japanese cities 
until the end of the war. Transferred, 
without personnel and equipment, in Nov 
1945 to Hawaii, where the group was re- 
manned and re-equipped. Inactivated on 
15 Oct 1946. 

Redesignated 15th Fighter Group (Air 
Defense). Activated in the US on 18 Aug 
1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command. 

Squadrons. 6th: 1943-1944. 12th: 
1942. i8th: 1943-1944. 4ph: 1940-1946. 
46th: 1940-1944. 47th: 194CH1946; 1955-. 
j8th: 1943-1946. 

Stations. Wheeler Field, TH, i Dec 
1940; Bellows Field, TH, 3 Jun 1944-5 
Feb 1945; South Field, Iwo Jima, 6 Mar 
1945; Bellows Field, TH, 25 Nov 1945; 
Wheeler Field, TH, 9 Feb-15 Oct 1946. 
Niagara Falls Mun Aprt, NY, 18 Aug 

I955-- 

Commanders. Maj Clyde K Rich, i Dec 
1940; Maj Lorry N Tindal, 6 Dec 1940; 
Lt Col Paul W Blanchard, 20 Sep 1941 ; Lt 
Col William S Steele, 12 Feb 1942; Lt Col 
Sherwood E Buckland, 5 Mar 1943; Col 
James O Beckwith Jr, 27 Sep 1943; Lt Col 
DeWitt S Spain, 16 Apr 1945; Lt Col 
Julian E Thomas, 17 May 1945; Col John 
W Mitchell, 21 Jul 1945; Col William 
Eades, c. Nov 1945; Col Oswald W Lunde, 
25 Nov 1945-15 Oct 1946. Col Stanley E 
Matthews, 1955-. 



60 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Campaigns. Central Pacific; Air Of- 
fensive, Japan. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Japan, 7 Apr 1945. 

Insigne. Shield: Or, on a bend azure, 
two (2) terrestrial lightning flashes issuant 
from base of the first, over all a gunsight 
counterchanged. Motto: PROSEQUOR 
ALIS — I Pursue with Wings. (Approved 
5 Oct 1942.) 

16th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as i6th Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy) on 28 Mar 1944. 
Activated on i Apr 1944. Trained for 
combat with B-29's. Moved to Guam, 
Mar-Apr 1945, and assigned to Twentieth 
AF. Entered combat on 16 Jun 1945 with 
a bombing raid against an airfield on 
Moen. Flew first mission against the 
Japanese home islands on 26 Jun 1945 and 
afterwards operated principally against 
the enemy's petroleum industry. Flying 
unescorted in the face of severe enemy at- 
tack, the i6th bombed the oil refinery at 
Shimotsu, the Mitsubishi refinery and oil 
installations at Kawasaki, and the coal 
liquefaction plants at Ube, Jul-Aug 1945, 
and was awarded a DUC for the missions. 
After the war the group dropped food and 
supplies to Allied prisoners of war in 
Japan, Manchuria, and Korea, and partici- 
pated in several show-of-force missions 
over Japan. Inactivated on Guam on 15 
Apr 1946. 

Squadrons, i^th: 1944-1946. i6th: 
1944-1946. ijth: 1944-1946. 21 St: 1944. 



Stations Dalhart AAFld, Tex, i Apr 
1944; Fairmont AAFld, Neb, 15 Aug 
1944-7 Mar 1945; Northwest Field, Guam, 
14 Apr 1945-15 Apr 1946. 

Commanders. Unkn, Apr- Jun 1944; 
Capt William W Hosier Jr, 24 Jun 1944; 
Maj Richard W Lavin, i Jul 1944; Col 
Samuel C Gurney Jr, 11 Jul 1944; Lt Col 
Andre F Castellotti, 11 Jul 1945-1946. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Japan; 
Eastern Mandates; Western Pacific. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Japan, 29 Jul-6 Aug 1945. 

Insigne. None. 

16th FIGHTER GROUP 

Authorized on the inactive list as i6th 
Pursuit Group on 24 Mar 1923. Acti- 
vated in the Panama Canal Zone on i Dec 
1932. Served as a part of the defense force 
for the canal. Used various types of air- 
craft, including P-12's, P-26's, P-36's, and 

^- — 









C:^fc::>C'«&.r.Si8 




AIR FORCE COMBAT VNITS— GROUPS 



61 



P-39's, prior to World War II ; equipped 
with P-40's in 1941. Redesignated i6th 
Pursuit Group (Interceptor) in 1939, and 
i6th Fighter Group in 1942. Disbanded 
in the Canal Zone on i Nov 1943. 
Squadrons. 2^h: 1932-1943. 2gih: 

1933-1943- 43d: 1940-1943- 44^ft: 1938- 
1939. 74th: 1934-1938. ySih: 1932-1937. 

Stations. Albrook Field, CZ, i Dec 
1932-1 Nov 1943. 

Commanders. Unkn, 1 932-1933; Maj 
Robert L Walsh, c. 2 Sep 1933-c. 14 Aug 
1935; Lt Col Willis H Hale, c. 11 Jul 
1938-c. 8 Aug 1939; Maj Arthur L Bump, 
c. 1939-C. Feb 1941 ; Capt Roger J Browne, 
24 Feb 1941 ; Lt Col Otto P Weyland, 20 
May 1941 ; Lt Col Philip B Klein, 10 Apr 
1942; Lt Col Hiette S Williams Jr, Sep 
1942; Maj James K Johnson, 1943; Maj 
Erwin Bishop Jr, 25 Sep 1943-unkn. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, four lightning 
flashes bendwise or. Crest: On a wreath 
of the colors (or and azure) a portcullis 
or. Motto: PURGAMUS COELUM— 
We Clear the Skies. (Approved 4 Dec 
1934- ) 

17th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Authorized as 17th Observation Group 
on 18 Oct 1927. Redesignated 17th Pur- 
suit Group in 1929. Activated on 15 Jul 
1931. Redesignated 17th Attack Group 
in 1935, and 17th Bombardment Group 
(Medium) in 1939. Trained and par- 
ticipated in maneuvers, using P-12 and 






■^ouRs m v>ixf>^ 



P-26 (1931-1932), A-17 (1933-1939). and 
B-18 (1940-1941) aircraft. Used B-25's 
for patrol duty on the west coast after the 
Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, and later 
patrolled the Gulf of Mexico and the At- 
lantic coast. Converted to B-26's in the 
summer of 1942. 

Moved to North Africa late in 1942 and 
began operations on 30 Dec. Served in 
combat in the Mediterranean theater until 
the end of the war, being assigned first to 
Twelfth AF, then to Fifteenth (Nov 
1943), and again to Twelfth (Jan 1944). 
Flew interdictory and close-support mis- 
sions, bombing bridges, rail lines, mar- 
shalling yards, harbors, shipping, gun em- 
placements, troop concentrations, and 
other targets. Helped to bring about the 
defeat of Axis forces in North Africa in 
May 1943 ; assisted in the reduction of Pan- 
telleria and Lampedusa in Jun 1943; par- 
ticipated in the invasions of Sicily in Jul 
and of Italy in Sep 1943; and took part in 



62 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



the drive toward Rome, receiving a DUG 
for a bombing attack on airdromes at 
Rome on 13 Jan 1944. Also received the 
French Croix de Guerre with Palm for 
operations in Italy, Apr-Jun 1944. Took 
part in the invasion of Southern France 
in Aug 1944, and continued bombardment 
operations in northern Italy, France, and 
later in Germany. Received second DUG 
for bombing attacks on enemy defenses 
near Schweinfurt on 10 Apr 1945. As- 
sisted in the disarmament of Germany aft- 
er V-E Day. Returned to the US in Nov. 
Inactivated on 26 Nov 1945. 

Redesignated 17th Bombardment Group 
(Light). Activated on igM-iy xg^y. Ap- 
parently did not become operative. In- 
activated on 10 Sep 1948. 

Activated in Korea on 10 May 1952. 
Assigned to Far East Air Forces and 
equipped with B-26's for service in the 
Korean War. Engaged in interdiction 
and provided close support for UN ground 
forces until the armistice in Jul 1953. 
Moved to Japan in Oct 1954; returned to 
the US, Mar-Apr 1955. Assigned to Tac- 
tical Air Gommand and equipped with 
B-57 aircraft. Redesignated 17th Bom- 
bardment Group (Tactical) in Oct 1955. 

Squadrons. ^4th: 1931-1945; 1947- 
1948; 1952-. 37th: 1931-1945; 1947-1948; 
1952-- 73d- 1947-1948; 1952-. gph: 
1931-1945; 1947-1948; 1952-. 432d: 1942- 
1945. 

Stations. March Field, Galif, 15 Jul 
1931 ; McGhord Field, Wash, 24 Jun 1940; 
Pendleton, Ore, 29 Jun 1941; Lexington 
County Aprt, SC, 9 Feb 1942; Barksdale 



Field, La, 23 Jun-Nov 1942; Telergma, 
Algeria, Dec 1942; Sedrata, Algeria, c. 10 
May 1943 ; Djedeida, Tunisia, 23 Jun 1943 ; 
Sardinia, Nov 1943; Corsica, c. 14 Sep 
1944; Dijon, France, c. 20 Nov 1944; Hor- 
sching, Austria, Jun 1945; Clastres, France, 
c. 3 Oct-Nov 1945; Camp Myles Standish, 
Mass, Nov-26 Nov 1945. Langley Field, 
Va, 19 May 1947-10 Sep 1948. Pusan, 
Korea, 10 May 1952; Miho, Japan, 10 Oct 
1954-16 Mar 1955; Eglin AF Aux Field 
No 9, Apr 1955-. 

CoMMANDERs. Capt Frank O'D Hun- 
ter, 1931-unkn; Lt Col Walter R Peck, 
Mar 1941; Lt Col William C Mills, Feb 
1942; Lt Col Flint Garrison, 16 Jun 1942; 
Lt Col Curtis D Sluman, 26 Jun 1942; Lt 
Col Karl E Baumeister, 11 Mar 1943; Lt 
Col Charles R Greening, 25 May 1943 ; Lt 
Col Robert A Zaiser, 18 Jul 1943; Col 
Donald L Gilbert, 14 Oct 1943; Col R O 
Harrell, 21 Jul 1944; Col Wallace C Bar- 
rett, 20 Mar 1945; Lt Col Stanford W 
Gregory, i Jun 1945-unkn. Unkn, 1947- 
1948. Col James D Kemp, 10 May 1952; 
Col William C Lindley Jr, 11 Jul 1952; 
Col Robert E Keating, 14 Feb 1953; Col 
Gordon D Timmons, 8 Apr 1953; Col 
George D Hughes, 1954; Col Norton W 
Sanders, 1954-. 

Campaigns. World War II: Antisub- 
marine, American Theater; Air Combat, 
EAME Theater; Tunisia; Sicily; Naples- 
Foggia; Anzio; Rome-Arno; Southern 
France; North Apennines; Rhineland; 
Central Europe. Korean War: Korea 
Summer-Fall, 1952; Third Korean Win- 
ter; Korea Summer-Fall, 1953. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VNITS— GROUPS 



63 



Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Italy, 13 Jan 1944; Schweinfurt, Ger- 
many, 10 Apr 1945; Korea, i Dec 1952-30 
Apr 1953. French Croix de Guerre with 
Palm: Apr, May, and Jun 1944. Republic 
of Korea Presidential Unit Citation: 24 
May 1952-31 Mar 1953. 

Insigne. Shield: Or, seven crosses pat- 
tee in pale sable. Crest: On a wreath of the 
colors (or and sable) a griffin rampant of 
the first, beaked, fore-legged and winged 
of the second, and langued gules. Motto: 
TOUJOURS AU DANGER— Ever Into 
Danger. (Approved 19 Jan 1934.) 

18th FIGHTER GROUP 

Organized as i8th Pursuit Group in Ha- 
waii in Jan 1927. Redesignated i8th Pur- 
suit Group (Interceptor) in 1939, and i8th 
Fighter Group in 1942. Before World 
War II the group engaged in routine fly- 
ing and gunnery training and participated 




in joint Army-Navy maneuvers, using 
DH-4, PW-9, P-12, P-26, P-36, and other 
aircraft. When the Japanese attacked 
Pearl Harbor on 7 Dec 1941, the group, 
which had recently converted to P-40's, 
sustained severe losses. The two planes 
that its pilots were able to get into the air 
during the attack were quickly shot down. 
The group, assigned to Seventh AF in Feb 
1942, had to be re-equipped before it could 
resume training and begin patrol missions. 
Moved to the South Pacific in Mar 1943. 
Assigned to Thirteenth AF. Began op- 
erations from Guadalcanal. Flew protec- 
tive patrols over US bases in the Solomons ; 
later, escorted bombers to the Bismarcks, 
supported ground forces on Bougainville, 
and attacked enemy airfields and installa- 
tions in the northern Solomons and New 
Britain. Used P-38, P-39, P-61, and P-70 
aircraft. Moved to New Guinea in Aug 
1944. Equipped with P-38's. Escorted 
bombers to targets in the southern Philip- 
pines and Borneo, and attacked enemy 
airfields and installations in the Nether- 
lands Indies. Received a DUC for actions 
at Ormoc Bay: on lo Nov 1944 the group 
withstood intense flak and vigorous oppo- 
sition from enemy interceptors to attack a 
Japanese convoy that was attempting to 
bring in additional troops for use against 
American forces that had landed on Leyte; 
on the following day a few of the group's 
planes returned to the same area, engaged 
a large force of enemy fighters, and de- 
stroyed a number of them. Moved to 
the Philippines in Jan 1945. Supported 
ground forces on Luzon and Borneo, at- 



64 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



tacked shipping in the central PhiUppines, 
covered landings on Palawan, attacked 
airfields and railways on Formosa, and 
escorted bombers to such widely-scattered 
targets as Borneo, French Indochina, and 
Formosa. 

Remained in the Philippines as part of 
Far East Air Forces after the war. Flew 
patrols and trained with F-8o's. Lost all 
personnel in Mar 1947 but was remanned 
in Sep 1947. Equipped first with F-47's, 
later with F-51's, and still later (1949) 
with F-80's. Redesignated i8th Fighter- 
Bomber Group in Jan 1950. 

Moved to Korea in Jul 1950 and entered 
combat, using F-51's. Supported UN 
ground forces and attacked enemy instal- 
lations and supply lines. Maj Louis J 
Sebille was posthumously awarded the 
Medal of Honor for his action on 5 Aug 
1950: although his plane was badly dam- 
aged by flak while attacking a concentra- 
tion of enemy trucks, Maj Sebille con- 
tinued his strafing passes until he crashed 
into an armored vehicle. The group con- 
verted to F-86's early in 1953 and remained 
in Korea for some time after the war. 
Moved to Okinawa in Nov 1954. 

Squadrons. 6th: 1927-1943. 12th: 
1943-. igth: 1927-1943. 2^th: 1931-1932. 
44th: 1941-1942, 1943-. ^ph: 1931. 
6ph: 1945-. 68th: 1945-. 70th: 1943-1945, 
73d: 1929-1931, 1941-1942. 74th: 1929- 
1932. jSth: 1940-1943. 333d: 1942-1943. 
419th: 1943-1944. 

Stations. Wheeler Field, TH, Jan 1927 ; 
Espiritu Santo, 11 Mar 1943; Guadalcanal, 
17 Apr 1943; Sansapor, New Guinea, 23 



Aug 1944; Lingayen, Luzon, c. 13 Jan 
1945; San Jose, Mindoro, c. i Mar 1945; 
Zamboanga, Mindanao, 4 May 1945; Pala- 
wan, 10 Nov 1945; Floridablanca, Luzon, 
Mar 1946; Clark Field, Luzon, 16 Sep 
1947; Taegu, Korea, 28 Jul 1950; Ashiya, 
Japan, 8 Aug 1950; Tongnae, Korea, 8 
Sep 1950; Pyongyang, Korea, c. 21 Nov 
1950; Suwon, Korea, i Dec 1950; Chinhae, 
Korea, 9 Dec 1950; Hoengsong, Korea, 26 
Dec 1952; Osan-Ni, Korea, 11 Jan 1953; 
Kadena AB, Okinawa, i Nov 1954-. 

Commanders. Unkn, 1927-1940; Maj 
Kenneth M Walker, 22 Mar 1940; Maj 
William R Morgan, 1941 ; Lt Col Aaron W 
Tyer, Dec 1941; Lt Col W H Councill, 10 
Dec 1943; Col Milton B Adams, 8 Jul 1944; 
Col Harry L Donicht, 24 May 1945; Lt Col 
Bill Harris, i Aug 1945; Lt Col Wilbur J 
Grumbles, 18 Oct 1945-unkn; Col Victor 
R Haugen, 1946; Col Homer A Boushey, 
7 Aug 1946-Mar 1947; Maj Kenneth M 
Taylor, 16 Sep 1947; Lt Col Joseph J Kru- 
zel, I Oct 1947; Col Marion Malcolm, 3 
Sep 1948; Lt Col Henry H Norman Jr, 24 
Jul 1949; Col Ira L Wintermute, 16 Jun 
1950; Lt Col Homer M Cox, 20 Feb 1951; 
Col William P McBride, May 1951; Col 
Ralph H Saltsman Jr, 5 Jun 1951 ; Col Sey- 
mour M Levenson, 30 Nov 1951 ; Col Shel- 
don S Brinson, 17 May 1952; Lt Col Albert 
J Freund Jr, 25 Nov 1952; Col Maurice L 
Martin, 24 Jan 1953; Lt Col Edward L 
Rathbun, 17 Dec 1953; Col John H Buck- 
ner, i Feb 1954; Lt Col Edward L Rath- 
bun, 24 May 1954; Lt Col Clifford P Pat- 
ton, 17 Aug 1954; Col Nathan J Adams, 
7 Sep 1954; Col John B Murphy, i Nov 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



65 



1954; Lt Col Clifford P Patton, 10 Nov 
1954; Col Paul E Hoeper, i Jan 1955; Lt 
Col Joseph E Andres, 22 Jul 1955; Col Leo 
C Moon, 21 Nov 1955-. 

Campaigns. World War II: Central 
Pacific; China Defensive; New^ Guinea; 
Northern Solomons; Bismarck Archi- 
pelago; Western Pacific; Leyte; Luzon; 
Southern Philippines. Korean War: UN 
Defensive; UN Offensive; CCF Interven- 
tion; ist UN Counteroffensive; CCF 
Spring Offensive; UN Summer-Fall Of- 
fensive; Second Korean Winter; Korea 
Summer-Fall, 1952; Third Korean Win- 
ter; Korea Summer-Fall, 1953. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Philippine Islands, lo-ii Nov 1944; 
Korea, 3 Nov 1950-24 Jan 1951 ; Korea, 22 
Apr-8 Jul 1951. Philippine Presidential 
Unit Citation. Republic of Korea Presi- 
dential Unit Citations: 24 Jul 1950-31 Jan 
1951; I Feb 1951-31 Mar 1953. 

Insigne. Shield: Or, a fighting cock 
with wings displayed sable wattled and 
combed gules. Crest: On a wreath or and 
sable two wings conjoined and displayed 
tenne (orange). MoUo: UNGUIBUS ET 
ROSTRO— With Talons and Beak. (Ap- 
proved 21 Feb 1931.) 

19th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Authorized as 19th Observation Group 
on 18 Oct 1927. Redesignated 19th Bom- 
bardment Group in 1929. Activated on 
24 Jun 1932. Redesignated 19th Bom- 
bardment Group (Heavy) in 1939. 
Equipped first with B-io's, later with 




B-i8's,and still later (in 1941) with B-17's. 
Moved to the Philippine Islands, Sep-Nov 
1941. 

On 7 Dec 194 1 (8 Dec in the Philip- 
pines), when the Japanese first attacked 
Clark Field, the group suffered numerous 
casualties and lost many planes. The 
93d squadron, however, was on maneuvers 
at Del Monte and therefore missed the 
attack. Sjupplies and headquarters were 
hastily moved from Clark Field to com- 
paratively safe points nearby, and planes 
that had not been too heavily damaged 
were given emergency repairs and dis- 
patched to Del Monte. There the 19th 
began reconnaissance and bombardment 
operations against Japanese shipping and 
landing parties. Sustaining heavy losses, 
the group ceased these actions after about 
two weeks, and the ground personnel 
joined infantry units in fighting the in- 
vaders. Some of the men were evacuated, 



66 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



some escaped, but most were either killed 
or captured. 

Meanwhile, late in Dec 1941 the air 
echelon moved to Australia to transport 
medical and other supplies to the Philip- 
pine Islands and evacuate personnel from 
that area. The men in Australia moved 
to Java at the end of 1941 and, flying B-17, 
LB-30, and B-24 aircraft, earned a DUG 
for the group by attacking enemy aircraft, 
ground installations, warships, and trans- 
ports during the Japanese drive through 
the Philippines and Netherlands Indies 
early in 1942. The men returned to Aus- 
tralia from Java early in Mar 1942, and 
later that month the group evacuated 
Gen Douglas MacArthur, his family, and 
key members of his staff from the Philip- 
pines to Australia. After a brief rest the 
group resumed combat operations, par- 
ticipating in the Battle of the Coral Sea 
and raiding Japanese transportation, com- 
munications, and ground forces during the 
enemy's invasion of Papua. From 7 to 12 
Aug 1942 the 19th bombed airdromes, 
ground installations, and shipping near 
Rabaul, New Britain, being awarded 
another DUG for these missions. Gapt 
Harl Pease Jr was posthumously awarded 
the Medal of Honor for his actions during 
6-7 Aug 1942: when one engine of his 
bomber failed during a mission over New 
Britain, Gapt Pease returned to Australia 
to obtain another plane; unable to find 
one fit for combat, he selected the most 
serviceable plane at the base and rejoined 
his squadron for an attack on a Japanese 
airdrome near Rabaul; by skillful flying 



he maintained his position in the forma- 
tion and withstood enemy attacks until his 
bombs had been released on the objective ; 
in the air battle that continued after the 
bombers left the target, Gapt Pease's air- 
craft fell behind the formation and was 
lost. The group returned to the US late 
in 1942 and served as a replacement train- 
ing unit. Inactivated on i Apr 1944. 

Redesignated 19th Bombardment Group 
(Very Heavy). Activated on i Apr 1944. 
Trained for combat with B-29's. Moved 
to Guam, Dec 1944-Feb 1945, for duty 
with Twentieth AF. Entered combat on 
12 Feb 1945 with an attack against a Japa- 
nese airfield on Rota. Flew its first mis- 
sion against the Japanese home islands by 
striking Tokyo on 25 Feb 1945. Gon- 
ducted daylight raids against strategic ob- 
jectives, bombing aircraft factories, chemi- 
cal plants, oil refineries, and other targets 
in Japan. Participated in incendiary 
operations, receiving one DUG for its low- 
altitude attacks on the urban industrial 
areas of Tokyo, Nagoya, Kobe, and Osaka, 
in Mar 1945, and another DUG for strik- 
ing the industrial section of Kobe on 5 
Jun. Struck airfields from which the 
enemy was launching kamikaze planes 
against the invasion force at Okinawa, 
Apr-May 1945. Dropped supplies to Al- 
lied prisoners and took part in show-of- 
force missions over Japan after the war. 
Remained overseas as part of Far East Air 
Forces. Trained, participated in sea- 
search operations, and flew photographic- 
mapping missions. Redesignated 19th 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



67 



Bombardment Group (Medium) in Aug 
1948. 

On 28 Jun 1950 the group flew its first 
mission against the North Korean forces 
that had invaded the Repubhc of Korea. 
It moved to Okinawa early in Jul 1950 and 
continued operations against the enemy 
until 1953. Targets included troops, sup- 
ply dumps, airfields, steel mills, hydro- 
electric plants, and light metal industries. 
Inactivated on Okinawa on r Jun 1953. 

Squadrons, i^h: 1941-1942. 2^d: 
1935-1938- 25M; 1941-1944; 1944-1953. 
30th: 1932-1944; 1944-1953. 32i; 1932- 
1941. 76th: 1932-1936. 93^; 1939-1944; 
1944-1953. 4^ph: (formerly 40th) : 1941- 
1944. 

Stations. Rockwell Field, Calif, 24 Jun 
1932; March Field, Calif, 25 Oct 1935; 
Albuquerque, NM, 7 Jul-29 Sep 194 1; 
Clark Field, Luzon, 23 Oct 1941 ; Batche- 
lor, Australia, 24 Dec 1941 ; Singosari, Java, 
30 Dec 1 941; Melbourne, Australia, 2 Mar 
1942; Garbutt Field, Australia, 18 Apr 
1942; Longreach, Australia, 18 May 1942; 
Mareeba, Australia, 24 Jul-23 Oct 1942; 
Pocatello, Idaho, 9 Dec 1942; Pyote AAB, 
Tex, I Jan 1943-1 Apr 1944. Great Bend 
AAFld, Kan, i Apr-7 Dec 1944; North 
Field, Guam, 16 Jan 1945; Kadena, Oki- 
nawa, 5 Jul 1950-1 Jun 1953. 

Commanders. Lt Col Harold M Mc- 
Clelland, c. 24 Jun 1932-1934; Col Harvey 
S Burwell, 1939; Col Eugene L Eubank, 2 
Apr 1940; Maj David R Gibbs, 10 Dec 
1941 ; Maj Emmett O'Donnell Jr, 12 Dec 
1941; Lt Col Cecil E Combs, Jan 1942; Lt 
Col Kenneth B Hobson, 14 Mar 1942; Lt 



Col James T Connally, 15 Apr 1942; Lt 
Col Richard N Carmichael, 10 Jul 1942; 
Lt Col Felix M Hardison, i Jan 1943; Lt 
Col Elbert Helton, 13 Feb 1943; Col Louie 
P Turner, 5 May 1943; Lt Col Frank P 
Sturdivant, 27 Jan 1944; Col Bernard T 
Castor, II Feb-i Apr 1944. Maj Joseph 
H Selliken, 28 Apr 1944; Col John G Fow- 
ler, 20 May 1944; Lt Col John C Wilson, 

29 May 1944; Lt Col Philip L Mathewson, 

30 Jun 1944; Col John A Roberts Jr, 16 Jul 
1944; Lt Col George T Chadwell, Sep 
1945; Col Vincent M Miles Jr, i Mar 1946; 
Col Elbert D Reynolds, 13 Apr 1946; Col 
David Wade, 26 Apr 1947; Col Francis C 
Shoemaker, 8 Nov 1947; Col Robert V 
DeShazo, 2 Dec 1947; Lt Col Clarence G 
Poflf, 1949; Col Theodore Q Graff, 17 Sep 
1949; Col Payne Jennings, 26 Sep 1950; 
Col Donald O Tower, 29 Mar 1951; Col 
Adam K Breckenridge, 26 Jul 1951; Col 
Julian M Bleyer, 6 Feb 1952; Col Willard 
W Smith, 8 Jul 1952; Col Harvey C Dor- 
ney, 24 Dec 1952-1 Jun 1953. 

Campaigns. World War II: American 
Theater; Philippine Islands; East Indies; 
Air Offensive, Japan; Papua; Guadal- 
canal; Western Pacific. Korean War: 
UN Defensive; UN Offensive; CCF In- 
tervention ; ist UN Counteroffensive; CCF 
Spring Offensive; UN Summer-Fall Of- 
fensive; Second Korean Winter; Korea 
Summer-Fall, 1952; Third Korean Win- 
ter ; Korea Summer-Fall, 1953. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Philippine Islands, 7 Dec 1941-10 
May 1942; Philippine Islands, 8-22 Dec 
1941; Philippine Islands and Netherlands 



68 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Indies, i Jan-i Mar 1942; Philippine 
Islands, 6 Jan-8 Mar 1942; Papua, 23 Jul- 
[Oct 1942] ; New Britain, 7-12 Aug 1942; 
Japan, 9-19 Mar 1945; Kobe, Japan, 5 Jun 
1945; Korea, 28 Jun-15 Sep 1950. Philip- 
pine Presidential Unit Citation. Repub- 
lic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation: 
7 Jul i950-[i953]. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, within the 
square of the constellation of Pegasus, a 
winged sword, point to base, all or. Crest: 
On a wreath of the colors (or and azure) 
an osprey guardant, rising, wings elevated 
and addorsed proper. Motto: IN ALIS 
VINCIMUS— On Wings We Conquer. 
(Approved 19 Oct 1936.) 

20th FIGHTER GROUP 

Authorized on the inactive list as 20th 
Balloon Group on 18 Oct 1927. Redesig- 
nated 20th Pursuit Group in 1929. Acti- 
vated on 15 Nov 1930. Redesignated 20th 




ory by 1^ 



Pursuit Group (Fighter) in 1939, 20th 
Pursuit Group (Interceptor) in 1941, and 
20th Fighter Group in 1942. Equipped 
successively with P-12, P-26, and P-36 
aircraft prior to World War II; used P- 
39's and P-40's during the early part of 
the war; converted to P-38's in Jan 1943. 
Traifted, participated in maneuvers and 
tactical exercises, and took part in aerial 
reviews and demonstrations during the 
period 1930-1939. Provided personnel for 
and helped to train new units during 
1940-1941. Served as an air defense or- 
ganization after the Japanese attack on 
Pearl Harbor. Began intensive training 
late in 1942 for combat duty overseas. 

Moved to England in Aug 1943 and be- 
came part of Eighth AF. Entered combat 
with P-38's late in Dec 1943 and for sev- 
eral months was engaged primarily in 
escorting heavy and medium bombers to 
targets on the Continent. Frequently 
strafed targets of opportunity while on 
escort missions. Retained escort as its 
primary function until the end of the war, 
but in Mar 1944 began to fly fighter-bom- 
ber missions, which became almost as fre- 
quent as escort operations. Strafed and 
dive-bombed airfields, trains, vehicles, 
barges, tugs, bridges, flak positions, gun 
emplacements, barracks, radio stations, 
and other targets in France, Belgium, and 
Germany. Became known as the "Loco 
Group" because of its numerous and suc- 
cessful attacks on locomotives. Received 
a DUC for performance on 8 Apr 1944 
when the group struck airfields in central 
Germany and then, after breaking up an 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROt/PS 



69 



attack by enemy interceptors, proceeded 
to hit railroad equipment, oil facilities, 
power plants, factories, and other targets. 
Flew patrols over the Channel during the 
invasion of Normandy in Jun 1944. Sup- 
ported the invasion force later that month 
by escorting bombers that struck inter- 
dictory targets in France, Belgium, and 
Holland, and by attacking troops, trans- 
portation targets, and airifields. Converted 
to P-51's in Jul 1944 and continued to fly 
escort and fighter-bomber missions as the 
enemy retreated across France to the Sieg- 
fried Line. Participated in the airborne 
attack on Holland in Sep 1944. Escorted 
bombers to Germany and struck rail lines, 
trains, vehicles, barges, power stations, and 
other targets in and beyond the Siegfried 
Line during the period Oct-Dec 1944. 
Took part in the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 
1944-Jan 1945, by escorting bombers to 
the battle area. Flew patrols to support 
the airborne attack across the Rhine, Mar 
1945. Carried out escort and fighter- 
bomber missions as enemy resistance col- 
lapsed in Apr 1945. Returned to the US 
in Oct. Inactivated on 18 Oct 1945. 

Activated on 29 Jul 1946. Equipped 
first with P-51's and later with F-84's. 
Redesignated 20th Fighter-Bomber Group 
in Jan 1950. Moved to England in 1952 
and became part of the United States Air 
Forces in Europe. Inactivated in England 
on 8 Feb 1955. 

Squadrons. 24th: 1930-1932. $$th: 
1930-1931, 1932-1945; 1946-1955. y4th: 
1932. jjth: 1930-1932, 1932-1945; 1946- 



1955. 7.8th: 1931-1932. jgth: 1933-1945; 
1946-1955. 87th: 1935-1936. 

Stations. Mather Field, Calif, 15 Nov 
1930; Barksdale Field, La, Oct 1932; Mof- 
fett Field, Calif, Nov 1939; Hamilton 
Field, Calif, Sep 1940; Wilmington, NC, 
c. 2 Feb. 1942; Morris Field, NC, Apr 
1942; Paine Field, Wash, Sep 1942; March 
Field, Calif, Jan-c. 11 Aug 1943; Kings 
Cliff e, England, c. 26 Aug 1943-c. 11 Oct 
1945; Camp Kilmer, NJ, c. 16-18 Oct 1945. 
Biggs Field, Tex, 29 Jul 1946; Shaw Field, 
SC, Oct 1946; Langley AFB, Va, Nov 
1951-May 1952; Wethersfield, England, c. 

1 Jun 1952-8 Feb 1955. 

Commanders. Maj Clarence L Tinker, 
c. 15 Nov 1930; Capt Thomas Boland, 
c. 14 Oct 1932; Lt Col Millard F Harmon, 
c. 31 Oct 1932-unkn; Maj Armin F 
Herold, c. 7 Oct 1936-unkn ; Lt Col Ross G 
Hoyt, 1937; Col Ira C Eaker, c. 16 Jan 
1941 ; Maj Jesse Auton, c. 1 Sep 1941 ; Maj 
Homer A Boushey, Jan 1942; Lt Col Ed- 
ward W Anderson, c. 9 Mar 1942; Lt Col 
Jesse Auton, Aug 1942-unkn; Col Barton 
M Russell, 1943; Lt Col Mark E Hubbard, 

2 Mar 1944; Maj Herbert E Johnson Jr, 
19 Mar 1944; Lt Col Harold J Rau, 20 
Mar 1944; Lt Col Cy Wilson, Jun 1944; 
Col Harold J Rau, 27 Aug 1944; Col Rob- 
ert P Montgomery, 18 Dec 1944; Maj Jack 
C Price, 3 Oct 1945-unkn. Col Joseph L 
Laughlin, 29 Jul 1946; Col Archie J 
Knight, c. 24 Feb 1947; Col William J 
Cummings, 31 Jul 1947; Col George R 
Bickell, Aug 1948-unkn; Col John A 
Dunning, 1949; Lt Col Jack R Brown, c. 



70 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



22 Oct 1951; Col William D Ritchie, 29 
Apr 1952-unkn. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Air 
Offensive, Europe; Normandy; Northern 
France; Rhineland; Ardennes-Alsace; 
Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Central Germany, 8 Apr 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Per fess azure and 
gules, a fess nebule or. Crest: On a 
wreath of the colors (or and azure) a sun 
in splendor proper radiating from the cen- 
ter thereof thirteen darts gules. Motto: 
VICTORY BY VALOR. (Approved 18 
Dec 1934.) 

21st BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 21st Bombardment 
Group (Medium) on 13 Jan 1942. Acti- 
vated on I Feb 1942. Began training with 
B-25's; later converted to B-26's. Served 
as an operational training unit in Third 
AF; also flew some antisubmarine patrols 
over the Gulf of Mexico. Disbanded on 
10 Oct 1943. 

Squadrons, p^th: 1942-1943. 314th: 
1942-1943. 315th: 1942-1943. 3g8th: 
1942-1943. 




Stations. Bowman Field, Ky, i Feb 
1942; Jackson AAB, Miss, 8 Feb 1942; 
Columbia AAB, SC, 21 Apr 1942; Key 
Field, Miss, 24 May 1942; MacDill Field, 
Fla, 27 Jun 1942-10 Oct 1943. 

Commanders. Col Robert D Knapp, 9 
Feb 1942; Col William L Lee, 26 Apr 
1942; Lt Col John F Batjer, 13 Aug 1942; 
Col Carl R Storrie, 5 Oct 1942; Col Guy 
L McNeil, 7 Nov 1942; Col Don Z Zim- 
merman, 19 Apr 1943; Lt Col L F Brown- 
field, 6 June 1943; Col Richard T Coiner 
Jr, 6 Jul-io Oct 1943. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Per fess nebule azure 
and or, three drop bombs, two and one, 
counterchanged. Motto: ALIS ET AN- 
IMO— With Wings and Courage. (Ap- 
proved 26 Nov 1942.) 

21st FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 21st Fighter Group on 
31 Mar 1944. Activated in Hawaii on 21 
Apr 1944. Assigned to Seventh AF and 
served as part of the defense force for the 
Hawaiian Islands. Equipped first with 
P-39, later with P-38, and still later (Jan 
1945) with P-51 aircraft. Moved to Iwo 
Jima, Feb-Mar 1945. Sustained some 
casualties when Japanese troops attacked 
the group's camp on the night of 26/27 
Mar 1945, but flew first combat mission the 
following day, bombing and strafing air- 
fields on Haha Jima. Flew its first mission 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



71 




to Japan on 7 Apr, being awarded a DUG 
for escorting B-29's that struck the heavily- 
defended Nakajima aircraft factory near 
Tokyo. Operations from Iwo Jima in- 
cluded attacking airfields that the enemy 
was using to launch suicide planes against 
the Allied forces on Okinawa; striking 
enemy barracks, airfields, and shipping in 
the Bonins and Japan; and escorting B-29's 
that bombed Japanese cities. Assigned to 
Twentieth AF during the summer of 
1945. Trained, participated in aerial re- 
views, and served as a part of the defense 
force for Iwo Jima, Saipan, and Guam 
after the war. Re-equipped with P-47's 
during the summer of 1946. Inactivated 
on Guam on 10 Oct 1946. 

Redesignated 21st Fighter-Bomber 
Group. Activated in the US on i Jan 
1953. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. 
Equipped for a few months with F-51's, 
later with F-86's. Moved to France, Nov- 
Dec 1954, and assigned to United States Air 
Forces in Europe. 



Squadrons. 46th: 1944-1946. 72^: 
1944-1946; 1953-. 416th: 1953-. 55/xA- 
1944-1946; 1953-. 

Stations. Wheeler Field, TH, 21 Apr 
1944; Mokuleia Field, TH, 13 Oct 1944-9 
Feb 1945; Central Field, Iwo Jima, 26 Mar 
1945; South Field, Iwo Jima, 16 Jul 1945; 
Isley Field, Saipan, Dec 1945; Northwest 
Field, Guam, 17 Apr-io Oct 1946. George 
AFB, Calif, i Jan 1953-26 Nov 1954; 
Chambley AB, France, 13 Dec 1954-. 

CoMMANDERS. Col Kenneth R Powell, 
21 Apr 1944; Col Charles E Taylor, 14 Jun 
1945; Lt Col Charles E Parsons, 15 Oct 
1945; Col William Fades, 25 Nov 1945; 
Col Lester S Harris, Feb-io Oct 1946. 
Col Paul P Douglas Jr, i Jan 1953; Col 
Verl D Luehring, 26 Apr 1954; Col R C 
Frankhn Jr, 27 Apr 1955; Lt Col Ira M 
Sussky, 6 May 1955; Col R C Franklin Jr, 
I Aug 1955-. 
Campaigns. Air Offensive, Japan. 
Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Japan, 7 Apr 1945. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a broad sword 
argent, shaded silver, hilt and pommel or, 
shaded yellow, outlined of the field, be- 
tween four red lightning streaks proper, 
two and two, bendwise. Motto: FORTI- 
TUDO ET PREPARATIO— Strength 
and Preparedness. (Approved 23 Jul 

1957- ) 

22d BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 22d Bombardment 
Group (Medium) on 22 Dec 1939. Acti- 
vated on I Feb 1940. Trained with B-18 



72 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 




and B-26 aircraft, and used the latter to fly 
antisubmarine patrols off the west coast, 
Dec 1941-Jan 1942. Moved to the South- 
west Pacific early in 1942, became part of 
Fifth AF, and served in combat in that area 
until V-J Day. Attacked enemy shipping, 
installations, and airfields in New Guinea 
and New Britain and supported ground 
forces in New Guinea, using B-26's until 
Oct 1943 when B-25's were added. Con- 
tinued to support the Allied offensive in 
New Guinea, striking troop concentra- 
tions, installations, and shipping, being 
awarded a DUG for knocking out enemy 
entrenchments (5 Nov 1943) that were 
preventmg the' advance of Australian 
ground forces. Redesignated 22d Bom- 
bardment Group (Heavy) in Feb 1944. 
Equipped with B-24's, bombed Japanese 
airfields, shipping, and oil installations in 
Borneo, Ceram, and Halmahera. Began 
attacking the southern Philippines in Sep 
1944 to neutralize Japanese bases in pre- 



paration for the invasion of Leyte. From 
Dec 1944 to Aug 1945, struck airfields and 
installations on Luzon, supported Aus- 
tralian ground forces on Borneo, and 
bombed railways and industries in For- 
mosa and China. Moved to Okinawa in 
Aug 1945 and flew some armed recon- 
naissance missions over southern Japan. 

Remained in the theater after the war 
as part of Far East Air Forces. Transfer- 
red, without personnel and equipment, to 
the Philippines in Nov 1945. Redesig- 
nated 22d Bombardment Group (Very 
Heavy) in Apr 1946. Transferred to 
Okinawa in May 1946, remanned in Jun, 
and equipped with B-29's. Moved to the 
US in May 1948. Assigned to Strategic 
Air Command. Redesignated 116. Bom- 
bardment Group (Medium) in Jul 1948. 
Moved temporarily to Okinawa in Jul 
1950 and attached to Far East Air Forces 
for duty in the Korean War. Began com- 
bat immediately, and until Oct 1950 at- 
tacked marshalling yards, bridges, high- 
ways, airfields, and industries and 
supported UN ground forces in Korea. 
Returned to the US, Oct-Nov 1950. In- 
activated on 16 Jun 1952. 

Squadrons. 2d: 1940-1952. igth: 1940- 
1952. jj<i; 1940-1952. 408th: 1942-1952. 

Stations. Mitchel Field, NY, i Feb 
1940; Langley Field, Va, 14 Nov 1940; 
Muroc, Calif, c. 9 Dec 1941-31 Jan 1942; 
Brisbane, Australia, 25 Feb 1942; Ipswich, 
Australia, 7 Mar 1942; Townsville, Aus- 
tralia, 7 Apr 1942; Woodstock, Australia, 
5 Jul 1942; Iron Range, Australia, 29 Sep 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UmTS— GROUPS 



73 



1942; Woodstock, Australia, 4 Feb 1943; 
Dobodura, New Guinea, Oct 1943; Nad- 
zab. New Guinea, Jan 1944; Owi, Schouten 
Islands, 17 Aug 1944; Leyte, 15 Nov 1944; 
Angaur, 26 Nov 1944; Samar, 21 Jan 1945; 
Clark Field, Luzon, Mar 1945; Okinawa, 
15 Aug 1945; Luzon, Nov 1945; Okinawa, 
15 May 1946-May 1948; Smoky Hill AFB, 
Kan, May 1948; March AFB, Calif, May 
1949-16 Jun 1952. 

Commanders. Lt Col Ross F Cole, Feb 
1940; Lt Col John L Moore, 1940; Maj 
Lewis M Merrick, 20 Feb 194 1 ; Maj Mark 
L Lewis Jr, Oct 1941; Lt Col Millard L 
Haskin, 10 Dec 1941; Lt Col Dwight D 
Divine II, 19 May 1942; Lt Col George R 
Anderson, Mar 1943; Lt Col Roger E 
Phelan, Jun 1943; Col Richard W Robin- 
son, c. Feb 1944; Col Leonard T Nichol- 
son, 21 Jan 1945; Lt Col James E Sweeney, 
24 Sep 1945; Lt Col Charles W Johnson, 
7 Oct 1945; Maj John E Pryor, c. 17 Oct 
1945-unkn; Col Joseph F Carroll, Jun 
1946; Lt Col Alvin J H Mueller, Jan 1947; 
Col Francis L Rivard, Oct 1947; Col Wal- 
ter E Arnold, 19 Dec 1947; Lt Col Paul L 
Barton, 7 Jun 1948; Capt William L 
Lemme, 29 Jun 1948; Maj John W Swan- 
son, 3 Jul 1948; Lt Col Payne Jennings Jr, 
7 Jul 1948; Col James V Edmundson, 19 
Aug 1949; Col John B Henry Jr, Mar-i6 
Jun 1952. 

Campaigns. World War II: Antisub- 
marine, American Theater; East Indies; 
Air Offensive, Japan; China Defensive; 
Papua; New Guinea; Bismarck Archi- 
pelago; Western Pacific; Leyte; Luzon; 



China Offensive. Korean War: UN De- 
fensive; UN Offensive. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Ci- 
tations: Papua, 23 Jul 1942-23 Jan 1943; 
New Guinea, 5 Nov 1943. Philippine 
Presidential Unit Citation. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a cougar's left 
gamb erased palewise claws to base or 
armed gules. Motto: DUCEMUS— We 
Lead. (Approved 19 Jun 1941.) 

23d FIGHTER GtlOUP 




Constituted as 23d Pursuit Group (In- 
terceptor) on 17 Dec 1941. Redesignated 
23d Fighter Group in May 1942. Acti- 
vated in China on 4 Jul 1942. Chennault's 
American Volunteer Group supplied ex- 
perienced pilots and a name — "Flying 
Tigers." Using P-40's and later P-51's, the 
23d group provided air defense for the 
Chinese terminus of the Hump route from 
India; conducted a counter-air campaign 
to whittle down Japanese air strength by 



74 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



destroying enemy planes in the air and on 
the ground ; strafed and bombed Japanese 
forces, installations, and transportation; 
escorted bombers ; and flew reconnaissance 
missions. It intercepted Japanese planes 
that attempted to bomb Allied airfields; 
attacked Japanese airdromes; strafed and 
bombed river craft, troop concentrations, 
supply depots, and railroads; and pro- 
tected bombers that attacked Hong Kong, 
Canton, Shanghai, and other targets. Its 
area of operations extended beyond China 
to Burma, French Indochina, and For- 
mosa. The "Flying Tigers" operated 
against the Japanese during the enemy's 
drive toward Changsha and Chungking 
in May 1943, supported Chinese forces 
during the Japanese offensive in the 
Tungting Hu region in Nov 1943, and took 
part in the effort to halt a Japanese force 
that pushed down the Hsiang Valley in 
Jun 1944. In the latter battle the group, 
despite bad weather and heavy flak, re- 
peatedly struck boats, trucks, aircraft, 
troops, and other objectives, receiving a 
DUC for its operations. The 23d helped 
to turn the enemy's offensive in the spring 
of 1945 and then harassed the retreating 
Japanese by strafing and bombing their 
columns. Remained in China until Dec 
1945. Moved to the US. Inactivated on 
5 Jan 1946. 

Activated on 10 Oct 1946 on Guam. 
Assigned to Far East Air Forces and 
equipped with P-47 aircraft. Moved to 
the Panama Canal Zone in Apr 1949. In- 
activated on 24 Sep 1949. 



Redesignated 23d Fighter-Interceptor 
Group. Activated in the US on 12 Jan 
1951. Assigned to Air Defense Command 
and equipped with F-86's. Inactivated on 
6 Feb 1952. 

Redesignated 23d Fighter Group (Air 
Defense). Activated on 18 Aug 1955. 
Assigned to Air Defense Command. 
Equipped with F-89 aircraft. 

Squadrons i6th: 1942-1943. j^th: 
1942-1946; 1946-1949; 1951-1952. j^th: 
1942-1946; 1946-1949; 1951-1952; 1955-. 
j6th: 1942-1946; 1946-1949; 1955-. /32^; 
1951. i^^th: 1951. 

Stations. Kunming, China, 4 Jul 1942; 
Kweilin, China, c. Sep 1943; Liuchow, 
China, 8 Sep 1944; Luliang, China, 14 Sep 
1944; Liuchow, China, Aug 1945; Hang- 
chow, China, c. 10 Oct-12 Dec 1945; Ft 
Lewis, Wash 3-5 Jan 1946. Guam, 10 Oct 
1946; Howard AFB, CZ, 25 Apr-24 Sep 
1949. Presque Isle AFB, Maine, 12 Jan 
1951-6 Feb 1952. Presque Isle AFB, 
Maine, 18 Aug 1955-. 

CoMMANDERs. Col Robert L Scott Jr, 
4 Jul 1942; Lt Col Bruce K Holloway, 9 
Jan 1943; Lt Col Norval C Bonawitz, 16 
Sep 1943; Col David L Hill, 4 Nov 1943; 
Lt Col Philip C Loofbourrow, 15 Oct 1944; 
Col Edward F Rector, 12 Dec 1944-c. Dec 
1945. Col Lester S Harris, 10 Oct 1946; 
Maj Leonard S Dysinger, i Nov 1947; Lt 
Col Hadley V Saehlenou, Nov 1947-unkn ; 
Col Louis R Hughes Jr, i Sep 1948-unkn. 
Unkn, Jan-Jul 195 1; Col Norval K Heath, 
c. Jul 1951-6 Feb 1952. Col Frank Q 
O'Connor, 1955; Lt Col Frank J Keller, 
Dec 1955-. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



75 



Campaigns. India-Burma; China De- 
fensive; Western Pacific; China Offensive. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Hunan Province, China, 17-25 Jun 
1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, over a bolt of 
hghtning, in pale, or, a Flying Tiger 
proper, tongue red, winged argent; all out- 
lines black; a diminutive border silver- 
grey. (Approved 24 Jan 1957.) 

24th PURSUIT GROUP 

Constituted as 24th Pursuit Group (In- 
terceptor) on 16 Aug 1941. Activated in 
the Philippine Islands on i Oct 1941. Aug- 
mented by two attached squadrons (21st 
and 34th) and equipped with P-35 and 
P-40 aircraft, this group comprised the en- 
tire pursuit force in the Philippines in Dec 
194 1. When enemy aircraft were reported 
to be approaching Luzon on the morning 
of 8 Dec (7 Dec in the US), the 24th group 
attempted to intercept but failed because 
radar and visual sighting facilities were 
inadequate. Later that day, after the 
group's planes either had landed for re- 
fueling or had run so low on fuel that they 
could not fight, the Japanese attacked and 
inflicted heavy losses on the organization. 
In the days that followed, the group's 
strength declined rapidly, but the 24th flew 
some patrol and reconnaissance missions, 
engaged the enemy in the air, and attacked 
enemy airfields and shipping. By late in 
Dec the ground personnel were absorbed 
by infantry units and some pilots were 
evacuated to Australia. One of these pilots 



was Lt Boyd D "Buzz" Wagner, who al- 
ready had become the first AAF ace of 
World War II. The remaining pilots con- 
tinued operations in the Philippines with 
the few planes that were left. Eventually 
all of the men, except the few who had 
gone to Australia, were either killed or 
captured by the enemy. Although not re- 
manned, the group was carried on the list 
of active organizations until after the war. 
Inactivated on 2 Apr 1946. 

Squadrons, ^d: 1941-1946. ijth: 1941- 
1946. 20th: 1941-1946. 

Stations. Clark Field, Luzon, i Oct 
1941 ; Mariveles, Luzon, c. i Jan-May 1942. 

Commanders. Col Orrin L Grover, i 
Oct 1941-Apr 1942. 

Campaigns. Philippine Islands. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Philippines, 7 Dec 1941-10 May 
1942; Philippines, 8-22 Dec 1941; Philip- 
pines, 6 Jan-8 Mar 1942. Philippine Presi- 
dential Unit Citation. 

Insigne. None. 

25th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 25th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 22 Dec 1939. Acti- 
vated on I Feb 1940. Trained with A-17's 
and B-i8's. Moved to the Caribbean late 
in 1940. Redesignated 25th Bombardment 
Group (Medium) in May 1942. Flew 
antisubmarine patrols, escorted convoys, 
and served as part of the defense force of 
the area. Aircraft; B-i8's (1940-1942), 
A-2o's (1942-1943), and B-25's (1943- 
1944). Returned to the US early in 1944, 



76 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 




assigned to Second AF, and equipped with 
B-17's. Disbanded on 20 Jun 1944. 

Squadrons. loth: 1940-1943. 12th: 
1940-1944. ^$th: 1940-1944. ^^h: 1943- 
1944. 4iph: 1942-1944. 

Stations. Langley Field, Va, i Feb-26 
Oct 1940; Borinquen Field, PR, i Nov 
1940; Edinburgh Field, Trinidad, i Nov 
1942; Ft Amsterdam, Curacao, i Aug 1943; 
Borinquen Field, PR, 5 Oct 1943-24 Mar 
1944; Alamogordo AAFld, NM, 6 Apr- 
20 Jun 1944. 

Commanders. Maj Theodore J Koenig, 
I Feb 1940; Maj William B Sousa, unkn; 
Lt Col Caleb V Haynes, 7 Jan 1941; Maj 
Alva L Harvey, i Jun 1941; Maj Neil B 
Harding, 10 Sep 1941 ; Maj Jasper N Bell, 
unkn; Lt Col Robert Alan, unkn; Maj 
Mathew J McKeever Jr, unkn; Maj Milton 
E Lipps, unkn; Maj Howard A Cheney, 
unkn; Col Charles F Born, 1942; Maj John 
J Mullen, unkn; Col Kenneth O Sanborn, 
I Aug 1943-7 Apr 1944; unkn, Apr-Jun 
1944. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater. 



Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, issuing out of 
sinister side an arm embowed grasping a 
trident bend sinisterwise prongs to base or, 
on and over the junction of the shaft and 
prongs a compass rose of the first on a 
background of the second. Motto: 
GUARD WITH POWER. (Approved 
3 Oct 1940.) 

25th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 
(RECONNAISSANCE) 

Constituted as 25th Bombardment 
Group (Reconnaissance) on 17 Jul 1944. 
Activated in England on 9 Aug 1944. 
Served with Eighth AF until V-E Day. 
Used various aircraft, including B-17's 
B-24's, B-25's, B-26's, P-38's, and L-5's. 
Operations included reconnaissance over 
the waters adjacent to the British Isles and 
occasionally to the Azores to obtain mete- 
orological data; flights over the Continent 
for weather information needed in plan- 
ning operations; night photographic mis- 
sions to detect enemy activity; and day- 
light photographic and mapping missions 
over the Continent. Occasionally engaged 
in scout missions to target areas for last- 
minute weather information that was fur- 
nished to approaching bomber formations, 
on-the-scene visual evaluation of bombard- 
ment strikes, and electronic-countermeas- 
ure missions in which chaff was spread 
to confuse enemy defenses during Allied 
attacks. Moved to the US, Jul-Aug 1945. 
Inactivated on 8 Sep 1945. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



77 



Squadrons. 652^; 1944-1945, S^^d: 
1944-1945, 6s4th: 1944-1945- 

Stations. Watton, England, 9 Aug 
1944-23 Jul 1945; Drew Field, Fla, Aug- 
8 Sep 1945. 

Commanders. Lt Col Joseph A Sten- 
glein, 9 Aug 1944; Col Leon W Gray, 23 
Sep 1944; Lt Col John R Hoover, 14 Apr 
.1945; Maj Ernest H Patterson, 19 Jun 
1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. Northern France; Rhine- 
land; Ardennes- Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 



26th RECONNAISSANCE 
GROUP 

Constituted as 26th Observation Group 
on 21 Aug 1941. Activated on i Sep 1941. 
Assigned to First and later to Third AF. 
Redesignated 26th Reconnaissance Group 
in Apr 1943, and 26th Tactical Reconnais- 
sance Group in Aug 1943. Participated 
in the Carolina Maneuvers in the fall of 




1941; flew antisubmarine patrols oil the 
east coast after the US entered the war; 
took part in the Tennessee Maneuvers in 
the fall of 1942; later participated in exer- 
cises and provided air support for training 
ground forces. Aircraft: O-46's, O-47's, 
O-52's, L-4's, A-2o's, B-25's, and P-39's. 
Disbanded on 11 Nov 1943. 

Reconstituted, redesignated 26th Recon- 
naissance Group, and allotted to the re- 
serve, on 27 Dec 1946. Activated on 23 Oct 
1947. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949. 

Squadrons. 4th: 1947-1949. loth: 
1947-1949. 14th: 1942-1943. 72^?; 1943. 
gist: 1943. loist: 1941-1943. lo^d: 1941- 
1943. ipd: 1941-1943. 

Stations. Ft Devens, Mass, i Sep 1941 ; 
Providence, RI, c. 12 Sep 1941; Quonset 
Point, RI, Jun 1942; Hyannis, Mass, Jul 
1942; Harrisburg Mun Aprt, Pa, Sep 1942; 
Reading AAFld, Pa, Jun-ii Nov 1943. 
Niagara Falls Mun Aprt, NY, 23 Oct 1947; 
Buflfalo, NY, c. 17 Feb 1948-27 Jun 1949. 

Commanders. Col Louis E Boutwell, c. 
I Sep 1941; Lt Col Paul D Myers, Aug 
1942; Lt Col James R Gunn Jr, Jun 1943- 
unkn. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Bendy of eight azure 
tenne, a camera lens proper, ringed argent, 
superimposed on two electrical flashes in 
saltire of the last. Motto: INVENI ET 
RENUNTIATE— Reconnoiter and Re- 
port. (Approved 28 Oct 1942. This in- 
signe was modified 4 Sep 1953.) 



78 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



27th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 27th Bombardment 
Group (Light) on 22 Dec 1939. Acti- 
vated on I Feb 1940. Sailed for the Phil- 
ippine Islands on i Nov 1941 and arrived 
at Manila on 20 Nov. The group's planes 
(A-24's), which had not arrived by 7 Dec, 
were diverted to Australia after the Japa- 
nese attack on the Philippines. The 
group's commander and 20 pilots who 
were flown from Luzon to Australia 
to get the aircraft did not return because 
of the deterioration of the situation in the 
Philippines; some of these pilots saw serv- 
ice in Java, Feb-May 1942, before they 
were assigned to another group. The 
men left on Luzon served as infantrymen 
in the battles of Bataan and Corregidor; 
though a few managed to escape, most 
were dther killed or taken prisoners of 
war by the Japanese. The 27th group was 
transferred, without personnel and equip- 
ment, from Australia to the US in May 
1942. 

Remanned and equipped with A-20's. 
Trained in the US until Nov 1942. Moved 



to North Africa. Converted to A-36 air- 
craft. Began operations with Twelfth AF 
in Jun 1943 and served in the Mediter- 
ranean theater until the end of the war. 
Converted to P-40's in Jan 1944 and to 
P-47's in Jun 1944. Redesignated 27th 
Fighter-Bomber Group in Aug 1943, and 
27th Fighter Group in May 1944. Par- 
ticipated in the reduction of Pantelleria 
and Lampedusa. Supported ground 
forces during the conquest of Sicily. Cov- 
ered the landings at Salerno and received 
a DUC for preventing three German 
armored divisions from reaching the 
Salerno beachhead, 10 Sep 1943. Sup- 
ported Fifth Army during the Allied drive 
toward Rome. Took part in the invasion 
of Southern France and assisted Seventh 
Army's advance up the Rhone Valley, re- 
ceiving a DUC for helping to disrupt the 
German retreat, 4 Sep 1944. Took part 
in the interdiction of the enemy's com- 
munications in northern Italy, and as- 
sisted in the Allied drive from France into 
Germany during the last months of the 
war. Returned to the US, Oct-Nov 1945. 
Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945. 

Activated in Germany on 20 Aug 1946. 
Assigned to United States Air Forces in 
Europe and equipped with P-47's. Trans- 
ferred, without personnel and equipment, 
to the US in Jun 1947. Assigned to Stra- 
tegic Air Command. Equipped with 
P-51's in 1947, F-82's in 1948, and F-84's 
in 1950. Redesignated 27th Fighter-Es- 
cort Group in Feb 1950. Moved to the 
Far East late in 1950 for temporary duty 
with Far East Air Forces during the Ko- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



79 



rean War. Operated first from a base in 
Korea and later from Japan, supporting 
ground forces, escorting bombers, and fly- 
ing armed reconnaissance missions and 
counter-air patrols. Returned to the US 
in Jul 1951. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952. 

Squadrons, i^th: 1940-1941. /{.B^th: 
1942. 522^ (formerly i6th): 1940-1945; 
1946-1952. 523^ (formerly 17th): 1940- 
1945; 1946-1952. 52^M (formerly 91st): 
1941-1945; 1946-1952. 

Stations. Barksdale Field, La, i Feb 
1940; Hunter Field, Ga, 7 Oct 1940-21 
Oct 1941; Philippine Islands, 20 Nov 
1941; Batchelor, Australia, Mar-4 May 
1942; Hunter Field, Ga, 4 May 1942; Key 
Field, Miss, Jul 1942; Hattiesburg, Miss, 
15 Aug 1942; Harding Field, La, 25 Oct- 
21 Nov 1942; Ste-Barbe-du-Tlelat, Algeria, 
26 Dec 1942; Nouvion, Algeria, Jan 1943; 
Ras el Ma, French Morocco, Apr 1943; 
Korba, Tunisia, Jun 1943; Sicily, Jul 1943; 
Italy, Sep 1943; Corsica, Jul 1944; South- 
ern France, Aug 1944; Italy, c. Sep 1944; 
St-Dizier, France, 22 Feb 1945; Toul/ 
Ochey, France, Mar 1945; Biblis, Ger- 
many, Apr 1945; Sandhofen, Germany, 
Jun 1945; Echterdingen, Germany, 15 
Sep-20 Oct 1945; Camp Shanks, NY, 6-7 
Nov 1945. Fritzlar, Germany, 20 Aug 
1946; Bad Kissingen, Germany, 25 Jun 
1947; Andrews Field, Md, 25 Jun 1947; 
Kearney AAFld, Neb, 16 Jul 1947; Berg- 
strom AFB, Tex, 16 Mar 194^16 Jun 
1952. 

Commanders. Col Clarence L Tinker, 
I Feb 1940; Lt Col W Wright, unkn; Col 
Guy L McNeil, Jul 1941; Col John H 



Da vies, unkn-c. Apr 1942; Lt Col Harry 
F Van Leuven, 14 Jul 1942; Lt Col John D 
Stevenson, 11 Apr 1943; Col Dorr E New- 
ton Jr, 6 Aug 1943; Col Stephen B Mack, 
22 Apr 1944; Lt Col William R Nevitt, 
10 Sep 1944-c. Nov 1945. Col Clarence 
T Edwinson, c. 20 Aug 1946; Col Robert 
P Montgomery, Nov 1946; Col Clarence 
T Edwinson, Feb 1947; Col Edwin A 
Doss, 15 Aug 1947; Col Ashley B Packard, 
21 Jan 1948; Col Cy Wilson, c. Mar 1948; 
Col Donald J M Blakeslee, 7 Dec 1950; 
Lt Col William E Bertram, 3 Mar 1951- 
16 Jun 1952. 

Campaigns. World War II: Philippine 
Islands; Air Combat, EAME Theater; 
Sicily; Naples-Foggia ; Anzio; Rome-Ar- 
no; Northern France; Southern France; 
North Apennines; Rhineland; Central 
Europe. Korean War: CCF Intervention ; 
ist UN Counterofifensive ; CCF Spring Of- 
fensive. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Philippine Islands, 7 Dec 1941-10 
May 1942; Philippine Islands, 8-22 Dec 
194 1 ; Philippine Islands, 6 Jan-8 Mar 1942; 
Italy, 10 Sep 1943; France, 4 Sep 1944; 
Korea, 26 Jan-21 Apr 1951. Philippine 
Presidential Unit Citation. Republic of 
Korea Presidential Unit Citation: [Dec] 
1950-31 May 1951. 

Insigne. Shield: Per bend azure and or, 
in sinister chief a right clenched fist coup- 
ed at the wrist in dexter base a magnolia 
blossom leaved all argent, fimbriated sable. 
Motto: INTELLIGENT STRENGTH. 
(Approved 12 Sep 1940.) 



80 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



28th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 28th Composite Group 
on 22 Dec 1939. Activated on i Feb 1940. 
Redesignated 28th Bombardment Group 
(Composite) in Dec 1943. Aircraft in- 
cluded P-38's, P-39's, P-40's, B-26's and 
LB-30's during 1 941-1943, and B-24's and 
B-25's during 1944-1945. 

Operated in Alaska from Feb 1941 until 
after the war. Trained for Arctic warfare 
in 1941 and served as part of the defense 
system for the region. Helped to force 
the withdrawal of Japanese ships that at- 
tacked Dutch Harbor in Jun 1942. Flew 
missions against Kiska until the Japanese 
evacuated that island in Aug 1943. 
Bombed and strafed shipping, harbor 
facilities, canneries, fisheries, and military 
installations in the Kurils. Also flew pho- 
tographic reconnaissance missions to 
obtain material for planning operations. 
Received a DUC for the period Apr 1944- 



Aug 1945 when the group's attacks on 
the Kurils caused Japan to divert some of 
her air powec to that northern area, thus 
weakening Japanese opposition to Allied 
forces in the south. Flew its last bombing 
mission on 13 Aug 1945 but continued 
reconnaissance operations in the Kurils 
after the war. Inactivated in Alaska on 
20 October 1945. 

Redesignated 28th Bombardment Group 
(Very Heavy). Activated in the US on 
4 Aug 1946 as part of Strategic Air Com- 
mand. Equipped with B-29 aircraft. 
Was stationed in Alaska from Oct 1946 
to Apr 1947. Redesignated 28th Bombard- 
ment Group (Medium) in May 1948. 
Redesignated 28th Bombardment Group 
(Heavy) in May 1949 and equipped with 
RB-36's in Jul. Redesignated 28th Stra- 
tegic Reconnaissance Group in Apr 1950, 
and 28th Strategic Reconnaissance Group 
(Heavy) in Jul 1950. Inactivated on 16 
Jun 1952. 

Squadrons, nth Pursuit: 1942. i8th 
Pursuit: 1941-1942. 34th Pursuit: 1940. 
^th: 1940-1943. 37fA: 1940-1941. y^d: 
1941-1943. 77th: 1942-1945; 1946-1952. 
404th: 1942-1945. 717th: 1946-1952. 
718th: 1946-1952. 

Stations. March Field, Calif, i Feb 
1940; Moffett Field, Calif, 10 Dec 1940-12 
Feb 194 1 ; Elmendorf Field, Alaska, 23 
Feb 1941; Adak, 14 Mar 1943; Shemya, 
26 Feb 1944-20 Oct 1945. Grand Island 
AAFld, Neb, 4 Aug-6 Oct 1946; Elmen- 
dorf Field, Alaska, 20 Oct 1946-24 Apr 
1947; Rapid City AAFld, SD, 3 May 1947- 
16 Jun 1952. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VNITS— GROUPS 



81 



Commanders. Col William H Crom, i 
Feb 1940; Lt Col Lotha A Smith, 12 Feb 
1940; Maj William O Eareckson, i Sep 
1940; Maj Donald W Titus, 20 Oct 1940; 
Maj William O Eareckson, 26 May 1941 ; 
Maj Norman D Sillin, 7 Nov 1941; Col 
Earl H DeFord, 23 Jan 1943 ; Maj Robert 
C Orth, 19 Mar 1943; Lt Col Jack N 
Donohew, 27 Mar 1943; Lt Col Ralph W 
Rodieck, 18 Apr 1943; Lt Col John W 
Massion, 27 Oct 1943; Lt Col Alexander W 
Bryant, 4 Jan 1944; Col Robert H Herman, 
I Apr 1944; Col Walter L Wheeler, 21 Jul 
1945; Lt Col John C Larson, 27 Sep-20 
Oct 1945. Col Richard M Montgomery, 
4 Aug 1946; Col Thomas J Gent Jr, 23 Aug 
1946; Lt Col Donald W Lang, 15 Aug 
1947; Lt Col Everett W Best, 24 Dec 1947; 
Lt Col Frank W Iseman Jr, 16 Apr 1948; 
Lt Col Solomon Catcher, 27 Jun 1948; Col 
John B Henry Jr, 10 Jul 1948; Lt Col 
Everett W Best, 25 Apr 1949; Col William 
P Brett, 2 May 1949; Lt Col Solomon 
Cutcher, 21 Mar 1950; Col Donald W 
Eisenhart, 3 Apr 1950; Col Frank W Ise- 
man Jr, 24 Jul 1950; Col Bertram C Harri- 
son, 18 Oct 1950; Col Richard E Ellsworth, 
10 Feb 1951-16 Jun 1952. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Japan; 
Aleutians. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Kuril Islands, i Apr 1944-13 Aug 
1945. 

Insigne. Shield: Per pale nebuly or 
and azure. Cresi: On a wreath of the 
colors, or and azure, a fleur-de-lis vert the 
outer leaves terminated in the form of 
wings or. Motto: GUARDIAN OF 



THE NORTH. (Approved 14 Nov 
194X.) 

29th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 29th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 22 Dec 1939. Acti- 
vated on I Feb 1940. Equipped with 
B-17's and B-i8's. Trained and took part 
in aerial reviews. Flew patrol missions in 
the Caribbean area, Dec 1941-Jun 1942. 
Equipped with B-24's in 1942. Functioned 
as an operational training and later as a 
replacement training unit. Inactivated on 
I Apr 1944. 

Redesignated 29th Bombardment Group 
(Very Heavy). Activated on i Apr 1944. 
Prepared for overseas duty with B-29's. 
Moved to Guam, Dec 1944-Feb 1945, and 
assigned to Twentieth AF. Flew its first 
mission against Japan with an attack on 
Tokyo on 25 Feb 1945. Conducted a num- 
ber of missions against strategic targets in 
Japan, operating in daylight and at high 



82 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



altitude to bomb factories, refineries, and 
other objectives. Beginning in Mar 1945, 
carried out incendiary raids on area tar- 
gets, flying at night and at low altitude to 
complete the assignments. S/Sgt Henry E 
Erwin was awarded the Medal of Honor 
for action that saved his B-29 during a 
mission over Koriyama, Japan, on 12 Apr 
1945. When a phosphorous smoke bomb 
exploded in the launching chute and shot 
back into the plane, Sgt Erwin picked up 
the burning bomb, carried it to a window, 
and threw it out. During the Allied as- 
sault on Okinawa, the group bombed air- 
fields from which the enemy was sending 
out suicide planes against the invasion 
force. Received a DUG for an attack on 
an, airfield at Omura, Japan, on 31 Mar 
1945. Received second DUG for strikes 
on the industrial area of Shizuoka, the 
Mitsubishi aircraft plant at Tamashima, 
and the Chigusa arsenal at Nagoya, in Jun 

1945. After the war, dropped food and 
supplies to Allied prisoners and partici- 
pated in several show-of-force missions 
over Japan. Inactivated on Guam on 20 
May 1946. 

Squadrons. 6th: 1940-1944; 1944-1946. 
43d (formerly 29th): 1940-1944; 1944- 

1946. $2d: 1940-1944; 1944-1946. 411th: 
1942-1944. y6ist (later 9th Reconnais- 
sance): 1945-1946. 

Stations. Langley Field, Va, i Feb 
1940; MacDill Field, Fla, 21 May 1940; 
Gowen Field, Idaho, 25 Jun 1942-1 Apr 
1944. Pratt AAFld, Kan, i Apr-7 Dec 
1944; North Field, Guam, 17 Jan 1945-20 
May 1946. 



Commanders. Maj Vincent J Meloy, i 
Feb 1940; Maj Gharles W Lawrence, 15 
Jan 1941; Lt Col James P Hodges, i Feb 
1941 ; Maj Frank H Robinson, i Oct 1941 ; 
Lt Col James M Fitzmaurice, i Dec 1941 ; 
Lt Col Robert F Travis, 30 Mar 1942; Lt 
Col William B David, 28 Aug 1942; Maj 
Henry H Covington, 2 Feb 1943; Lt Col 
Walter E Arnold Jr, 20 Feb 1943; Lt Col 
Horace M Wade, 20 Sep 1943-1 Apr 1944. 
2d Lt Philip J Lamm, 21 Apr 1944; Gapt 
Samuel W Bright, 28 Apr 1944; Maj 
Quinn L Oldaker, 2 May 1944; Col Carl 
R Storrie, 28 May 1944; Col Robert L 
Mason, 23 Jul 1945; Lt Col Loran D 
Briggs, 9 Oct 1945-unkn ; Col Vincent M 
Miles Jr, 1946. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater; Air Offensive, Japan; Western 
Pacific. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Japan, 31 Mar 1945; Japan, 19-26 
Jun 1945. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a drop bomb 
and lightning flash saltirewise or. Motto: 
POWER FOR PEACE. (Approved 14 
Oct 1940.) 

30th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 30th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 20 Nov 1940. Acti- 
vated on 15 Jan 1941. Trained with B-i8's 
and A-29's. Equipped with B-24's for op- 
erations. Patrolled the west coast, 1942- 
1943, and trained crews for other organiza- 
tions. Moved to Hawaii in Oct 1943, as- 
signed to Seventh AF, and sailed for the 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



83 



Central Pacific in Nov. Began operations 
from the Ellice Islands in Nov 1943. As- 
sisted the invasion of the Gilberts by at- 
tacking enemy installations on those 
islands and by raiding airfields in the Mar- 
shall to help prevent the launching of 
Japanese planes against the amphibious 
assault on Tarawa. After moving to the 
Gilberts in Jan 1944, bombed installations 
in the Marshall Islands in preparation for 
the invasion. Moved to Kwajalein in Mar 
1944 and raided airfields and navy bases 
in the Truk Islands to keep them neutral- 
ized before and during the amphibious 
attack on the Marianas; also bombed 
Wake Island, Guam, and Saipan. Moved 
to Saipan in Aug 1944 and attacked air- 
fields and shipping in the Bonin and Vol- 
cano Islands until Iwo Jima was occupied 
early in 1945. Struck bypassed islands in 
the Carolines and Marianas. Returned to 
Oahu in Mar 1945. Trained and flew pa- 
trol missions. Inactivated in Hawaii on 
25 Jun 1946. 

Squadrons. 21st: 1941-1943. 2ph: 
1941-1946. 38th: 1941-1946. 592^; 1942- 
1945. Sigth: 1943-1945. 

Stations. March Field, Calif, 15 Jan 
194 1 ; New Orleans, La, c. Jun 1941; Mu- 
roc, Calif, 24 Dec 194 1 ; March Field, Calif, 
7 Feb 1942-28 Sep 1943; Hickam Field, 
TH, 20 Oct 1943; Nanumea, Ellice Islands, 
12 Nov 1943; Abemama, 4 Jan 1944; Kwa- 
jalein, c. 20 Mar 1944; Saipan, 4 Aug 1944; 
Wheeler Field, TH, Mar 1945; Kahuku, 
TH, 29 Sep 1945; Wheeler Field, TH, Feb- 
25 Jun 1946. 



Commanders. Capt Budd J Peaslee, 15 
Jan 1941; Maj Thomas W Steed, 10 Feb 
1941; Lt Col Newton Longfellow, 1941; 
Maj Thomas W Steed, c. Dec 1941; Lt Col 
Jack Wood, 21 Aug 1942; Col Robert O 
Cork, May 1943; Col Edwin B Miller Jr, 
30 Aug 1943; Col John J Morrow, c. 2 Nov 
1944; Lt Col Elliott T Pardee, Mar 1945; 
Col Elder Patteson, i Jul 1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater; Central Pacific; Air Oflfensive, 
Japan ; Eastern Mandates ; Western Pacific. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

31st FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 31st Pursuit Group (In- 
terceptor) on 22 Dec 1939. Activated on 
I Feb 1940. Trained with P-39's and par- 
ticipated in maneuvers. Redesignated 31st 
Fighter Group in May 1942. Moved to 
England, May-Jun 1942. Assigned to 
Eighth AF and equipped with Spitfires. 
Entered combat in Aug 1942. Supported 




84 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



a raid made by Canadian, British, Ameri- 
can, and French forces at Dieppe on 19 
Aug. Escorted bombers and flew patrol 
and diversionary missions until Oct. As- 
signed to Twelfth AF for the invasion of 
North Africa, the pilots of the group flying 
Spitfires from Gibraltar to Algeria on 8 
Nov 1942 and the ground echelon land- 
ing at Arzeu beach the same day. At- 
tacked motor transports, gun positions, 
and troop concentrations during the three- 
day campaign for Algeria and French 
Morocco. Helped to defeat Axis forces in 
Tunisia by supporting ground troops and 
providing cover for bomber and fighter 
aircraft. During May and Jun 1943, pro- 
vided escort for bombers on raids to Pan- 
telleria and cover for naval convoys in 
the Mediterranean. Supported the land- 
ings on Sicily in July and took part in the 
conquest of that island. Covered the land- 
ings at Salerno early in Sep 1943 and at 
Anzio in Jan 1944. Also operated in close 
support of Allied ground forces in Italy 
and flew patrol and escort missions. 

Assigned .to Fifteenth AF in Apr 1944, 
converted to P-51's, and thereafter en- 
gaged primarily in escort work. Received 
a DUG for a mission on 21 Apr 1944 when 
the group, despite the severe weather that 
was encountered, provided cover for a 
force of heavy bombers during a raid on 
production centers in Rumania. On 
numerous other occasions escorted bomb- 
ers that attacked objectives in Italy, France, 
Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Aus- 



tria, Hungary, Bulgaria, Rumania, Yugo- 
slavia, and Greece. In addition provided 
escort for reconnaissance aircraft and for 
C-47's engaged in the airborne operation 
connected with the invasion of Southern 
France. Also flew strafing missions 
against airdromes and communications 
targets. Took part in an operation in 
which a task force from Fifteenth AF at- 
tacked targets in Rumania while flying 
to Russia on 22 Jul 1944 and while re- 
turning to Italy on 26 Jul ; on 25 Jul, after 
escorting P-38's from a base in Russia for 
a raid on an airdrome in Poland, the 31st 
group made attacks on a convoy of Ger- 
man trucks and on a force of German 
fighter-bombers, being awarded a DUC 
for its performance. Strafed rail and 
highway traffic in northern Italy in Apr 
1945 when Allied forces were engaged in 
their final offensive in that area. Returned 
to the US in Aug. Inactivated on 7 Nov 
1945. 

Activated in Germany on 20 Aug 1946. 
Assigned to United States Air Forces in 
Europe. Transferred, without personnel 
and equipment, to the US in Jun 1947. 
Assigned to Tactical Air Command and 
equipped with P-51's. Converted to 
F-84's in 1948. Redesignated 31st Fighter- 
Bomber Group in Jan 1950. Assigned to 
Strategic Air Command in Jul 1950. Re- 
designated 31st Fighter-Escort Group. 
Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952. 

Squadrons, ^gth: 1940-1942. 40th: 
1940-1942. 41st: 1940-1942. ^oyth: 1942- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GR0[/P5 



85 



1945; 1946-1952. ^oSth: 1942-1945; 1946- 
1952. ^ogth: 1942-1945; 1946-1952. 

Stations. Selfridge Field, Mich, i Feb 
1940; Baer Field, Ind, 6 Dec 1941; New 
Orleans AB, La, Feb-19 May 1942; 
Atcham, England, 11 Jun 1942; West- 
hampnett, England, i Aug 1942; Tafa- 
raoui, Algeria, 8 Nov 1942; La Senia, 
Algeria, c. 12 Nov 1942 ; Thelepte, Tunisia, 
c. 7 Feb 1943; Tebessa, Algeria, 17 Feb 
1943; Youks-les-Bains, Algeria, 21 Feb 
1943; Kalaa Djerda, Tunisia, c. 25 Feb 
1943; Thelepte, Tunisia, 11 Mar 1943; 
Djilma, Tunisia, 7 Apr 1943; Le Sers, 
Tunisia, 12 Apr 1943; Korba, Tunisia, 15 
May 1943; Gozo, c. 30 Jun 1943; Ponte 
Olivo, Sicily, c. 13 Jul 1943; Agrigento, 
Sicily, 21 Jul 1943; Termini, Sicily, 2 Aug 
1943; Milazzo, Sicily, 2 Sep 1943; Monte- 
corvino, Italy, 20 Sep 1943; Pomigliano, 
Italy, 14 Oct 1943; Castel Volturno, Italy, 
19 Jan 1944 ; San Severo, Italy, 2 Apr 1944 ; 
Mondolfo, Italy, 3 Mar 1945; Triolo Air- 
field, Italy, 15 Jul- Aug 1945; Drew Field, 
Fla, Aug-7 Nov 1945. Giebelstadt, Ger- 
many, 20 Aug 1946; Kitzingen, Germany, 
30 Sep 1946; Langley Field, Va, 25 Jun 
1947; Turner Field, Ga, 4 Sep 1947-16 Jun 
1952. 

Commanders. Lt Col Harold H George, 
Feb 1940; Col John R Hawkins, i Jul 
194 1 ; Col Fred M Dean, 5 Dec 1942; Lt 
Col Frank A Hill, c. Jul 1943; Col Charles 
M McCorkle, c. Sep 1943; Col Yancey S 
Tarrant, 4 Jul 1944; Col William A Daniel, 
4 Dec 1944-unkn. Lt Col Horace A 
Hanes, Aug 1946-unkn ; Lt Col Frederick 



H LeFebre, Jan 1947; Maj Arland Stanton, 
Feb 1947; Col Dale D Fisher, Mar 1947; 
Lt Col Donald J M Blakeslee, May 1947; 
Maj Leonard P Marks, 22 Oct 1947; Col 
Carroll W McColpin, i Nov 1947; Col 
Earl H Dunham, c. Dec 1949; Col David 
C Schilling, i Jun 1951-16 Jun 1952. 

Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME The- 
ater; Air Offensive, Europe; Algeria- 
French Morocco; Tunisia; Sicily; Naples- 
Foggia; Anzio; Rome-Arno; Normandy; 
Northern France; Southern France; North 
Apennines; Rhineland; Central Europe; 
Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Rumania, 21 Apr 1944; Poland, 25 
Jul 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Per bend nebule or and 
azure, in chief a wyvern, sans legs, wings 
endorsed of the second. Motto: RETURN 
WITH HONOR. (Approved 28 Jun 
1941.) 

32d FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 32d Pursuit Group on 22 
Nov 1940. Activated in Panama on i Jan 
1941. Redesignated 32d Fighter Group 
in May 1942. Trained and served as part 
of the defense force for the Panama Canal, 
using P-26, P-36, P-38, P-39, and P-40 air- 
craft. Disbanded in the Canal Zone on i 
Nov 1943. 

Reconstituted and redesignated ■p.A 
Fighter Group (Air Defense), on 11 Dec 
1956. Activated in the US on 8 Feb 1957. 
Assigned to Air Defense Command. 



86 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Squadrons. ^ist: 1941-1943. pd: 
1941-1943. 53^; 1941-1943. 

Stations. Rio Hato, Panama, 1 Jan 
1941 ; France Field, CZ, 9 Dec 1941-1 Nov 
1943. Minot AFB, ND, 8 Feb 1957-. 

Commanders. Capt Roger J Browne, 
I Jan 1941; Capt James B Buck, 16 Apr 
194 1 ; Lt Col Roger J Browne, 4 Aug 1941 ; 
Lt Col William R Robertson Jr, 23 Aug 
1943-unkn. Maj Joe E Roberts, 1957-. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

33d FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 33d Pursuit Group (In- 
terceptor) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 
15 Jan 1941. Began training with P-39's 
but soon changed to P-40's. Served as part 
of the defense force for the east coast after 
the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. 
Redesignated 33d Fighter Group in May 




1942. Moved to North Africa, part of 
the group (including the pilots and their 
planes) arriving with the invasion force on 
8 Nov 1942, and the remainder arriving 
shortly afterwards. Operated with 
Twelfth AF in the Mediterranean theater 
until Feb 1944. Provided close support 
for ground forces and flew bombing and 
strafing missions against personnel con- 
centrations, port installations, fuel dumps, 
bridges, highways, and rail lines during 
the campaigns in North Africa. Received 
a DUG for action on 15 Jan 1943: when 
enemy aircraft attempted to knock out the 
group's base in Tunisia, the 33d drove off 
the enemy's escort and destroyed most of 
the bombers. Took part in the reduction 
of Pantelleria and flew patrol missions 
while Allied troops landed after the 
enemy's garrison had surrendered. Par- 
ticipated in the invasion and conquest of 
Sicily. Supported landings at Salerno, 
Allied operations in southern Italy, and 
the beachhead at Anzio. 

Moved to India in Feb 1944. Assigned 
to Tenth AF. Trained with P-38 and 
P-47 aircraft. Moved to China in Apr, 
became part of Fourteenth AF, continued 
training, and flew some patrol and inter- 
ception missions. Returned to India in 
Sept 1944 and, as part of Tenth AF, flew 
dive-bombing and strafing missions in 
Burma until the Allied campaigns in that 
area had been completed. Returned t 
the US, Nov-Dec 1945. Inactivated on 8 
Dec 1945. 

Activated in Germany on 20 Aug 1946. 
Assigned to United States Air Forces in 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



Europe and equipped with P-51's. Trans- 
ferred, less personnel and equipment, to 
the US in 1947. Remanned and equipped 
with P-51's; converted to F-84's in Jun 
1948 and F-86's in Feb 1949. Redesig- 
nated 33d Fighter-Interceptor Group in 
Jan 1950. Inactivated on 6 Feb 1952. 

Redesignated 33d Fighter Group (Air 
Defense). Activated on 18 Aug 1955. 
Assigned to Air Defense Command. 

Squadrons. ^8th: 1941-1945; 1946- 
1952; 1955- 59ih: 1941-1945; 1946-1952. 
60th: 1941-1945; 1946-1952; 1955-. 

Stations. Mitchel Field, NY, 15 Jan 
1941; Philadelphia, Pa, 13 Dec 1941-Oct 
1942; Port Lyautey, French Morocco, 10 
Nov 1942 ; Casablanca, French Morocco, c. 
13 Nov 1942; Telergma, Algeria, 24 Dec 
1942; Thelepte, Tunisia, 7 Jan 1943; 
Youks-les-Bains, Algeria, 8 Feb 1943; 
Telergma, Algeria, c. 20 Feb 1943; Ber- 
teaux, Algeria, c. 2 Mar 1943; Ebba Ksour, 
Tunisia, c. 12 Apr 1943; Menzel Temime, 
Tunisia, 20 May 1943; Sousse, Tunisia, 9 
Jun 1943; Pantelleria, 19 Jun 1943; Licata, 
Sicily, c. 18 Jul 1943; Paestum, Italy, 13 
Sep 1943; Santa Maria, Italy, 18 Nov 1943; 
Cercola, Italy, c. i Jan-Feb 1944; Karachi, 
India, c. 20 Feb 1944; Shwangliu, China, c. 
18 Apr 1944 ; Pungchacheng, China, 9 May 
1944; Nagaghuli, India, 3 Sep 1944; Sah- 
maw, Burma, 26 Dec 1944; Piardoba, 
India, 5 May-c. 15 Nov 1945; Camp 
Shanks, NY, 7-8 Dec 1945. Neubiberg, 
Germany, 20 Aug 1946; Bad Kissingen, 
Germany, Jul-25 Aug 1947; Andrews 
Field, Md, 25 Aug 1947; Roswell AAFld, 
NM, 16 Sep 1947; Otis AFB, Mass, 16 Nov 



1948-6 Feb 1952. Otis AFB, Mass, 18 Aug 

I955-- 

Commanders. Maj Minthorne W 
Reed, c. Jan 1941 ; Col Elwood R Quesada, 
7 Oct 1941; Col William W Momyer, 29 
Jun 1942; Col Loring F Stetson Jr, 17 Oct 
1943; Lt Col Oliver G Cellini, 7 Jun 1944; 
Col David D Terry Jr, 9 Sep 1944; Col 
Frank L Dunn, 2 Mar 1945-unkn. Col 
Barton M Russell, 20 Aug 1946; Lt Col 
Albert A Cory, unkn ; Col Gwen G Atkin- 
son, Jan 1948; Lt Col Woodrow W Korges, 
c. May 1949; Col Charles H MacDonald, 
c. Aug 1949; Col Harrison R Thyng, 15 
Jun 1950; Lt Col Willard W Millikan, c. 
Aug 1951-6 Feb 1952. Col Fred G Hook 

Jr> I955-- 

Campaigns. Air Combat, FAME The- 
ater; Algeria-French Morocco; Tunisia; 
Sicily; Naples-Foggia ; Anzio; Rome- 
Arno; India-Burma; China Defensive; 
Central Burma. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Central Tunisia, 15 Jan 1943. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, on a pale 
nebuly or a sword point to chief in pale 
of the field, flammant gules, all within a 
border of the second. Motto: FIRE 
FROM THE CLOUDS. (Approved 21 
Feb 1942.) 

34th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 34th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 20 Nov 1940. Acti- 
vated on 15 Jan 1941. Using B-17's, 
trained and participated in maneuvers 
until Dec 1941. Flew patrol missions 



88 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 




along the east coast after the Japanese at- 
tacked Pearl Harbor. Later became part 
of the defense force for the west coast. 
Served as a replacement training unit from 
mid-1942 until the end of 1943, and then 
began preparing for overseas duty with 
B-24's. Moved to England in Apr 1944 
for operations with Eighth AF. 

Entered combat in May 1944. Helped to 
prepare for the invasion of Normandy by 
bombing airfields in France and Germany, 
and supported the landing in Jun by at- 
tacking coastal defenses and communica- 
tions. Continued to take part in the cam- 
paign in France by supporting ground 
forces at St Lo, 24-25 Jul, and by striking 
V-weapon sites, gun emplacements, and 
supply lines throughout the summer of 
1944. Converted to B-17's and engaged 
primarily in bombardment of strategic ob- 
jectives from Oct 1944 to Feb 1945. Tar- 
gets included marshalling yards in Lud- 
wigshaven, Hamm, Osnabruck, and 
Darmstadt; oil centers in Bielefeld, Merse- 
burg, Hamburg, and Misburg; factories in 
Berlin, Dalteln, and Hannover; and air- 



fields in Munster, Neumunster, and 
Frankfurt. During this period the group 
also supported ground forces during the 
Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. 
In Mar 1945, with few industrial targets 
remaining and with Allied armies advanc- 
ing across Germany, the 34th turned 
almost solely to interdicting enemy com- 
munications and supporting Allied ground 
forces. After V-E Day it carried food to 
flooded areas of Holland and transported 
prisoners of war from German camps to 
Allied centers. Returned to the US in the 
summer of 1945. Inactivated on 28 Aug 
1945. 

Squadrons, ^h: 1941-1945. yth: 1941- 
1945. i8th: 1941-1945. ^gist: 1942-1945. 

Stations. Langley Field, Va, 15 Jan 
1941 ; Westover Field, Mass, 29 May 1941 ; 
Pendleton Field, Ore, c. 27 Jan 1942; 
Davis-Monthan Field, Ariz, c. 13 May 
1942; Geiger Field, Wash, 4 Jul 1942; 
Ephrata, Wash, i Dec 1942; Blythe, Calif, 
15 Dec 1942-Apr 1944; Mendlesham, Eng- 
land, c. 26 Apr 1944-C. 25 Jul 1945 ; Sioux 
Falls AAFld, SD, Aug-28 Aug 1945. 

Commanders. Maj John W Monahan, 
15 Jan 1941; Lt Col Harold D Smith, c. 
I Mar 194 1 ; Maj Ford J Lauer, 9 Jan 1942; 
Col Ralph E Koon, 12 Feb 1942; Maj 
Irvine A Rendel, 21 Jul 1942; Maj John 
A Rouse, 24 Feb 1943; Lt Col John E 
Carmack, 15 Sep 1943; Col Ernest F Wack- 
witz Jr, c. 5 Jan 1944; Col William E 
Creer, Sep 1944; Lt Col Eugene B Lebailly, 
29 May-c. Aug 1945. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater; Air Offensive, Europe; Nor- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VmTS— GROUPS 

mandy; Northern France; Rhineland; Ar- 
dennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a compass rose 
or. Motto: VALOR TO VICTORY. 
(Approved 4 Nov 1941.) 

35th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 35th Pursuit Group (In- 
terceptor) on 22 Dec 1939. Activated on 
I Feb 1940. Trained with P-35, P-36, 
P-39, and P-40 aircraft. Two squadrons 
(21st and 34th) moved to the Philippines 
in Nov 194 1. Headquarters and another 
squadron (70th) sailed for Manila on 5 
Dec but because of the Japanese attack 
on Pearl Harbor they returned to the US 
where the squadron flew some patrols. 
Headquarters and the 70th squadron sailed 
for Australia on 12 Jan 1942. Three days 
later all the combat squadrons were re- 
lieved and three others, still in the US, 
were assigned. Headquarters reached 
Australia in Feb 1942 and moved on to 
India. Meanwhile the squadrons had 




89 

moved from the US to Australia and were 
training for combat with P-39's. Head- 
quarters was transferred back to Austra- 
lia, without personnel and equipment, in 
May 1942. 

Redesignated 35th Fighter Group. 
Served in combat with Fifth AF, operating 
successively from bases in Australia, New 
Guinea, Owi, Morotai, and the Philip- 
pines. First used P-38's and P-39's; 
equipped with P-47's late in 1943 and with 
P-51's in Mar 1945. Helped to halt the 
Japanese advance in Papua and took part 
in the Allied offensive that recovered the 
rest of New Guinea, flying protective pa- 
trols over Port Moresby, escorting bombers 
and transports, attacking Japanese air- 
fields and supply lines, and providing cover 
for Allied landings. In 1944 began long- 
range missions against enemy airfields and 
installations in the southern Philippines, 
Halmahera, and Borneo, preparatory to 
the US invasion of the Philippines. Be- 
ginning in Jan 1945, operated in support 
of ground forces on Luzon. Also escorted 
bombers and completed some fighter 
sweeps to Formosa and China. Bombed 
and strafed railways and airfields in Kyu- 
shu and Korea after moving to Okinawa 
in Jun 1945. Moved to Japan in Oct 1945 
and, as part of Far East Air Forces, trained, 
took part in maneuvers, and flew surveil- 
lance patrols over Honshu. Redesignated 
35th Fighter-Interceptor Group in Jan 
1950. Equipped with F-8o's. 

Entered combat in the Korean War in 
Jul 1950 and almost immediately began 



90 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



converting from F-8o's to F-51's. Oper- 
ated from bases in Japan and Korea in sup- 
port of UN ground forces, bombing and 
strafing enemy supply lines, troop concen- 
trations, and communications. Trans- 
ferred without personnel and equipment 
to Japan in May 1951. Remanned and 
equipped with F-51's and F-80's. Pro- 
vided air defense for Japan. Converted to 
F-86 aircraft in 1955. 

Squadrons. i8th: 1940. 20th: 1940. 
2ist: 1940-1942. ^4th: 1940-1942. 59M; 
1942-. 40th: 1942-. /{.ist: 1942-. joth: 
1941-1942. 

Stations. Moflfett Field, Calif, i Feb 
1940; Hamilton Field, Calif, 10 Sep 1940- 
5 Dec 1941 and 9 Dec 1941-12 Jan 1942; 
Brisbane, Australia, i Feb 1942; New 
Delhi, India, Mar 1942; Sydney, Australia, 
4 May 1942; Port Moresby, New Guinea, 
22 Jul 1942; Tsili Tsili, New Guinea, 15 
Aug 1943; Nadzab, New Guinea, 5 Oct 
1943; Gusap, New Guinea, 7 Feb 1944; 
Owi, Schouten Islands, 22 Jul 1944; Moro- 
tai, 27 Sep 1944; Mangaldan, Luzon, c. 20 
Jan 1945; Lingayen, Luzon, c. 10 Apr 
1945; Clark Field, Luzon, 19 Apr 1945; 
Okinawa, 28 Jun 1945; Irumagawa, Japan, 
Oct 1945; Yokota, Japan, 16 Mar 1950; 
Ashiya, Japan, 8 Jul 1950; Pohang, Korea, 
14 Jul 1950; Tsuiki, Japan, 13 Aug 1950; 
Pohang, Korea, 3 Oct 1950; Yonpo, Korea, 
18 Nov 1950; Pusan, Korea, c. 3 Dec 1950; 
Johnson AB, Japan, 25 May 195 1; Yokota, 
Japan, 14 Aug 1954-. 

Commanders. Maj O R Strickland, 
1940; Col George P Tourtellot, 1940-unkn; 



Col Richard A Legg, 12 Mar 1942; Lt Col 
Malcolm A Moore, 26 Jul 1943; Lt Col 
Edwin A Doss, 23 Oct 1943; Lt Col Furlo 
S Wagner, 12 Feb 1944 ; Col Edwin A Doss, 
4 May 1944; Col Harney Estes Jr, 27 Jul 
1945; Col Raymond P Todd, 22 Mar 1946; 
Lt Col Richard D Dick, c. 13 Sep 1946; 
Col James R Gunn Jr, c. 11 Feb 1947; Col 
Ford J Lauer, 28 Apr 1947; Col Ray W 
Clifton, I Sep 1947; Col Edgar M Scatter- 
good Jr, 21 Jun 1948; Lt Col Bert W Mar- 
shall Jr, Aug 1948; Lt Col Archie M 
Burke, 13 May 1949; Lt Col Jack D Dale 
Jr, Nov 1949; Col William P McBride, 22 
Feb 195 1 ; Lt Col Homer M Cox, May 
1 951; Col John C Habecker, 25 Jun 195 1; 
Col John R Propst, 6 Jun 1952; Lt Col Al- 
bert S Aiken, Feb 1955; Col Maurice L 
Martin, Jun 1955; Col Raymond M Geh- 
rig, Aug 1955-. 

Campaigns. World War II: East In- 
dies; Air Offensive, Japan; China De- 
fensive; Papua; New Guinea; Bismarck 
Archipelago; Western Pacific; Leyte; Lu- 
zon; Ryukyus; China Offensive. Korean 
War: UN Defensive; UN Offensive; CCF 
Intervention; ist UN Counteroflensive; 
CCF Spring Offensive. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Papua, 23 Jul 1942-23 Jan 1943. 
Philippine Presidential Unit Citation. Re- 
public of Korea Presidential Unit Citation : 
7 Sep 1950-7 Feb 1951. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a dexter cubit 
arm or grasping a dagger point to base 
gules. Motto: ATTACK TO DEFEND 
(Approved 21 Feb 1941.) 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNIT^-GROUPS 

36th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 36th Pursuit Group (In- 
terceptor) on 22 Dec 1939. Activated on i 
Feb 1940. Trained with P-36's. Moved to 
Puerto Rico in Jan 1941. Equipped with 
P-39 and P-40 aircraft. Served as part of 
the defense force for the Caribbean area 
and Panama Canal, and flew antisub- 
marine patrols. Redesignated 36th 
Fighter Group in May 1942. Returned to 
the US, May-Jun 1943. Trained with 
P-47's. 

Moved to England, Mar-Apr 1944. 
Assigned to Ninth AF. Served in combat 
in the European theater from May 1944 to 
May 1945. Operated primarily as a 
fighter-bomber organization, strafing and 
dive-bombing armored vehicles, trains, 
bridges, buildings, factories, troop concen- 
trations, gun emplacements, airfields, and 
other targets. Also flew some escort mis- 
sions. Began operations from England in 
May 1944 with armed reconnaissance, 
escort, and interdictory missions in 



91 

preparation for the invasion of Normandy. 
Participated in the invasion in Jun 1944 by 
patrolling the air over the landing zone 
and by flying close-support and interdic- 
tory missions. Moved to France, Jul-Aug 
1944. Supported the breakthrough at St 
Lo in Jul and the thrust of Third Army 
toward Germany in Aug and Sep. Re- 
ceived a DUC for operations on i Sep 1944 
when, in a series of missions, the group at- 
tacked German columns south of the Loire 
in order to disrupt the enemy's retreat 
across central France to Dijon. Moved to 
Belgium in Oct and supported Ninth 
Army. Participated in the Battle of the 
Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945, by flying armed 
reconnaissance and close-support missions. 
Aided First Army's push across the Roer 
River in Feb 1945. Supported operations 
at the Remagen bridgehead and during the 
airborne assault across the Rhine in Mar. 
Received second DUC for performance on 
12 Apr 1945 when the group, operating 
through intense antiaircraft fire, relent- 
lessly attacked airfields in southern Ger- 
many, destroying a large hangar and 
numerous aircraft. Remained in Europe 
for several months after V-E Day. 

Transferred, without personnel and 
equipment, to the US in Feb 1946, the 
group's squadrons being inactivated in 
Mar. Headquarters was transferred, with- 
out personnel and equipment, to the Pan- 
ama Canal Zone in Sep, and the squad- 
rons were activated in Oct. Equipped 
with P-47's; converted to F-80's in Dec 
1947. Moved to Germany, Jul-Aug 1948, 



92 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



and became part of United States Aix 
Forces in Europe. Redesignated 36th 
Fighter-Bomber Group in Jan 1950, and 
36th Fighter-Day Group in Aug 1954. 
Equipped successively with F-80, F-84, 
F-86, and F-ioo aircraft -after arriving in 
Europe in 1948. 

Squadrons. 22d: 1940-1946, 1946-. 
2^d: 1940-1946, 1946-. ^2d: 1940-1943; 
1955-. ssd: 1943-1946, 1946-. 

Stations. Langley Field, Va, i Feb 
1940-2 Jan 1941; Losey Field, PR, Jan 
1941-May 1943; Morrison Field, Fla, May 
1943; Mitchel Field, NY, c. 3 Jun 1943; 
Charleston, SC, 23 June 1943 ; Alamogordo 
AAFld, NM, Sep 1943; Scribner AAFld, 
Neb, Nov 1943-Mar 1944; Kingsnorth, 
England, Apr 1944; Brucheville, France, 
Jul 1944; Le Mans, France, c. 23 Aug 1944; 
Athis, France, Sep 1944; Juvincourt, 
France, c. i Oct 1944; Le Culot, Belgium, 
c. 23 Oct 1944; Aachen, Germany, 28 Mar 
1945; Niedermennig, Germany, c. 8 Apr 
1945; Kassel/Rothwesten, Germany, c. 21 
Apr 1945-15 Feb 1946; Boiling Field, DC, 
15 Feb-Sep 1946; Hov^^ard Field, CZ, Oct 
1946-Jul 1948; Furstenfeldbruck AFB, 
Germany, Aug 1948; Bitburg AB, Ger- 
many, 17 Nov 1952-. 

Commanders. Lt Col Ned Schramm, 
c. I Feb 1940; Maj Charles A Harrington, 
c. 15 Jul 1941; Lt Col Glenn O Barcus, 
c. I Nov 1941; Maj Richard P Klocko, 
c. 20 Feb 1942; Maj James B League Jr, 
c. 18 Jul 1942; Maj William L Curry, c. i 
Sep 1942; Maj [Earl H(?)] Dunham, c. 
I Oct 1942; Lt Col William L Curry, c. 14 
Jan 1943; Lt Col Van H Slayden, 12 Jan 



1944; Lt Col Paul P Douglas Jr, Apr 1945; 
Lt Col John L Wright, 30 Jun 1945 ; Maj 
Arthur W Holderness Jr, c. 25 Sep 1945; 
Lt Col William T McBride, 9 Nov 1945- 
unkn; Col Henry R Spicer, c. 15 Oct 1946- 
unkn; Col Hubert Zemke, 1949; Col Wil- 
liam A Daniel, c. i Dec 1949; Lt Col 
George F Ceuleers, Dec 1950 ; Col George 
T Lee, Mar 1951; Col Seth J McKee, Dec 
1951; Col Marvin E Childs, May 1953; 
Col Edvs^ard A McGough III, Dec 1954-. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater; Air Offensive, Europe; Nor- 
mandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: France, i Sep 1944; Germany, 12 
Apr 1945. Cited in the Order of the Day, 
Belgian Army: i Oct 1944-; 18 Dec 1944- 
15 Jan 1945. Belgian Fourragere. 

Insigne. Shield: Or, an arrovv^ point 
palevs'ise gules on a chief azure a w^ing 
argent. (Approved 19 Jun 1940.) 

37th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 37th Pursuit Group (In- 
terceptor) on 22 Dec 1939. Activated in 
the Panama Canal Zone on i Feb 1940. 
Redesignated 37th Fighter Group in May 
1942. Served as part of the defense force 
for the Panama Canal. Equipped first 
with P-26's, later with P-40's. Disbanded 
in the Canal Zone on i Nov 1943. 

Reconstituted and redesignated 37th 
Fighter-Bomber Group, on 3 Mar 1953. 
Activated in the US on 8 Apr 1953. As- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



93 







as /«— . h cuossRO''? 
— ioe THE ^ 



signed to Tactical Air Command. Inacti- 
vated on 25 Jun 1953. 

Squadrons. 28th: 1940-1943; 1953. 
30th: 1940-1943; 1953. 31st: 1940-1943. 

33d: 1953- 

Stations. Albrook Field, CZ, i Feb 
1940; Howard Field, CZ, 30 Sep-i Nov 
1943. Clovis AFB, NM, 8 Apr-25 Jun 

1953- 

Commanders. Capt Russell E Randall, 
I Feb 1940; Maj Milo N Clark, 27 May 
1940; Lt Col Morley F Slaght, 1942; Maj 
Ernest H Beverly, 2 Sep 1942-unkn. Col 
George W Larson, 1953. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a saltire or. 
Crest: On a wreath of the colors, or and 
azure, a griffin sejant azure armed and 
winged or. Motto: DEFENDERS OF 
THE CROSSROADS. (Approved 23 
Jun 1941.) 



38th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 38th Bombardment 
Group (Medium) on 20 Nov 1940. Acti- 
vated on 15 Jan 1941. Trained with B-18, 
B-25, and B-26 aircraft. The ground 
echelon moved to Australia, Jan-Feb 1942, 
while the air echelon remained in the US 
for further training. Air echelons of two 
squadrons arrived in Hawaii in May 1942 
and took part in the Battle of Midway; 
they did not rejoin the group and eventu- 
ally were reassigned. Air echelons of the 
other squadrons arrived in Australia in 
Aug 1942. Assigned to Fifth AF and 
equipped with B-25's, the group operated 
from bases in Australia, New Guinea, and 
Biak, Sep 1942-Oct 1944, attacking Japa- 
nese airfields and shipping and supporting 
ground forces in New Guinea and the 
Bismarck Archipelago. Maj Ralph Cheli 
was awarded the Medal of Honor for ac- 
tion on 18 Aug 1943: while leading the 
405th squadron to attack a heavily de- 
fended airdrome on New Guinea, his 
plane was severely hit by enemy fire; 




94 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



rather than disrupt the formation, Maj 
Cheli remained in position and led the 
attack on the target before his bomber 
crashed into the sea. The group was 
awarded a DUG for bombing and strafing 
Japanese troops and fortifications on Cape 
Gloucester, New Britain, Dec 1943, pre- 
paratory to the Allied invasion. Received 
another DUG for two missions over New 
Guinea, 16 and 17 Jun 1944, against Japa- 
nese airfields, merchant ships, and naval 
vessels. Moved to the Moluccas in Oct 

1944 and bombed airfields, ground in- 
stallations, harbors, and shipping in the 
southern Philippines in support of the US 
invasion of Leyte. Struck a large enemy 
convoy in Ormoc Bay in Nov 1944 to pre- 
vent the landing of reinforcements, being 
awarded a DUG for the mission. After 
moving to the Philippines in Jan 1945, 
supported US ground forces on Luzon, 
bombed industries on Formosa, and at- 
tacked shipping along the Ghina coast. 
Stationed temporarily on Palawan in Jun 

1945 for participation in the preinvasion 
bombing of Japanese installations on 
Borneo. Moved to Okinawa in Jul 1945 
and conducted several attacks on indus- 
tries, railways, and shipping in southern 
Japan. Moved to Japan in Nov 1945 as 
part of Far East Air Forces. Redesignated 
38th Bombardment Group (Light) in May 
1946. Equipped with A-26 aircraft. In- 
activated in the Far East on i Apr 1949. 

Activated in France on i Jan 1953. As- 
signed to United States Air Forces in 
Europe. Equipped with B-26 and later 
with B-57 aircraft. Redesignated 38th 



Bombardment Group (Tactical) in Oct 

1955- 
Squadrons. 6gth: 1941-1943. yoth: 

1941-1943. 71st: 1941-1949; 1953-. 8gth: 
1946-1949. 40 ^th: 1942-1949; 1953-. 
822d: 1943-1946; 1953-. 523^: 1943-1946. 

Stations. Langley Field, Va, 15 Jan 
1941; Jackson AAB, Miss, c. 5 Jun 1941-18 
Jan 1942; Doomben Field, Australia, 25 
Feb 1942; Ballarat, Australia, 8 Mar 1942; 
Amberley Field, Australia, 30 Apr 1942; 
Eagle Farms, Australia, c. 10 Jun 1942; 
Breddan Field, Australia, 7 Aug 1942; 
Townsville, Australia, 30 Sep 1942; Port 
Moresby, New Guinea, Oct 1942; Nadzab, 
New Guinea, 4 Mar 1944; Biak, 1 Oct 
1944; Morotai, 15 Oct 1944; Lingayen, 
Luzon, c. 29 Jan 1945; Okinawa, 25 Jul 
1945; Itazuke, Japan, c. 22 Nov 1945; 
Itami, Japan, 26 Oct 1946-1 Apr 1949. 
Laon AB, France, i Jan 1953-. 

Commanders. Lt Col Robert D Knapp, 
15 Jan 1941; Col Fay R Upthegrove, c. 18 
Jan 1942-unkn; Lt Col Brian O'Neill, 19 
Oct 1942 ; Lt Col Lawrence Tanberg, i Oct 
1943; Lt Col Carl C Lausman, Jul 1944; 
Maj Howard M Paquin, 18 Aug 1944; Col 
Edward M Gavin, 9 Nov 1944; Lt Col 
Edwin H Hawes, 16 Mar 1945; Lt Col 
Vernon D Torgerson, 9 Aug 1945; Lt Col 
Bruce T Marston, 12 Sep 1945; Lt Col 
Joseph P Gentile, 17 Mar 1946; Lt Col 
John P Crocker, 16 May 1946; Col C J 
Bondley Jr, 2 Jul 1946; Col Dale D Bran- 
non, 12 Nov 1946; Col C J Bondley Jr, 13 
Dec 1946; Col John J Hutchison, 25 Jan 
1947; Col Donald D Fitzgerald, 26 Feb 
1948; Col Preston P Pender, 7 May 1948; 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



95 



Lt Col Charles R Johnson, i8 Jul 1948-1 
Apr 1949. Lt Col Max H Mortensen, i 
Jan 1953; Col Glen W Clark, 16 Mar 1953; 
Col Broadus B Taylor, 6 Jun 1955-. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Japan; 
China Defensive; Papua; New Guinea; 
Bismarck Archipelago; Western Pacific; 
Leyte; Luzon; Southern Philippines; 
China Offensive. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Papua, [Sep] 1942-23 Jan 1943; New 
Britain, 24-26 Dec 1943; New Guinea, 16- 
17 Jun 1944; Leyte, 10 Nov 1944. Philip- 
pine Presidential Unit Citation. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure a winged sword 
point downward argent, the hilt and pom- 
mel charged with a torteau, a pomeis, and 
a bezant, a fleur-de-lis fretting the blade or, 
between two cloud formations of the sec- 
ond issuing from dexter and sinister base. 
(Approved 16 Apr 1954.) 

39th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 39th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 20 Nov 1940. Acti- 
vated on 15 Jan 1941. Assigned to Second 
AF. Equipped with B-17's. Patrolled 
the northwest coast of the US after the 
nation entered the war. Equipped with 
B-24's in 1942. Served as an operational 
training and later as a replacement train- 
ing unit. Inactivated on i Apr 1944. 

Redesignated 39th Bombardment Group 
(Very Heavy). Activated on i Apr 1944. 
Trained with B-29's. Moved to Guam 
early in 1945 for duty with Twentieth AF. 
Bombed enemy-held Maug early in Apr. 



1945. Conducted its first mission against 
the Japanese home islands by hitting the 
Hodagaya chemical plant at Koriyama on 
12 Apr. Supported the Allied invasion of 
Okinawa, Apr-May 1945, by attacking 
airfields that served as bases for kami- 
kaze pilots. Bombed military and indus- 
trial targets in Japan and participated in 
incendiary raids on urban areas from mid- 
May until the end of the war. Received a 
DUC for an attack against the Otake oil 
refinery and storage area on Honshu in 
May 1945. Received second DUC for 
bombing industrial and dock areas in 
Yokohama and manufacturing districts in 
Tokyo, 23-29 May 1945. Dropped food 
and supplies to Allied prisoners and took 
part in show-of-force missions over Japan 
after V-J Day. Returned to the US, Nov- 
Dec 1945. Inactivated on 27 Dec 1945. 

Squadrons. 60th: 1941-1944; 1944-1945. 
6ist: 1941-1944; 1944-1945. 62d: 1941- 
1944; 1944-1945. 402d: 1942-1944; 1944. 

Stations. Ft Douglas, Utah, 15 Jan 
1941; Geiger Field, Wash, 2 Jul 1941; 
Davis-Monthan Field, Ariz, 5 Feb 1942-1 
Apr 1944. Smoky Hill AAFld, Kan, i 
Apr 1944-8 Jan 1945; North Field, Guam, 
18 Feb-17 Nov 1945; Camp Anza, Calif, 
15-27 Dec 1945. 

Commanders. Maj Newton Longfel- 
low, 15 Jan 1941 ; Capt Maurice A Preston, 
I Feb 194 1 ; Lt Col Elmer E Adler, 17 Mar 
1941; Capt George W Hansen, 13 May 
1941; Maj Charles B Overacker Jr, 12 Nov 
1941; Lt Col George W Hansen, 25 Jan 
1942; Col James H Wallace, 16 Feb 1942; 
Col Fay R Upthegrove, 12 Jul 1942; Lt 



96 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Col Samuel C Mitchell, 13 Sep 1942; Maj 
Harden M Munn, 17 Dec 1942; Lt Col 
Horace D Aynesworth, i Mar 1943; Lt 
Col Charles A Watt, i Jul 1943; Lt Col 
Frank R Pancake, 25 Nov 1943; Col Clyde 
K Rich, I Dec 1943-1 Apr 1944. Capt 
Claude J Hilton, 28 Apr 1944; Maj Gordon 
R Willis, 6 May 1944; Maj Campbell Weir, 
II May 1944; Lt Col Robert W Strong Jr, 
10 Jun 1944; Col Potter B Paige, 15 Jun 
1944; Col John G Fowler, 22 Feb 1945; 
Col George W Mundy, 16 Mar 1945; Col 
James E Roberts, 16 Aug 1945; Lt Col 
James C Thompson, 9 Oct 1945; Col 
Robert J Mason, 13 Oct 1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Air 
Offensive, Japan; Western Pacific. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Japan, 10 May 1945; Tokyo and 
Yokohama, Japan, 23-29 May 1945. 

Insigne. None. 

40th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 40th Bombardment 
Group (Medium) on 22 Nov 1940. Acti- 
vated in Puerto Rico on i Apr 1941. Re- 
designated 40th Bombardment Grolip 
(Heavy) in May 1942. Trained and 
patrolled the Caribbean area, using B-17 
and B-26 aircraft. Operated first from 
Puerto Rico and later from the Panama 
Canal Zone. 

Moved to the US in Jun 1943. Redesig- 
nated 40th Bombardment Group (Very 
Heavy) in Nov 1943. After training with 
B-29's, moved to India, via Africa, Mar- 
Jun 1944. Assigned to Twentieth AF in 




Jun 1944. Transported supplies over the 
Hump to staging bases in China before 
entering combat with a strike on railroad 
shops at Bangkok, Thailand, on 5 Jun 
1944. On 15 Jun participated in the first 
AAF attack on Japan since the Doolittle 
raid in 1942. Operating from bases in 
India, and at times staging through fields 
in China, the group struck such targets as 
transportation centers, naval installations, 
iron works, and aircraft plants in Burma, 
Thailand, China, Japan, Indonesia, and 
Formosa, receiving a DUC for bombing 
iron and steel works at Yawata, Japan, on 
20 Aug 1944. From a staging field in 
Ceylon, it mined waters near the port of 
Palembang, Sumatra, in Aug 1944. 

Moved to Tinian, Feb-Apr 1945, for 
further operations against Japan. Made 
daylight attacks from high altitude on 
strategic targets, participated in incendiary 
raids on urban areas, and dropped mines 
in Japanese shipping lanes. Received a 
DUC for attacking naval aircraft factories 
at Kure, oil storage facilities at Oshima, 
and the industrial area of Nagoya, in May 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



97 



1945. Raided light metal industries in 
Osaka in Jul 1945, being awarded another 
DUG for this mission. After V-J Day, 
dropped food and supplies to Allied pris- 
oners in Japan, Korea, and Formosa, and 
took part in show-of-force missions. Re- 
turned to the US in Nov 1945. Assigned 
to Strategic Air Command on 21 Mar 1946. 
Inactivated on i Oct 1946. 

Squadrons. 2^th: 1943-1946. 2gth: 
1941-1943. 44th: 1941-1946. 4$th: 1941- 

1946. y4th: 1942-1943. 343d: 1945-1946. 
Sg^th: 1942-1946. 

Stations. Borinquen Field, PR, i Apr 
1941; Howard Field, CZ, 16 Jun 1942; Al- 
brook Field, CZ, 16 Sep 1942; Howard 
Field, CZ, 3-15 Jun 1943; Pratt AAFld, 
Kan, I Jul 1943-12 Mar 1944; Chakulia, 
India, 2 Apr 1944-25 Feb 1945; West Field, 
Tinian, 4 Apr-7 Nov 1945; March Field, 
Calif, 27 Nov 1945; Davis-Monthan Field, 
Ariz, 8 May-i Oct 1946. 

Commanders. Lt Col William B Sousa, 
I Apr 194 1 ; Maj George W McGregor, 
29 Apr 194 1 ; Col Ivan M Palmer, 26 Nov 
1941; Col Vernon C Smith, 19 Jan 1943; 
Col Henry K Mooney, 16 May 1943; Col 
Lewis R Parker, i Jul 1943; Lt Col Louis 
E Coira, 24 Feb 1944; Col Leonard F 
Harman, 10 Apr 1944; Col William H 
Blanchard, 4 Aug 1944; Col Henry R 
Sullivan, 16 Feb 1945; Col William K 
Skaer, 27 Feb 1945; Lt Col Oscar R Schaaf, 
21 Mar 1946; Col Alva L Harvey, 4 May 
1946; Lt Col Oscar R Schaaf, 21 Aug 1946; 
ist Lt William F Seith, 21 Sep-i Oct 1946. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater; India-Burma; Air Offensive, Ja- 



pan; China Defensive; Western Pacific; 
Central Burma. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Yawata, Japan, 20 Aug 1944; Japan, 
5-14 May 1945; Japan, 24 Jul 1945. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, on a bomb burst 
proper fimbriated argent four drop bombs 
in cross or. (Approved 28 Mar 1942. This 
insigne was replaced 6 Jan 1954.) 

41st BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 41st Bombardment 
Group (Medium) on 20 Nov 1940. Ac- 
tivated on 15 Jan 1941. Trained with B-i8's 
and A-29's; later equipped with B-25's. 
Patrolled the west coast during 1942 and 
1943. Moved to Hawaii in Oct 1943 and 
assigned to Seventh AF. Completed final 
training and moved to Tarawa in the Cen- 
tral Pacific in Dec 1943. Attacked enemy 
installations, airfields, and shipping in the 
Marshalls in preparation for the invasion 
by US forces, and after Feb 1944 staged 
through captured fields on Eniwetok to 
attack shipping in the Caroline Islands. 
In Apr 1944 rnoved to Makin where its 
missions were directed primarily against 
shipping and bypassed islands in the Mar- 
shalls and Carolines. Returned to Hawaii 
in Oct 1944 for training with rockets and 
new B-25's. Moved to Okinawa, May- 
Jun 1945. Bombed airfields, railways, and 
harbor facilities on Kyushu until Aug 1945. 
Also flew some missions against airfields 
in China. Moved to Manila in Dec 1945. 
Inactivated in the Philippines on 27 Jan 
1946. 



98 



AIR FORCE COMBAT I)NITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Squadrons. 46th: 1941-1943. 47th: 
1941-1946. 48th: 1941-1946. jSth: 1943. 
^gSth: 1942-1946. 406th: 1943. 820th: 
1943-1946. 

Stations. March Field, Calif, 15 Jan 
1941; Tucson, Ariz, May 1941; Muroc, 
Calif, c. 10 Dec 1941 ; Hammer Field, Calif, 
Feb 1942-29 Sep 1943; Hickam Field, TH, 
16 Oct 1943; Tarawa, 17 Dec 1943; Makin, 
24 Apr 1944; Wheeler Field, TH, 14 Oct 
1944; Okinawa, 7 Jun 1945; Manila, Dec 
1945-27 Jan 1946. 

Commanders. Capt Lawrence H Dou- 
thit, 15 Jan 1941; Lt Col Archibald Y 
Smith, 2 Jun 1941; Lt Col Charles B 
Dougher, 1942; Col Murray A Bywater, 
18 Aug 1943-c. Nov 1945. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater; Air Offensive, Japan; Eastern 
Mandates; Western Pacific; Ryukyus; 
China Offensive. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

42d BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 42d Bombardment 
Group (Medium) on 20 Nov 1940. Acti- 
vated on 15 Jan 1941. Trained with B-18, 
B-25, and B-26 aircraft. Patrolled the 
west coast during 1942. Moved to the 
Pacific theater, Mar-Apr 1943, and as- 
signed to Thirteenth AF. Entered com- 
bat in Jun 1943, using B-25's and operating 
from bases in the Solomon Islands. At- 
tacked Japanese airfields, personnel areas, 
gun positions, and shipping in the central 




Solomons. Engaged primarily in the neu- 
tralization of enemy airfields and harbor 
facilities on New Britain from Jan to Jul 
1944, but also supported ground forces on 
Bougainville and attacked shipping in the 
northern Solomons and the Bismarcks. 
Later, beginning in Aug 1944, bombed 
airfields and installations on New Guinea, 
Celebes, and Halmahera, and flew photo- 
graphic reconnaissance missions, while 
operating from bases in New Guinea and 
Morotai. Moved to the Philippines in 
Mar 1945. Attacked shipping along the 
China coast, struck targets in French Indo- 
china, bombed airfields and installations 
in the Philippines, and supported ground 
operations on Mindanao. Also supported 
Australian forces on Borneo during May 
and Jun 1945, receiving a DUC for its pre- 
invasion bombing of Balikpapan, 23-30 
Jun. Brought its combat service to an 
end, Jul and Aug 1945, by attacking iso- 
lated Japanese units on Luzon. Ferried 
troops and equipment to Manila after the 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



99 



war. Moved to Japan in Jan 1946 as part 
of the occupation force. Inactivated in 
Japan on 10 May 1946. 

Squadrons. 6gth: 1943-1946. joth: 
1943-1946. 7^th: 1941-1946. ySth: 1941- 
1943. Tjth: 1941-1942. looth: 1945. 
^goth: 1942-1946. 406th: 1942-1943. 

Stations. Ft Douglas, Utah, 15 Jan 
1941; Boise, Idaho, c. 3 Jun 1941; Mc- 
Chord Field, Wash, c. 18 Jan 1942-15 Mar 
1943; Fiji Islands, 22 Apr 1943; Guadal- 
canal, 6 Jun 1943; Russell Islands, Oct 
1943; Sterling, Solomon Islands, 20 Jan 
1944; HoUandia, Aug 1944; Sansapor, 
New Guinea, Sep 1944; Morotai, Feb 
1945; Puerto Princesa, Palawan, Mar 
1945; Itami, Japan, Jan-io May 1946. 

Commanders. Col John V Hart, 15 
Jan 194 1 ; Col Harry E Wilson, Jul 1942; 
Maj Edwin J Latoszewski, 14 Dec 1942; 
Lt Col Guy L Hudson, Jan 1943; Col 
Harry E Wilson, 22 Apr 1943 ; Col Charles 
C Kegelman, 16 Nov 1944; Lt Col Harry 
C Harvey, 15 Mar 1945; Col Paul F Hel- 
mick, 10 May 1945; Lt Col Harry E Golds- 
worthy, Sep 1945; Maj Thomas B Waddel, 
Mar-io May 1946. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater; China Defensive; New Guinea; 
Northern Solomons; Bismarck Archi- 
pelago; Western Pacific; Leyte; Luzon; 
Southern Philippines; China Offensive. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion : Balikpapan, Borneo, 23-30 Jun 1945. 
Philippine Presidential Unit Citation. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, on a bend en- 
grailed or, four annulets gules, between 



two aerial bombs palewise of the second. 
Motto: AETHERA NOBIS— The Skies 
for Us. (Approved 11 Mar 1942.) 

43d BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 43d Bombardment Group 
(Heavy) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 
15 Jan 1941. Trained with B-17, B-18, 
A-29, and LB-30 aircraft. Flew some 
antisubmarine patrols along the New 
England coast, Dec 1941-Feb 1942. 

Moved to the Southwest Pacific, via 
Capetown, Feb-Mar 1942. Became part 
of Fifth AF. Equipped first with B-17's, 
but converted to B-24's, May-Sep 1943. 
Operated from Australia, New Guinea, 
and Owi Island, Aug 1942-Nov 1944, mak- 
ing numerous attacks on Japanese ship- 
ping in the Netherlands East Indies and 
the Bismarck Archipelago. Experimented 
with skip bombing and used this method 
for some shipping strikes, including at- 
tacks on Japanese vessels during the Bat- 



100 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



tie of the Bismarck Sea, 2-4 Mar 1943; 
received a DUG for participation in this 
latter action in which repeated air attacks 
destroyed a large enemy convoy carrying 
reinforcements to New Guinea. Other 
operations during this period included 
support for ground forces on New 
Guinea; attacks on airfields and installa- 
tions in New Guinea, the Bismarck Archi- 
pelago, Celebes, Halmahera, Yap, Palau, 
and the southern Philippines; and long- 
range raids against oil refineries on Ceram 
and Borneo. Capt Jay Zeamer Jr, pilot, 
and 2d Lt Joseph R Sarnoski, bombardier, 
each won the Medal of Honor for action 
during a photographic mapping mission 
over the Solomon Islands on 16 Jun 1943 : 
when the mission was nearly completed, 
their aircraft was assaulted by about 20 
interceptors; although painfully wounded, 
Lt Sarnoski remained at the nose guns 
and fired at the enemy until he died at his 
post; sustaining severe injuries, Capt 
Zeamer maneuvered the plane until the 
enemy had broken combat, then directed 
the flight to a base more than 500 miles 
away. After moving to the Philippines in 
Nov 1944, the group atttacked shipping 
along the Asiatic coast; struck industries, 
airfields, and installations in China and 
Formosa ; and supported ground forces on 
Luzon. Moved to le Shima in Jul 1945 
and conducted missions against airfields 
and railways in Japan and against ship- 
ping in the Inland Sea and the Sea of 
Japan. Returned to the Philippines in 
in Dec 1945. Inactivated on 29 Apr 1946. 



Redesignated 43d Bombardment Group 
(Very Heavy). Activated in the US on i 
Oct 1946. Assigned to Strategic Air Com- 
mand. Redesignated 43d Bombardment 
Group (Medium) in Jul 1948. Equipped 
first with B-29's, then with B-50's. Trained 
and conducted long-range test missions, 
including the first nonstop flight around 
the world (26 Feb-2 Mar 1949), accom- 
plished in "Lucky Lady II," a B-50 com- 
manded by Capt James G Gallagher. In- 
activated on 16 Jun 1952. 

Squadrons. 6^d: 1941-1946; 1946-1952. 
64th: 1941-1946; 1946-1952. 6$th: 1941- 
1946; 1946-1952. 40sd: 1942-1946. 

Stations. Langley Field, Va, 15 Jan 
1941; Bangor, Maine, 28 Aug 1941-17 Feb 
1942; Sydney, Australia, 28 Mar 1942; Tor- 
rens Creek, Australia, c. i Aug 1942; Port 
Moresby, New Guinea, 14 Sep 1942 ; Dobo- 
dura. New Guinea, 10 Dec 1943; Nadzab, 
New Guinea, 4 Mar 1944; Owi, Schouten 
Islands, 2 Jul 1944; Tacloban, Leyte, c. 15 
Nov 1944; Clark Field, Luzon, 16 Mar 
1945; le Shima, 26 Jul 1945; Ft William 
McKinley, Luzon, 10 Dec 1945-29 Apr 
1946. Davis-Monthan Field, Ariz, i Oct 
1946-16 Jun 1952. 

Commanders. Lt Col Harold D Smith, 
15 Jan 1941; Lt Col Francis B Valentine, i 
Mar 1941; Maj Conrad H Diehl Jr, 18 
Feb 1942; Col Roger M Ramey, 21 Oct 
1942; Lt Col John A Roberts, 30 Mar 1943; 
Col Harry J Hawthorne, 24 May 1943 ; Lt 
Col Edward W Scott Jr, 18 Nov 1943; Col 
Harry J Hawthorne, 8 Feb 1944; Col James 
T Pettus Jr, 18 Sep 19144; Maj Paul B Han- 
sen, 8 Sep 1945-unkn. Col James C Selser 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GKOf7P5 



101 



Jr, 5 Oct 1946; Col William E Eubank Jr, 
Apr 1948; Col Dalene Bailey, Jul 1948; Col 
Alvan N Moore, 3 Jan 1949-16 Jun 1952. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater; Air OfJensive, Japan; China De- 
fensive; Papua; New Guinea; Bismarck 
Archipelago; Western Pacific; Leyte; 
Luzon; Southern Philippines; Ryukyus; 
China Offensive. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Papua, [Aug] 1942-23 Jan 1943; 
Bismarck Sea, 2-4 Mar 1943. Philippine 
Presidential Unit Citation. 

Insigne. Shield: Per fess nebuly or and 
azure, a drop bomb counterchanged. 
Motto: WILLING, ABLE, READY. 
(Approved 31 Jan 1942.) 

44th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 44th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 20 Nov 1940. Acti- 
vated on 15 Jan 1941. Trained with 
B-24's. Became an operational training 
unit in Feb 1942. Also served on anti- 




submarine duty. In Jul 1942 began inten- 
sive preparations for combat. Moved to 
England, Aug-Oct 1942, for service with 
Eighth AF. Operations consisted prima- 
rily of assaults against strategic targets in 
France, Belgium, Holland, Germany, Italy 
Rumania, Austria, Poland, and Sicily. 
Pounded submarine installations, indus- 
trial establishments, airfields, harbors, 
shipyards, and other objectives in France 
and Germany, Nov 1942-Jun 1943. Re- 
ceived a DUC for an extremely hazardous 
mission against naval installations at Kiel 
on 14 May 1943: with its B-24's carrying 
incendiaries to be dropped after three B-17 
groups had released high explosive bombs, 
the 44th flew in the wake of the main 
formation; thus the B-24's were particu- 
larly vulnerable because they had no pro- 
tection from fire power of the main force, 
and this vulnerability increased when the 
group had to open its own formation for 
the attack; but the 44th blanketed the 
target with incendiaries in spite of the 
concentrated flak and continuous inter- 
ceptor attacks it encountered. Late in 
Jun 1943 a large detachment moved to 
North Africa to help facilitate the invasion 
of Sicily by bombing airfields and mar- 
shalling yards in Italy. The detachment 
also participated in the famous low-level 
raid on the Ploesti oil fields on i Aug 1943. 
The group was awarded a DUC for its 
part in this raid and its commander, Col 
Leon Johnson, was awarded the Medal of 
Honor for his daring and initiative in lead- 
ing his men into smoke, flame, and alerted 
fighter and antiaircraft opposition over the 



102 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



target, which already had been bombed 
in error by another group. Before return- 
ing to England at the end of Aug, the 
detachment bombed an aircraft factory in 
Austria and supported ground forces in 
Sicily. In Sep the group struck airfields 
in Holland and France and convoys in the 
North Sea. Also in Sep, a detachment 
was sent to North Africa to support the 
Salerno operations. The detachment re- 
turned to England in Oct and from Nov 
1943 to Apr 1945, the entire group carried 
out operations against targets in western 
Europe, concentrating on airfields, oil in- 
stallations, and marshalling yards. Took 
part in the intensive campaign of heavy 
bombers against the German aircraft 
industry during Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944. 
Sometimes flew support and interdictory 
missions. Struck airfields, railroads, and 
V-weapon sites in preparation for the 
Normandy invasion; supported the inva- 
sion in Jun 1944 by attacking strong points 
in the beachhead area and transportation 
targets behind the front lines. Aided the 
Caen offensive and the St Lo breakthrough 
in Jul. Dropped 'food, ammunition, and 
other supplies to troops engaged in the 
airborne attack on Holland in Sep. 
Helped to check the enemy offensive dur- 
ing the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 
1945, by striking bridges, tunnels, choke 
points, rail and road junctions, and com- 
munications in the battle area. Attacked 
airfields and transportation in support of 
the advance into Germany, and flew a 
resupply mission during the airborne as- 
sault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Flew 



last combat mission on 25 Apr 1945. Re- 
turned to the US in Jun 1945. Redesig- 
nated 44th Bombardment Group (Very 
Heavy) in Aug 1945. Trained with 
B-29's. Assigned to Strategic Air Com- 
mand on 21 Mar 1946. Inactivated on 12 
Jul 1946. 

Activated on i Jul 1947. Assigned to 
Strategic Air Command. Not manned 
during 1947 and 1948. Inactivated on 6 
Sep 1948. 

Redesignated 44th Bombardment Group 
(Medium). Activated on 2 ]nni<^i. As- 
signed to Strategic Air Command and 
equipped with B-29's. Inactivated on 16 
Jun 1952. 

Squadrons. 66th: 1941-1946; 1947- 
1948; 1951-1952. 6jth: 1941-1946; 1947- 
1948; 1951-1952. 68th: 1941-1946; 1947- 
1948; 1951-1952. 404th: 1942. ^o6th: 
1943-1946. 

Stations. MacDill Field, Fla, 15 Jan 
1941; Barksdale Field, La, Feb 1942; Will 
Rogers Field, Okla, Jul-c. 28 Aug 1942; 
Shipham, England, Oct 1942-c. 15 Jun 
1945; Sioux Falls AAFld, SD, c. 27 Jun 
1945; Great Bend AAFld, Kan, 25 Jul 
1945; Smoky Hill AAFld, Kan, 14 Dec 
1945-12 Jul 1946. Andrews Field, Md, i 
Jul 1947-6 Sep 1948. March AFB, Calif, 
2 Jan 195 1 ; Lake Charles AFB, La, c. i 
Aug 1951-16 Jun 1952. 

Commanders. Lt Col Melvin B Asp, 
c. 15 Jan 1941 ; Lt Col Hugo P Rush, May 
1941; Col F H Robinson, c. i Apr 1942; 
Col Leon W Johnson, c. 15 Jan 1943; Lt 
Col James T Posey, c. 3 Sep 1943; Col 
Frederick R Dent, Dec 1943; Col John H 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNVTS— GROUPS 

Gibson, c. i Apr 1944; Col Eugene H 
Snavely, Aug 1944; Col Vernon C Smith, 
Apr 1945-unkn; Lt Col Henry C Coles, c. 
6 Aug 1945; Col William J Cain Jr, c. 30 
Aug 1945; Lt Col James F Starkey, c. 8 
Jan 1946-unkn. Unkn, 1947-1948. Col 
Howell M Estes Jr, Feb 1951; Col Carlos 
J Cochrane, 7 Mar 1951-16 Jun 1952. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater; Air Combat, EAME Theater; 
Air Offensive, Europe; Sicily; Naples- 
Foggia; Normandy; Northern France; 
Rhineland; Ardennes-Alsace; Central 
Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Kiel, Germany, 14 May 1943; Plo- 
esti, Rumania, i Aug 1943. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a bomb, point 
downward, between eight stars, four and 
four, or, all bendwise. Motto: AGGRES- 
SOR BEWARE. (Approved 15 May 

1951) 

45th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 45th Bombardment 
Group (Light) on 20 Nqv 1940. Acti- 
vated on 15 Jan 1941. Trained with B-18's 
and A-20's. Redesignated 45th Bombard- 
ment Group (Medium) in Dec 1941. 
Flew patrol and search missions off the 
Atlantic and Gulf coasts, serving with 
First AF and later with AAF Antisub- 
marine Command. Used B-18, B-34, and 
DB-7 aircraft for operations. Inactivated 
on 8 Dec 1942. 

Squadrons, jth Antisubmarine (for- 
merly 78th Bombardment): 1941-1942. 



103 




8th Antisubmarine (formerly 79th Bom- 
bardment): 1941-1942. gth Antisubma- 
rine (formerly Both Bombardment) : 1941- 
1942. loth Antisubmarine (formerly 433d 
Bombardment) : 1941-1942. 

Stations. Savannah, Ga, 15 Jan 1941; 
Manchester, NH, 18 Jun 1941 ; Dover, Del, 
16 May 1942; Miami, Fla, i Aug-8 Dec 
1942. 

Commanders. Lt Col James E Duke 
Jr, Jan 1941; Lt Col George A McHenry, 
I Apr 1941 ; Lt Col Charles W Haas, c. 
Sep-Dec 1942. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, three aerial 
bombs or, a chief potentee of the last. 
Motto: DE ASTRA— From the Stars. 
(Approved 6 Jan 1942.) 

46th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 46th Bombardment 
Group (Light) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated 
on 15 Jan 1941. Trained with A-20's and 



104 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 




participated in maneuvers. Flew some 
antisubmarine patrols over the Gulf of 
Mexico early in 1942. Assigned to Second 
AF in Aug 1942 and to Third AF in Nov 
1942. Served as an operational training 
unit until late in 1943, then became a re- 
placement training unit. Disbanded on i 
May 1944. 

Squadrons, ^oth: 1941-1944. pst: 
1941-1944. $^d: 1941-1944. Sjth: 1941- 
1944. 

Stations. Savannah, Ga, 15 Jan 1941; 
Bowman Field, Ky, 20 May 1941; Barks- 
dale Field, La, Feb 1942; Galveston Mun 
Aprt, Tex, c. i Apr 1942; Blythe AAB, 
Calif, 23 May 1942; Will Rogers Field, 
Okla, Nov 1942; Drew Field, Fla, Oct 
1943; Morris Field, NC, 6 Nov 1943-1 May 
1944. 

Commanders. Maj Guy L McNeil, 15 
Jan 1941; Maj Otto C George, 18 Apr 
1941 ; Col Richard H Lee, 9 May 1941 ; Lt 
Col Robert D Gapen, i Nov 1942; Lt Col 
Martin P Crabtree, 11 Apr 1943; Lt Col 
Robert V DeShazo, 21 Jul 1943; Col 



Harold L Mace, 13 Sep 1943; Lt Col Rob- 
ert V DeShazo, 21 Oct 1943-1 May 1944. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Or, a bend invected 
azure. Motto: CUSTOS LIBERT ATE— 
Guardians of Liberty. (Approved 14 Jul 
1942.) 

47th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 47th Bombardment 
Group (Light) on 20 Nov 1940. Acti- 
vated on 15 Jan 1941. Patrolled the west 
coast for several weeks after Japan attacked 
Pearl Harbor, then trained for duty over- 
seas. Moved to North Africa, Oct-Nov 
1942. Assigned to Twelfth AF. Served 
in the Mediterranean theater until the end 
of the war, using A-20's and (after Jan 
1945) some A-26's for support and inter- 
dictory operations in which the group at- 
tacked such targets as tanks, convoys, 
bivouac areas, troop concentrations, supply 




'■^Ho^t-e- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



105 



dumps, roads, pontoon bridges, rail Imes, 
and airfields. Also flew numerous night 
intruder missions after Jun 1944. Began 
operations by flying low-level missions 
against the enemy in North Africa during 
the period Dec 1942-May 1943. When 
Axis forces broke through at Kasserine 
Pass in Feb 1943, the 47th Group, though 
undermanned and undersupplied, flew 
eleven missions on 22 Feb to attack the 
advancing armored columns and thus to 
help stop the enemy's offensive — an action 
for which the group was awarded a DUG. 
Remained active in combat during Mar 
and Apr 1943 while training for medium- 
level bombardment. Participated in the 
reduction of Pantelleria and Lampedusa in 
Jun 1943 and the invasion of Sicily in Jul. 
Bombed German evacuation beaches near 
Messina in Aug. Supported British Eighth 
Army during the invasion of Italy in Sep. 
Assisted the Allied advance toward Rome, 
Sep 1943-Jun 1944. Supported the in- 
vasion of Southern France, Aug-Sep 1944. 
Attacked German communications in 
northern Italy, Sep 1944-Apr 1945. Re- 
ceived second DUG for performance from 
21 to 24 Apr 1945 when, in bad weather 
and over rugged terrain, the group main- 
tained operations for 60 consecutive hours, 
destroying enemy transportation in the 
Po Valley to prevent the organized with- 
drawal of German forces. Returned to 
the US in July 1945. Trained and par- 
ticipated in maneuvers. Equipped with 
B-45's in 1948. Inactivated on 2 Oct 1949. 
Activated on 12 Mar 1951. Assigned to 
Tactical Air Gommand and equipped with 



B-45's. Moved to England, May-Jun 
1952, and assigned to United States Air 
Forces in Europe. Inactivated on 8 Feb 

1955- 
Squadrons. 8^h: 1941-1949; 1951-1955. 

8^th: 1941-1949; 1951-1955. 86th: 1941- 
1949; 1954-1955. 97th: 1941-1946. ^22^; 

1953-1954- 
Stations. McGhord Field, Wash, 15 

Jan 1941 ; Fresno, Calif, 14 Aug 1941 ; Will 
Rogers Field, Okla, c. 16 Feb 1942; Greens- 
boro, NC, c. 16 Jul-i8 Oct 1942; Mediouna, 
French Morocco, 18 Nov 1942; Youks-les- 
Bains, Algeria, 7 Jan 1943; Canrobert, 
Algeria, 6 Mar 1943; Thelepte, Tunisia, 
30 Mar 1943; Souk-el-Arba, Tunisia, 13 
Apr 1943; SoUman, Tunisia, c. i Jul 1943; 
Malta, 21 Jul 1943; Torrente Comunelli, 
Sicily, 9 Aug 1943; Gerbini, Sicily, 20 Aug 
1943; Grottaglie, Italy, 24 Sep 1943; Vin- 
cenzo Airfield, Italy, 15 Oct 1943; Vesuvius 
Airfield, Italy, c. 10 Jan 1944; Capodichino, 
Italy, 22 Mar 1944; Vesuvius Airfield, 
Italy, 25 Apr 1944; Ponte Galeria, Italy, 
c. 10 Jun 1944; Ombrone Airfield, Italy, 
27 Jun 1944; Corsica, 11 Jul 1944; Salon, 
France, 7 Sep 1944; FoUonica, Italy, 18 
Sep 1944; Rosignano Airfield, Italy, Oct 
1944; Grosseto, Italy, 11 Dec 1944; Pisa, 
Italy, Jun-24 Jun 1945; Seymour Johnson 
Field, NC, 11 Jul 1945; Lake Charles 
AAFld, La, Sep 1945; Biggs Field, Tex, 
20 Oct 1946; Barksdale AFB, La, 19 Nov 
1948-2 Oct 1949. Langley AFB, Va, 12 
Mar 1951-12 May 1952; Sculthorpe, Eng- 
land, I Jun 1952-8 Feb 1955. 

Commanders. Maj William A Schul- 
gen, 15 Jan 1941; Lt Col Hilbert M Witt- 



106 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



kop, unkn; Col Frederick R Terrell, Jan 
1942; Col Malcolm Green Jr, 17 May 1943; 
Lt Col Kenneth S Wade, i Apr 1945; Col 
Marvin S Zipp, 28 Aug 1945;. Col Robert 
J Hughey, 23 Nov 1945; Lt Col Broadus B 
Taylor, 27 Aug 1946; Col Gerald E Wil- 
liams, 30 Aug 1946; Lt Col Stebbins W 
Griffith, 5 Jun 1947; Lt Col Frederick E 
Price, Aug 1947; Col Willis F Chapman, 
10 Oct 1947-2 Oct 1949. Col Benjamin C 
WiUis, 12 Mar 1951; Col David M Jones, 
Sep 1951; Col Galen B Price, 20 Feb 1952; 
Lt Col Hubert M Blair, unkn; Col Galen 
B Price, 1954-c. Feb 1955. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Al- 
geria-French Morocco; Tunisia; Sicily; 
Naples-Foggia; Anzio; Rome-Arno; 
Southern France; North Apennines; Po 
Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: North Africa, 22 Feb 1943; Po 
Valley, 21-24 Apr 1945. 

Insigne. Shield: Or, in chief, a bomb 
sable, point downward, winged gules, sur- 
mounting an arc, reversed and couped, 
azure, all above a stylized cloud indica- 
tion, of the second, emitting four lightning 
flashes gules toward base. (Approved 26 
Oct 1951.) 

48th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 48th Bombardment 
Group (Light) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated 
on 15 Jan 1941. Redesignated 48th Bom- 
bardment Group (Dive) in Sep 1942, and 
48th Fighter-Bomber Group in Aug 1943. 
Used A-20's and B-i8's during 1941, and 




A-20, A-24, A-31, A-35, A-36, P-39, 
P-40, and other aircraft between 1942 and 
1944. Served as a replacement training 
unit, participated in maneuvers, and for 
a brief time engaged in coastal patrol 
work. 

Moved overseas, arriving in England in 
Mar 1944. Assigned to Ninth AF. 
Trained with P-47's. Began operations 
on 20 Apr 1944 by making a fighter sweep 
over the coast of France. Redesignated 
48th Fighter Group in May 1944. Flew 
escort and dive-bombing missions to help 
prepare for the invasion of Normandy. 
Bombed bridges and gun positions on 6 
Jun and attacked rail lines and trains, mo- 
tor transports, bridges, fuel dumps, and 
gun positions during the remainder of the 
Normandy campaign. Moved to France, 
Jun-Jul 1944. Helped Allied forces break 
through the German lines at St Lo in Jul, 
supported the Allied drive across France 
in Aug and Sep, and assisted the airborne 
attack on Holland in Sep. Cited by the 
Belgian Government for close coopera- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



107 



tion with Allied armies during the period 
Jun-Sep 1944. Moved to Belgium and 
operated from there in the fall and win- 
ter of 1944-1945, being awarded second 
Belgian citation for operations during that 
time. Received a DUG for action on 6 
Dec 1944: facing intense enemy fire while 
flying below a heavy overcast, the group 
struck buildings, entrenchments, and troop 
concentrations to assist the advance of 
ground forces against an enemy strong- 
hold north of Julich. Supported ground 
operations during the Battle of the Bulge 
(Dec 1944-Jan 1945) and received third 
Belgian citation for relentless assaults 
against the enemy during that battle. 
Continued tactical air operations from 
bases on the Continent, supporting ground 
forces until the end of the war. During 
combat, also flew patrol, escort, weather- 
reconnaissance, and leaflet missions; on 
one occasion carried blood plasma that 
was dropped in belly tanks to ground 
troops. Moved to the US during Aug- 
Sep 1945. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945. 

Redesignated 48th Fighter-Bomber 
Group. Activated in France on 10 Jul 
1952. Assigned to United States Air 
Forces in Europe. Equipped with F-84's 
and later with F-86 aircraft. 

Squadrons. 4g2d (formerly 55th) 
1941-1945; 1952-. 4g^d (formerly 56th) 
1941-1945; 1952-. 4g4th (formerly 57th) 
1941-1945; 1952-. 4g^th (formerly 88th) 
1941-1944. 

Stations. Savannah, Ga, 15 Jan 1941; 
Will Rogers Field, Okla, 22 May 1941; 
Savannah, Ga, 7 Feb 1942; Key Field, Miss, 



28 Jun 1942; William Northern Field, 
Tenn, 20 Aug 1943; Waterboro AAFld, 
SC, 27 Jan-13 Mar 1944; Ibsley, England, 

29 Mar 1944; Deux Jumeaux, France, 18 
Jun 1944; Villacoublay, France, 29 Aug 
1944; Cambrai/Niergnies, France, 15 Sep 
1944; St Trond, Belgium, 30 Sep 1944; 
Kelz, Germany, 26 Mar 1945 ; Kassel, Ger- 
many, 17 Apr 1945 ; Illesheim, Germany, 29 
Apr 1945; Laon, France, 5 Jul- Aug 1945; 
Seymour Johnson Field, NC, 9 Sep-7 Nov 
1945. Chaumont AB, France, 10 Jul 1952-. 

Commanders. Lt Col Bernard S 
Thompson, 194 1; Col Norman R Burnett, 
unkn; Lt Col Preston P Pender, c. 1943; 
Lt Col Charles C Kegelman, c. Apr 1943; 
Col Dixon M Allison, c. 8 Nov 1943; Col 
George L Wertenbaker Jr, 23 Apr 1944; 
Col James K Johnson, c. Oct 1944; Lt Col 
Harold L McNeely, 8 Jun 1945; Lt Col 
Paul P Douglas Jr, 28 Jun 1945-unkn. 
Col Chesley G Peterson, 10 Jul 1952; Lt 
Col Arthur D Thomas, c. i Jun 1953; Col 
Frank A Hill, c. Sep 1953; Col Arthur D 
Thomas, c. Jul 1954; Lt Col John D Mc- 
Farlane, 1955-. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater; Air Offensive, Europe; Nor- 
mandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes- Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Germany, 6 Dec 1944. Cited in the 
Order of the Day, Belgian Army: 6 Jun- 

30 Sep 1944; I Oct 1944- ; 18 Dec 1944-15 
Jan 1945. Belgian Fourragere. 

Insigne. Shield: Argent, on a pale en- 
grailed azure a dexter hand couped at the 
wrist grasping a sword or. Motto: VUL- 



108 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



NERATUS NON VICTUS-Uncon- 
quered even though Wounded. (Approved 
12 Jan 1942.) 

49th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 49dv Pursuit Group (In- 
terceptor) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 
15 Jan 1941. Trained with P-35's. 
Moved to Australia, Jan-Feb 1942, and be- 
came part of Fifth AF. Redesignated 
49th Fighter Group in May 1942. Re- 
ceived P-40's in Australia and, after train- 
ing for a short time, provided air defense 
for the Northern Territory, being aw^arded 
a DUG for engaging the enemy in fre- 
quent and intense aerial combat while 
operating with limited materiel and facil- 
ities, Mar-Aug 1942. 

Moved to New Guinea in Oct 1942 to 
help stall the Japanese drive southward 
from Buna to Port Moresby. Engaged 
primarily in air defense of Port Moresby; 
also escorted bombers and transports, and 
attacked enemy installations, supply lines, 
and troop concentrations in support of 



Allied ground forces. Participated in the 
Allied offensive that pushed the Japanese 
back along the Buna trail, took part in the 
Battle of the Bismarck Sea (Mar 1943), 
fought for control of the approaches to 
Huon Gulf, and supported ground forces 
during the campaign in which the Allies 
eventually recovered New Guinea. Cov- 
ered landings on Noemfoor and had a 
part in the conquest of Biak. After hav- 
ing used P-38, P-40, and P-47 aircraft, 
was equipped completely in Sep 1944 with 
P-38's, which were used to fly long-range 
escort and attack missions to Mindanao, 
Halmahera, Ceram, and Borneo, Ar- 
rived in the Philippines in Oct 1944, 
shortly after the assault landings on Leyte. 
Engaged enemy fighters, attacked ship- 
ping in Ormoc Bay, supported ground 
forces, and covered the Allied invasion of 
Luzon. Maj Richard I Bong, who be- 
came AAF's top ace of World War II, was 
awarded the Medal of Honor for volun- 
tarily flying in combat from 10 Oct to 15 
Nov 1944, a period for which he was 
credited with the destruction of eight 
enemy aircraft in the air. For intensive 
operations against the Japanese on Leyte, 
the group was awarded a DUG. Other 
missions from the Philippines included 
strikes against industry and transportation 
on Formosa and against shipping along 
the China coast. Moved to Okinawa in 
Aug 1945 and to Japan in Sep. Trained, 
took part in maneuvers, and Hew surveil- 
lance patrols, as part of Far East Air 
Forces. Equipped with P-51's in 1946, 
with F-8o's being added in 1948, Redes- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



109 



ignated 49th Fighter-Bomber Group in 
Feb 1950. 

Began operations in the Korean War in 
Jun 1950. Covered the evacuation of ci- 
vilian personnel from Kimpo and Suwon. 
Then flew missions in support of UN 
ground forces, hitting gun positions, troop 
concentrations, and other objectives. 
Later, struck interdiction targets in North 
Korea. In combat, operated first from 
Japan and later from Korea, beginning 
operations with F-51's and F-8o's and 
completing conversion to F-84's in Sep 
1951. Remained in Korea for a time after 
the armistice. Returned to Japan in Nov 

1953- 

Squadrons, ph: 1941-. 8th: 1941-. 
gth: 194 1-. 

Stations. Selfridge Field, Mich, 15 Jan 
1941 ; Morrison Field, Fla, 25 May 1941-4 
Jan 1942; Melbourne, Australia, 2 Feb 
1942; Bankstown, Australia, 16 Feb 1942; 
Darwin, Australia, c. 16 Apr 1942; Port 
Moresby, New Guinea, 9 Oct 1942; Dobo- 
dura. New Guinea, Mar 1943; Gusap, New 
Guinea, 20 Nov 1943; Finschhafen, New 
Guinea, 19 Apr 1944; HoUandia, New 
Guinea, c. 17 May 1944; Biak, 3 Jan 1944; 
Tacloban, Leyte, 24 Oct 1944; San Jose, 
Mindoro, c. 30 Dec 1944; Lingayen, Lu- 
zon, c. 25 Feb 1945; Okinawa, 16 Aug 
1945; Atsugi, Japan, 15 Sep 1945; Chitose, 
Japan, 18 Feb 1946; Misawa, Japan, 20 Mar 
1948; Itazuke, Japan, 9 Jul 1950; Taegu, 
Korea, i Dec 1950; Kunsan, Korea, i Apr 
1953; Komaki, Japan, 2 Nov 1953; Na- 
goya, Japan, 16 Sep 1954- 



CoMMANDERs. Maj Glcuu L Davasher, 
16 Jan 1941; Maj John F Egan, 10 Feb 
1941; Maj George McCoy Jr, 2 May 1941; 
Col Paul B Wurtsmith, 11 Dec 194 1; Col 
Donald R Hutchinson, 11 Nov 1942; Lt 
Col Robert L Morrissey, 30 Jan 1943; Col 
James C Selman, Jul 1943; Lt Col David 
A Campbell, 25 Jan 1944; Lt Col Furlo S 
Wagner, 3 Jun 1944; Col George A 
Walker, 19 Jul 1944; Lt Col Gerald R 
Johnson, 10 Mar 1945; Lt Col Clay Tice 
Jr, 16 Jul 1945; Lt Col Wallace R Jordan, 
4 Feb 1946; Lt Col Charles H Terhune Jr, 
c. 18 Feb 1946; Col Herbert L Grills, 25 
Mar 1946; Col Merrill D Burnside, 20 Jul 
1946; Lt Col Clay Tice Jr, 11 Sep 1946; Col 
Louis R Hughes, i Sep 1947; Lt Col Robert 
E Kirtley, 18 Aug 1948; Lt Col Niven K 
Cranfill, 11 Mar 1949; Lt Col John R Mur- 
phy, I Sep 1949; Lt Col James A Rippin, 
31 Oct 1949; Col Wilbur H Stratton, 10 
Nov 1949; Col Stanton T Smith Jr, 20 Jan 
1950,- Col John R Murphy, 21 Oct 1950; 
Col Wilbur J Grumbles, 20 May 1951; Col 
WiUiam L Mitchell, 4 Nov 1951; Lt Col 
Gordon F Blood, 20 May 1952; Col 
Charles G Teschner, 1952; Col Robert H 
Orr, Sep 1952; Col Richard N Ellis, 17 Jan 
1953; Col Charles G Teschner, i Apr 
1953; Col Gilbert L Pritchard, Aug 1953-. 

Campaigns. World War II: East In- 
dies; Air Offensive, Japan; China Defen- 
sive; Papua; New Guinea; Bismarck Ar- 
chipelago; Western Pacific; Leyte; Lu- 
zon ; China Offensive. Korean War: UN 
Defensive; UN Offensive; CCF Interven- 
tion; I St UN Counteroffensive; CCF 



no 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Spring Offensive; UN Summer-Fall Of- 
fensive; Second Korean Winter; Korea 
Summer-Fall, 1952; Third Korean Win- 
ter; Korea Summer-Fall, 1953. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Australia, 14 Mar-25 Aug 1942; 
Papua, [Oct] 1942-23 Jan 1943; Philippine 
Islands, 27 Oct-7 Dec 1944; Korea [Jun]- 
25 Nov 1950; Korea, 9 Jul-27 Nov 1951. 
Philippine Presidential Unit Citation. Re- 
public of Korea Presidential Unit Cita- 
tions: [Jun] 1950-7 Feb 195 1; 8 Feb 195 1- 
31 Mar 1953. 

Insigne. Shield: A gyronny of three 
gules, or and azure, a bolt of lightning, 
bend sinisterwise argent, in chief, a 
knight's helmet, winged of the last, in 
dexter chief, five stars (Southern Cross) 
argent, two on gules, and three on azure, 
in sinister base a covered wagon, trees and 
road scene, all proper. Motto: TUTOR 
ET ULTOR— I Protect and Avenge. 
(Approved 29 Dec 1951.) 

50th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 50th Pursuit Group (In- 
terceptor) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 
15 Jan 1941. Redesignated 50th Fighter 
Group in May 1942. Functioned as part 
of the Fighter Command School, testing 
equipment and conducting training in air 
defense operations; also trained pilots and 
furnished cadres to night fighter units. 
Later operated with AAF School of Ap- 
plied Tactics, training personnel in fighter 
tactics under simulated combat conditions. 




Used P-40's and P-47's, plus some DB-7's, 
P-51's, and P-70's. 

Moved to England, Mar-Apr 1944. As- 
signed to Ninth AF and, using P-47's, 
began operations by making a fighter 
sweep over France on i May. Engaged 
primarily in escort and dive-bombing mis- 
sions for the next month. Covered the 
beach during the invasion of Normandy 
on 6 and 7 Jun, and moved to the Con- 
tinent late that month. Attacked bridges, 
roads, vehicles, railways, trains, gun em- 
placements, and marshalling yards during 
the Normandy campaign. Bombed tar- 
gets in the St Lo region in Jul and support- 
ed the subsequent drive across France. 
Assisted in stemming the German offen- 
sive in the Saar-Hardt area early in Jan 
1945, engaged in the offensive that reduced 
the Colmar bridgehead in Jan and Feb 
1945, and supported the drive that 
breached the Siegfried Line and resulted 
in the movement of Allied forces into 
southern Germany in Mar and Apr 1945. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



111 



Received a DUG for close cooperation 
with Seventh Army in Mar during the as- 
sault on the Siegfried Line ; in spite of the 
hazards of enemy opposition and difficult 
weather conditions, the group struck en- 
emy defenses and isolated battle areas by 
destroying bridges, communications, sup- 
ply areas, and ammunition dumps. Re- 
ceived second DUG for a mission on 25 
Apr 1945 when, despite intense antiair- 
craft fire, the group destroyed or damaged 
many enemy aircraft on an airfield south- 
east of Munich. Ended operations in 
May 1945. Returned to the US in Aug. 
Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945. 

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 
I Jun 1949. Redesignated 50th Fighter- 
Interceptor Group in Mar 1950. Ordered 
into active service on i Jun 1951. Inacti- 
vated on 2 Jun 1951. 

Redesignated 50th Fighter-Bomber 
Group. Activated on i Jan 1953. As- 
signed to Tactical Air Gommand. 
Equipped with F-51's; converted to 
F-86's early in 1953. Moved to Germany, 
Jul-Aug 1953, and assigned to United 
States Air Forces in Europe. 

Squadrons. loth: 1941-1945; 1953-. 
iith: 1941-1942. i2th: 1941-1942. 
81 St: 1942-1945; 1949-1951; 1953-. 
575M; 1942-1945. 4iyth: 1953-. 445M: 
1943-1944. 

Stations. Selfridge Field, Mich, 15 Jan 
1941; Key Field, Miss, 3 Oct 1941; Or- 
lando AB, Fla, 22 Mar 1943; Alachua 
AAFld, Fla, 20 Nov 1943; Orlando AB, 
Fla, I Feb-13 Mar 1944; Lymington, Eng- 



land, 5 Apr 1944; Garentan, France, 25 
Jun 1944; Meautis, France, 16 Aug 1944; 
Orly, France, 4 Sep 1944; Laon, France, 

15 Sep 1944; Lyons/Bron, France, 28 Sep 
1944; Toul/Ochey, France, 3 Nov 1944; 
Giebelstadt, Germany, 20 Apr 1945; 
Mannheim, Germany, 21 May-c. Jun 
1945; La Junta AAFld, Golo, Aug-7 Nov 
1945. Otis AFB, Mass, i Jun 1949-2 Jun 
1 95 1. Glovis AFB, NM, 'i Jan-22 Jul 
1953; Hahn AB, Germany, 10 Aug 1953-. 

GoMMANDERS. Gapt Gcorgc McGoy Jr, 

16 Jan 1941 ; Gol Allen R Springer, i May 
1 941; Lt Gol John G Grosthwaite, i Apr 
1942 ; Lt Gol Murray G Woodbury, 15 May 
1942; Lt Gol T Alan Bennett, 23 Jul 1942; 
Lt Col Walter B Putnam, 29 Jan 1943; Lt 
Gol Robert S Quinn, 9 Nov 1943; Gol 
William D Greenfield, i Dec 1943; Gol 
Harvey L Gase Jr, Nov 1944-1945. Col 
Gerald J Dix, i Jan 1953; Gol Albert W 
Schinz, I Jun 1953; Lt Col Edward A 
McGough III, 2 Apr 1954; Gol James F 
Hackler Jr, 23 Apr 1954; Lt Gol Chester 
L VanEtten, May 1955-. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Air Of- 
fensive, Europe; Normandy; Northern 
France; Rhineland; Ardennes- Alsace ; 
Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: ETO, 13-20 Mar 1945; Germany, 25 
Apr 1945. Cited in the Order of the Day, 
Belgian Army: 6 Jun-30 Sep 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, an Opinicus 
passant argent. Motto: MASTER OF 
THE SKY. (Approved 9 Jan 1942. 
This insigne was replaced 23 Aug 1956.) 



112 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



51st FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 51st Pursuit Group (In- 
terceptor) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 
15 Jan 1941. Assigned to Fourth AF and 
equipped with P-40's. Redesignated 51st 
Pursuit Group (Fighter) in Mar 1941. 
While training for combat, served as part 
of the defense force for the west coast. 
Left the US in Jan 1942, stopped in 
AustraUa and Ceylon, and arrived in India 
in Mar 1942. Assigned to Tenth AF. 
Redesignated 51st Fighter Group in May 
1942. Defended the Indian terminus of 
the Hump route and airfields in that area. 
Flew strafing, bombing, reconnaissance, 
and patrol missions in support of Allied 
ground troops during a Japanese offensive 
in northern Burma in 1943. Moved to 
China in Oct 1943 and assigned to Four- 
teenth AF. Used P-38's, P-40's, and (in 
1945) P-51's to defend the eastern end of 
the route over the Hump, guard air bases 
in the Kunming area, harass Japanese ship- 
ping in the Red River delta, and support 



Chinese ground forces in their drive along 
the Salween River. Returned to India in 
the fall of 1945 and sailed for the US in 
Nov. Inactivated on 13 Dec 1945. 

Activated on Okinawa on 15 Oct 1946. 
Assigned to Far East Air Forces. 
Equipped with P-47's and P-6i's in 1946, 
and with F-80 and F-82 aircraft in 1948. 
Trained, served as part of the occupation 
force, and provided air defense for the 
Ryukyus. Redesignated 51st Fighter- 
Interceptor Group in Feb 1950. Moved to 
Japan in Sep 1950 and, operating from 
bases in Japan and Korea, served in combat 
against Communist forces until the end of 
the Korean War. Used F-8o's until Nov 
1951 and then converted to F-86 aircraft. 
Supported ground forces and flew patrol, 
escort, interdictory, and reconnaissance 
missions. Frequently engaged the enemy's 
jet (MIG) fighters and reported numerous 
victories in aerial combat, Capt Joseph Mc- 
Connell Jr becoming the leading ace of 
the Korean War. Returned to Okinawa 
in Aug 1954. 

Squadrons. i6th: 1941-1945; 1946-. 
2^th: 1941-1945; 1946-. 26th: 1941-1945; 
1946-. 44gth: 1943-1945. 

Stations. Hamilton Field, Calif, 15 
Jan 1941 ; March Field, Calif, 20 Jun 1941- 
II Jan 1942; Karachi, India, 14 Mar 1942; 
Dinjan, India, 10 Oct 1942; Kunming, 
China, 2 Oct 1943; India, Sep-Nov 1945; 
Ft Lewis, Wash, 12-13 Dec 1945. Yontan, 
Okinawa, 15 Oct 1946; Naha, Okinawa, 
22 May 1947; Itazuke, Japan, 22 Sep 1950; 
Kimpo, Korea, 24 Oct 1950; Itazuke, Ja- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



113 



pan, 3 Jan 195 1 ; Tsuiki, Japan, 20 Jan 195 1 ; 
Suwon, Korea, 27 Jul 1951; Naha, Oki- 
nawa, I Aug 1954-. 

CoMMANDERs. Col Homcr L Sanders, 
1941; Col John F Egan, 23 Mar 1943; Lt 
Col Samuel B Knowles Jr, 20 Sep 1943; 
Col Louis R Hughes Jr, 27 May 1944; Lt 
Col William E Blankenship, Feb-13 Dec 
1945. Col Loring F Stetson Jr, 15 Oct 
1946; Col Homer A Boushey, 12 Apr 1947; 
Lt Col James F McCarthy, i Aug 1947; 
Col Homer A Boushey, unkn; Lt Col 
Bruce D Biddlecome, Jun 1948; Lt Col 
Kenneth L Garrett, 7 Mar 1949; Lt Col 
Robert F Worley, 24 May 1949; Col John 
T Shields, i Jul 1949; Lt Col Irwin H 
Dregne, Jun 1950; Col Oliver G Cellini, 
1950; Col Irwin H Dregne, 24 Apr 1951; 
Lt Col John M Thacker, 21 Jul 1951; Lt 
Col George L Jones, 13 Nov 1951 ; Lt Col 
William M Shelton, Mar 1952; Lt Col Al- 
bert S Kelly, Jun 1952; Col Robert P 
Baldwin, Jan 1953; Lt Col Harold C Gib- 
son, Aug 1953; Col Malcolm E Norton, 
Oct 1953; Lt Col Harold G Shook, 23 Mar 
1954; Lt Col William A Campbell, 9 Jul 
1954; Col George V Williams, 10 Aug 
1954-. 

Campaigns. World War II: India- 
Burma; China Defensive; China Offen- 
sive. Korean War: UN Offensive; CCF 
Intervention; ist UN Counteroffensive; 
CCF Spring Offensive; UN Summer-Fall 
Offensive; Second Korean Winter; Korea 
Summen-Fall, 1952; Third Korean Win- 
ter; Korea Summer-Fall, 1953. 



Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Korea, 28 Nov 1951-30 Apr 1953. 
Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Cita- 
tions: [Sep] 1950-30 Jun 1951; I Jul 1951- 
31 Mar 1953. 

Insigne. Shield: Per fess nebuly abased 
azure and or, issuing from partition line 
a demi-pegasus argent with a machine gun 
in each wing bendwise sable, gun fire 
proper. Motto: DEFTLY AND 
SWIFTLY. (Approved 5 Feb 1942. 
This insigne was modified 2 May 1956.) 

5 2d FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 52d Pursuit Group (In- 
terceptor) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 
15 Jan 1941. Redesignated <y2dL Fighter 
Group in May 1942. Trained with P-39 
and P-40 aircraft, and participated in 
maneuvers. Moved to the British Isles, the 
air echelon arriving in Jul 1942 and the 
ground echelon in Aug. Received Spitfire 
aircraft and, as part of Eighth AF, flew 
missions from England to France during 
Aug and Sep. The pilots of the group 



114 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



flew Spitfires from Gibraltar to Algeria 
during the invasion of North Africa on 8 
Nov 1942; the remainder of the group, 
moving by ship from England, arrived 
after the campaign for Algeria-French 
Morocco had ended. Assigned first to 
Twelfth AF and later (after May 1944) to 
Fifteenth, the group served in combat in 
the Mediterranean theater until the end of 
the war. Flew escort, patrol, strafing, and 
reconnaissance missions to help defeat Axis 
forces in Tunisia. Took part in the con- 
quest of Sicily. Attacked railroads, high- 
ways, bridges, coastal shipping, and other 
targets to support Allied operations in 
Italy. Converted to P-51's during Apr- 
May 1944 and afterwards engaged pri- 
marily in escorting bombers that attacked 
objectives in Italy, France, Germany, 
Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Ru- 
mania, and Yugoslavia. Received a DUC 
for a mission of 9 Jun 1944 when the group 
protected bombers that struck aircraft 
factories, communications centers, and 
supply lines in Germany. In addition to 
escorting bombers of Fifjteenth AF, the 
group made strafing attacks on important 
targets in Italy, France, central Europe, and 
the Balkans. Received second DUC for a 
strafing raid in which the group destroyed 
a great number of fighter and transport 
planes on a landing ground in Rumania 
on 31 Aug 1944. Returned to the US in 
Aug 1945. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945. 

Activated in Germany on 9 Nov 1946. 
Assigned to United States Air Forces in 
Europe and organized as an all-weather 
fighter group. Transferred, without per- 



sonnel and equipment, to the US in Jun 

1947. Redesignated 52d Fighter Group 
(All Weather) in May 1948, and 52d 
Fighter-Interceptor Group in May 1951. 
Equipped with P-6i's in 1947, F-82's in 

1948, and F-94's in 1950. Inactivated on 
6 Feb 1952. 

Redesignated 52d Fighter Group (Air 
Defense). Activated on li Aug ig'^'^. As- 
signed to Air Defense Command and 
equipped with F-86 aircraft. 

Squadrons. 2d: 1941-1945; 1946-1952; 
1955-. 4th: 1941-1945. sth: 1941-1945; 
1946-1952; 1955-. 

Stations. Selfridge Field, Mich, 15 Jan 
1941 ; Norfolk, Va, 18 Dec 1941 ; Selfridge 
Field, Mich, Jan 1942; Florence, SC, 18 
Feb 1942; Wilmington, NC, 27 Apr 1942; 
Grenier Field, NH, 14-24 Jun 1942; North- 
ern Ireland, c. 13 Jul 1942; Goxhill, Eng- 
land, c. 26 Aug-Oct 1942; Tafaraoui, 
Algeria, 9 Nov 1942; La Senia, Algeria, 
14 Nov 1942; Orleansville, Algeria, c. i 
Jan 1943; Telergma, Algeria, c. 17 Jan 
1943; Youks-les-Bains, Algeria, c. 9 Mar 
1943; Le Sers, Tunisia, 14 Apr 1943; La 
Sebala, Tunisia, 21 May 1943; Bocca- 
difalco, Sicily, 30 Jul 1943; Corsica, 1 Dec 
1943; Madna Airfield, Italy, 14 May 1944; 
Piagiolino Airfield, Italy, 21 Apr 1945; 
Lesina, Italy, 8 Jul-Aug 1945; Drew Field, 
Fla, 25 Aug-7 Nov 1945. Schweinfurt, 
Germany, 9 Nov 1946; Bad Kissingen, 
Germany, 5 May 1947-25 Jun 1947; 
Mitchel Field, NY, 25 Jun 1947; McGuire 
AFB, NJ, 10 Oct 1949-6 Feb 1952. Suffolk 
County AFB, NY, 18 Aug 1955-. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UmTS— GROUPS 



115 



Commanders. Maj Earl W Barnes, i6 
Jan 1941 ; Lt Col Robert L Schoenlein, 15 
May 194 1 ; Col Dixon M Allison, 27 Feb 
1942; Lt Col Graham W West, i Mar 
1943; Lt Col James S Coward, 24 Jun 
1943; Lt Col Richard A Ames, i Sep 1943; 
Col Marvin L McNickle, 6 Sep 1943; Lt 
Col Robert Levine, 25 Feb 1944; Col 
Marion Malcolm, 27 Aug 1944-1945. Col 
Carroll W McColpin, c. 14 Dec 1946; Col 
Oliver G Cellini, unkn; Col Benjamin S 
Preston Jr, 6 Jul 1950; Col Royal N Baker, 
195 1-6 Feb 1952. Col James H Hancock, 

I955-- 

Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME Thea- 
ter; Air Offensive, Europe; Algeria- 
French Morocco; Tunisia; Sicily; Naples- 
Foggia; Rome-Arno; Normandy; North- 
ern France; Southern France; North 
Apennines; Rhineland; Central Europe; 
Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Germany, 9 Jun 1944; Rumania, 31 
Aug 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Quarterly per fess 
nebuly, first and. fourth argent, each 
charged with a dagger in pale point down- 
ward gules, hilt and pommel of the same, 
grip or; second quarter azure; third quar- 
ter, sable. Motto: SEEK, ATTACK, DE- 
STROY. (Approved 11 Jan 195 1.) 

53d FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 53d Pursuit Group (In- 
terceptor) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 
15 Jan 194 1. Redesignated 53d Fighter 
Group in May 1942. Trained with P-35's 




and P-40's. Moved to the Panama Canal 
Zone in Dec 194 1 and equipped with 
P-39's for operations as part of the defense 
force for the canal. Returned to the US 
in Nov 1942 and assigned to Third AF. 
Trained replacement pilots in P-39, P-47, 
and P-51 aircraft. Disbanded on i May 
1944. 

Reconstituted and redesignated 53d 
Fighter Group (Air Defense), on 20 Jun 
1955. Activated on 18 Aug 1955. As- 
signed to Air Defense Command. 
Equipped first with F-86's, later with 
F-89's. 

Squadrons, iph: 1941-1944; 1955-. 
i^h: 1941-1944; 1955-. i^th: 1941-1944. 
438th: 1943-1944. 

Stations. MacDill Field, Fla, 15 Jan 
1941; Tallahassee, Fla, 8 May-8 Dec 1941; 
Howard Field, CZ, i Jan-io Nov 1942; 
Dale Mabry Field, Fla, 26 Nov 1942; Drew 
Field, Fla, 7 Jan 1943; Ft Myers, Fla, 5 
Feb 1943-1 May 1944. Sioux City Mun 
Aprt, Iowa, 18 Aug 1955-. 

Commanders. Maj Hugo P Rush, 15 
Jan 1941 ; Maj Eugene C Fleming, 9 May 
1941; Col Earl W Barnes, i Jun 1941; Lt 
Col Don L Wilhelm Jr, 28 Jun 1942; Col 



116 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Morley F Slaght, ii Apr 1943; Lt Col An- 
thony V Grossetta, 22 Sep 1943; Col Bryan 
B Harper, Oct 1943-1 May 1944. Col Mal- 
colm A Moore, Aug 1955-. 

Campaigns. American Theater, 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Per bend azure and or, 
in chief an ancient Norse winged helmet 
argent, in base a palm tree proper. Motto: 
DEFENSE BY OFFENSE. (Approved 
8 Jan 1943. This insigne was modified 26 
Jul 1956.) 

54th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 54th Pursuit Group (In- 
terceptor) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 
15 Jan 1941. Trained with P-40's. Served 
as a part of the defense force for the north- 
west Pacific coast during the first few 
months of the war. Redesignated 54th 
Fighter Group in May 1942. The air 



echelon, equipped with P-39's, served in 
Alaska against the Japanese forces that in- 
vaded the Aleutian Islands during the 
summer of 1942, and for these operations 
the group received a DUC. The air 
echelon returned to the US in Dec 1942 
and rejoined the group, which had been 
assigned to Third AF, and which became 
a replacement training unit for P-51 
pilots. Disbanded on i May 1944. 

Reconstituted and redesignated 54th 
Fighter Group (Air Defense), on 20 Jun 
1955. Activated on 18 Aug 1955. As- 
signed to Air Defense Command and 
equipped with F-86's. 

Squadrons. 42d: 1941-1944; 1955- 
^6th: 1941-1944. S7*h: 1941-1944. 

Stations. Hamilton Field, Calif, 15 
Jan 1941; Everett, Wash, 26 Jun 1941; 
Harding Field, La, 31 Jan 1942; Bartow 
AAFld, Fla, 11 May 1943-1 May 1944. 
Greater Pittsburgh Aprt, Pa, 18 Aug 
1955-. 

Commanders. Capt Harry A Ham- 
mond, 15 Jan 1941 ; Col Phineas K Morrill, 
Feb 1941; Col Charles M McCorkle, 12 
Sep 1942; Lt Col George B Greene Jr, 11 
Aug 1943; Lt Col Ward W Harker, 17 Sep 
1943; Col Joseph S Holtoner, 6 Mar-i May 
1944. Col Edward F Roddy, 1955- 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Aleutian Islands, [Jun]-4 Nov 1942. 

Insigne. Shield: Per bend of the light 
blue sky and azure, over a bomb, bend 
sinisterwise, a lightning flash, palewise, 
gules, fimbriated argent; a bend of the last 
superimposed over all and charged with a 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



117 



jet aircraft, in chief, sable, with vapor trail 
of the third; all between an increscent 
moon and a radiant sun in fess all of the 
fourth. (Approved 8 Mar 1957.) 

55th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 55th Pursuit Group (In- 
terceptor) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 
15 Jan 1941. Trained with P-43's. Re- 
designated 55th Fighter Group in May 
1942. Converted to P-38's and prepared 
for combat. Moved to England, Aug- 
Sep 1943. Assigned to Eighth AF. Began 
operations with P-38's on 15 Oct 1943; 
converted to P-51's in Jul 1944. Engaged 
primarily in escorting bombers that at- 
tacked such targets as industries and 
marshalling yards in Germany, and air- 
fields and V-weapon sites in France. Pro- 
vided cover for B-17's and B-24's that 
bombed aircraft plants during Big Week 
in Feb 1944, gun emplacements during 
the St Lo breakthrough in Jul 1944, and 
transportation facilities during the Battle 



of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Also 
patrolled the air over the Channel and 
bombed bridges in the Tours area during 
the invasion of the Continent in Jun 1944; 
patrolled the Arnhem sector to support the 
airborne invasion of Holland in Sep 1944; 
strafed trucks, locomotives, and oil depots 
near Wesel when the Allies crossed the 
Rhine in Mar 1945. Received a DUC for 
eight missions to Germany between 3 and 
13 Sep 1944 when the group not only de- 
stroyed enemy fighters in the air to protect 
the bombers it was escorting, but also de- 
scended to low levels, in spite of intense 
antiaircraft fire, to strafe airdromes and 
to destroy enemy aircraft on the ground. 
Received second DUC for operations on 
19 Feb 1945 when the organization flew 
a sweep over Germany to hit railway 
tracks, locomotives, oil cars, goods wagons, 
troop cars, buildings, and military vehi- 
cles. Flew last combat mission on 21 Apr 
1945. Moved to Germany in Jul 1945 as 
part of the occupation forces. Assigned 
to United States Air Forces in Europe. 
Trained with P-51 and P-80 aircraft. /«- 
activated in Germany on 20 Aug 1946. 

Redesignated 55th Reconnaissance 
Group (Very Long Range, Mapping). 
Activated in the US on 24 Feb 1947. As- 
signed to Strategic Air Command. Re- 
designated 55th Strategic Reconnaissance 
Group in Jun 1948. Aircraft included 
RB-17's and B- and RB-29's. Inactivated 
on 14 Oct 1949. 

Redesignated 55th Strategic Reconnais- 
ance Group (Medium). Activated in 
Puerto Rico on i Nov 1950. Assigned to 



118 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Strategic Air Command. Equipped with 
RB-29 and RB-50 aircraft. Inactivated on 
16 Jun 1952. 

Squadrons, jth Geodetic: 1949. ^yth: 
1941-1943. ^8th: 1941-1946; 1949; 1950- 
1952. $^h: 1941-1942. ^^8th: 1942-1946; 
1949; 1950-1952. S4sd: 1943-1946; 1947- 
1949; 1950-1952. 

Stations. Hamilton Field, Calif, 15 
Jan 1941; Pordand, Ore, 21 May 1941; 
Paine Field, Wash, 10 Feb 1942; McChord 
Field, Wash, 22 Jul 1942-23 Aug 1943; 
Nuthampstead, England, 14 Sep 1943; 
Wormingford, England, 16 Apr 1944; 
Kaufbeuren, Germany, 22 Jul 1945; Gie- 
belstadt, Germany, 29 Apr-20 Aug 1946. 
MacDill Field, Fla, 24 Feb 1947; Topeka 
AFB, Kan, 30 Jun 1948-14 Oct 1949. 
Ramey AFB, PR, i Nov 1950-16 Jun 1952. 

Commanders. Capt Kenneth S Wade, 

15 Jan 1941; Maj James W McCauley, i 
May 1941 ; Lt Col Karl K Bowen, i May 
1942; Maj Jack S Jenkins, i Aug 1942; 
Maj Ernest W Keating, 13 Nov 1942; Lt 
Col Frank B James, 15 May 1943; Col 
Jack S Jenkins, 6 Feb 1944; Col George T 
Crow^ell, 10 Apr 1944; Lt Col Elwyn C 
Righetti, 22 Feb 1945; Col Ben Rimerman, 
22 Apr 1945; Lt Col Jack W Hayes Jr, 21 
May 1945; Lt Col Horace A Hanes, Jul 
1946-unkn. Capt Daniel W Burrows, 24 
Feb 1947; Lt Col Albert M Welsh, 20 May 
1947-unkn; Lt Col George Humbrecht, 
26 Oct 1948-unkn; Col Herbert K Baisley, 
unkn-1949. Col Richard T King, i Nov 
1950; Brig Gen Sydney D Grubbs Jr, 20 
Dec 1950; Col Alfred K Kalberer, 18 Feb- 

16 Jun 1952. 



Campaigns. American Theater ; Air Of- 
fensive, Europe; Normandy; Northern 
France; Rhineland; Ardennes- Alsace; 
Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: ETO, 3-13 Sep 1944; Germany, 19 
Feb 1945. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, on a fess in- 
dented or a similar bar gules. Motto: 
PURSUIT TO DEFEND. (Approved 18 
Feb 1942. This insigne was replaced 4 
Feb 1954.) 

56th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 56th Pursuit Group (In- 
terceptor) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 
15 Jan 1941. Equipped with P-39's and 
P-40's. Trained, participated in maneu- 
vers, served as an air defense organization, 
and functioned as an operational training 
unit. Redesignated 56th Fighter Group 
in May 1942. Received P-47's in Jun and 
began training for combat. Moved to 
England, Dec 1942-Jan 1943. Assigned to 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



119 



Eighth AF. Continued training for sev- 
eral weeks. Entered combat with a fighter 
sweep in the area of St Omer on 13 Apr 

1943, and during the next two years de- 
stroyed more enemy aircraft in aerial 
combat than any other fighter group of 
Eighth AF. Flew numerous missions 
over France, the Low Countries, and Ger- 
many to escort bombers that attacked in- 
dustrial establishments, V-weapon sites, 
submarine pens, and other targets on the 
Continent. Also strafed and dive-bombed 
airfields, troops, and supply points; at- 
tacked the enemy's communications; and 
flew counter-air patrols. Engaged in 

' counter-air and interdictory missions dur- 
ing the invasion of Normandy in Jun 1944. 
Supported Allied forces for the break- 
through at St Lo in Jul. Participated in 
the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. 
Helped to defend the Remagen bridge- 
head against air attacks in Mar 1945. Re- 
ceived a DUC for aggressiveness in seeking 
out and destroying enemy aircraft and for 
attacking enemy air bases, 20 Feb-9 Mar 

1944. Received another DUC for strikes 
against antiaircraft positions while sup- 
porting the airborne attack on Holland 
in Sep 1944. Flew last combat mission on 
21 Apr 1945. Returned to the US in Oct. 
Inactivated on 18 Oct 1945. 

Activated on i May 1946. Equipped 
with P-47 and P-51 aircraft; converted to 
F-8o's in 1947. Redesignated 56th Fighter- 
Interceptor Group in Jan 1950. Con- 
verted to F-86 aircraft. Inactivated on 6 
Feb 1952. 



Redesignated 56th Fighter Group (Air 
Defense). Activated on 18 Aug 1955. 
Assigned to Air Defense Command and 
equipped with F-86's. 

Squadrons. 61 st: 1941-1945; 1946- 
1952. 62d: 1941-1945; 1946-1952; 1955-. 
63d: 1941-1945; 1946-1952; 1955-. 

Stations. Savannah, Ga, 15 Jan 1941; 
Charlotte, NC, May 1941; Charleston, SC, 
Dec 1941; Bendix, NJ, Jan 1942; Bridge- 
port, Conn, c. 7 Jul-Dec 1942; Kings Cliffe, 
England, Jan 1943; Horsham St Faith, 
England, c. 6 Apr 1943 ; Halesworth, Eng- 
land, c. 9 Jul 1943; Boxted, England, c. 19 
Apr 1944-Oct 1945; Camp Kilmer, NJ, c. 
16-18 Oct 1945. Selfridge Field, Mich, i 
May 1946-6 Feb 1952. O'Hare Intl Aprt, 
111, 18 Aug 1955-. 

Commanders. Unkn, Jan-Jun 1941 ; Lt 
Col Davis D Graves, Jun 1941 ; Col John C 
Crosthwaite, c. i Jul 1942; Col Hubert A 
Zemke, Sep 1942; Col Robert B Landry, 30 
Oct 1943; Col Hubert A Zemke, 19 Jan 
1944; Col David C Schilling, 12 Aug 1944; 
Lt Col Lucian A Dade Jr, 27 Jan 1945; Lt 
Col Donald D Renwick, Aug 1945-unkn. 
Col David C Schilling, May 1946; Lt Col 
Thomas D Dejarnette, Aug 1948; Lt Col 
Irwin H Dregne, 1949; Lt Col Francis S 
Gabreski, 1950; Col Earnest J White Jr, 
1951-unkn. Unkn, 1955-. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Air 
Offensive, Europe; Normandy; Northern 
France; Rhineland; Ardennes-Alsace; 
Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: ETO, 20 Feb-9 ^^r 19445 Holland, 
18 Sep 1944. 



120 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Insigne. Shield: Tenne on a chevron 
azure fimbriated or two lightning flashes 
chevronwisc of the last. Motto: CAVE 
TONITRUM— Beware of the Thunder- 
bolt. (Approved 4 Apr 1942.) 

57th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 57th Pursuit Group (In- 
terceptor) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 
15 Jan 1941. Trained with P-40's. Served 
as part of the defense force on the east 
coast after the Japanese attack on Pearl 
Harbor. Redesignated 57th Fighter 
Group in May 1942. Moved to the Mid- 
dle East, Jul-Aug 1942. Trained with 
RAF. Began operations in Oct 1942. 
Took part in the Battle of El Alamein and, 
as part of Ninth AF, supported British 
Eighth Army's drive across Egypt and 
Libya, escorting bombers and flying 
strafing and dive-bombing missions 
against airfields, communications, and 
troop concentrations until the defeat of 
Axis forces in Tunisia in May 1943. Re- 



ceived a DUG for performance on 18 Apr 
1943 when the group destroyed more than 
70 of the enemy's transport and fighter 
planes in an aerial battle over the Gulf of 
Tunis. Participated in the reduction of 
Pantelleria (May-Jun 1943) and the con- 
quest of Sicily (Jul-Aug 1943). Received 
another DUG for front-line operations in 
direct support of British Eighth Army 
from the Battle of El Alamein to the capit- 
ulation of enemy forces in Sicily. Assigned 
to Twelfth AF in Aug 1943 and continued 
operations in the Mediterranean theater 
until the end of the war. Supported 
British Eighth Army's landing at Termoli 
and subsequent operations in Italy (Oct 
1943-Feb 1944) by flying dive-bombing, 
strafing, patrol, and escort missions. Con- 
verted to P-47's early in 1944 and used the 
new aircraft for interdictory operations in 
Italy, receiving a DUG for a series of dev- 
astating attacks on rail lines, trains, motor 
vehicles, bridges, and other targets in the 
Florence-Arezzo area on 14 Apr 1944. 
Participated in the French campaign 
against Elba in Jun 1944 and in the inva- 
sion of Southern France in Aug. Engaged 
in interdictory and support operations in 
northern Italy from Sep 1944 to May 1945. 
Returned to the US in Aug 1945. Inac- 
tivated on 7 Nov 1945. 

Activated in Alaska on 15 Aug 1946. 
Assigned to Alaskan Air Command. 
Redesignated 57th Fighter-Interceptor 
Group in Jan 1950. Equipped successively 
with P-38, P-51, F-80, and F-94 aircraft. 
Inactivated in Alaska on 13 Apr 1953. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VNYTS—GROUPS 



121 



Squadrons. 6^A: 1941-1945; 1946-1953. 
6^th: 1941-1945; 1946-1953. 66th: 1941- 
1945; 194^1953- 

Stations. Mitchel Field, NY, 15 Jan 
1941 ; Windsor Locks, Conn, 19 Aug 194 1 ; 
Boston, Mass, 8 Dec 1941-c. i Jul 1942; 
Muqeibile, Palestine, c. 20 Jul 1942; Egypt, 
16 Sep 1942; Libya, 12 Nov 1942; Tunisia, 
Mar 1943 J Malta, Jun 1943; Sicily, Jul 1943; 
Southern Italy, Sep 1943; Gioia Airfield, 
Italy, c. 25 Sep 1943; Foggia, Italy, Oct 
1943; Amendola, Italy, c. 27 Oct 1943; 
Cercola, Italy, Mar 1944; Corsica, Mar 
1944; Ombrone Airfield, Italy, Sep 1944; 
Grosseto, Italy, Sep 1944; Villafranca di 
Verona, Italy, 29 Apr 1945; Grosseto, Italy, 
7 May 1945; Bagnoli, Italy, 15 Jul-5 Aug 
1945; Drew Field, Fla, 21 Aug-7 Nov 1945. 
Shemya, Alaska, 15 Aug 1946; Elmendorf 
AFB, Alaska, Mar 1947-13 Apr 1953. 

Commanders. Maj Reuben C Moffat, 
c. 15 Jan 1941; Maj Clayton B Hughes, 
unkn; Maj Minthorne W Reed, 12 Dec 
194 1 ; Lt Col Frank H Mears, 1942; Col 
Arthur G Salisbury, 20 Dec 1942; Col 
Archibald J Knight, 23 Apr 1944; Lt Col 
William J Yates, 23 May 1945-unkn. Maj 
Benjamin H King, 15 Aug 1946; Lt Col 
Gilmore V Norris, 26 Dec 1946; Lt Col 
Harry L Downing Jr, 10 Jan 1947; Col 
Morton D Magoffin, 14 Nov 1947; Col 
Bingham T Kleine, 22 Jan 1949; Col John 
W Mitchell, c. Nov 1950; Lt Col Ollie 
O Simpson, 19 Nov 195 1; Col Thomas H 
Beeson, 21 Nov 1951; unkn, i Jul 1952-13 
Apr 1953. 

Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME 
Theater; Egypt-Libya; Tunisia; Sicily; 



Naples-Foggia; Rome-Arno; Southern 
France; North Apennines; Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: North Africa and Sicily, 24 Oct 
1942-17 Aug 1943; Tunis and Cape Bon 
Area, 18 Apr 1943; Italy, 14 Apr 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, on a chevron 
embattled or, between three pyramids of 
the last, as many mullets gules. Motto: 
FIRST IN THE BLUE. (Approved 2 
Feb 1950.) 

58th FIGHTER GROUP 





^ONREVERTAR INUyji'-' 



Constituted as 58th Pursuit Group (In- 
terceptor) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 
15 Jan 1941. Redesignated 58th Fighter 
Group in May 1942. Used P-35, P-36, 
P-39, and P-40 aircraft while serving as a 
replacement training unit for pilots until 
1943. Prepared for combat with P-47's. 
Moved to New Guinea, via Australia, 
Oct-Dec 1943. Assigned to Fifth AF. 
Began operations in Feb 1944, flying pro- 
tective patrols over US bases and escorting 



122 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



transports. After that, covered bombers 
on raids over New Guinea, attacked Japa- 
nese airfields and installations, and es- 
corted convoys to the Admiralty Islands. 
Moved to Noemfoor in Aug 1944, and 
until Nov bombed and strafed enemy air- 
fields and installations on Ceram, Halma- 
hera, and the Kai Islands. After moving 
to the Philippines in Nov 1944, conducted 
fighter sweeps against enemy airfields, 
supported ground forces, and flew patrols 
over convoy and transport routes. Re- 
ceived a DUG for strafing a Japanese naval 
force off Mindoro on 26 Dec 1944 to pre- 
vent destruction of the American base on 
that island. Moved to Okinawa in Jul 
1945 and attacked railways, airfields, and 
installations in Korea and Kyushu before 
V-J Day. Remained in the theater after 
the war as part of Far East Air Forces. 
Flew some recormaissance and surveil- 
lance missions over Japan. Moved to 
Japan in Oct and returned to the Philip- 
pines in Dec 1945. Inactivated on 27 Jan 

1946- 

Redesignated 58th Fighter-Bomber 
Group. Activated in Korea on 10 Jul 1952. 
Assigned to Tactical Air Command but 
attached to Far East Air Forces for 
operations in the Korean War. Using 
F-84's, bombed and strafed enemy air- 
fields and installations and supported UN 
ground forces. Remained in Korea after 
the armistice. Equipped with F-86's in 
1954. 

Squadrons. 6']th: 1941-1942. 68th: 
1941-1942. 6gth: 1941-1946; 1952-. 



yoth: 1942-1946; 1952-. ^iith: 1942- 
1946; 1952-. 

Stations. Selfridge Field, Mich, 15 Jan 
1941; Baton Rouge, La, 5 Oct 1941; Dale 
Mabry Field, Fla, 4 Mar 1942; Richmond 
AAB, Va, 16 Oct 1942; Philadelphia Mun 
Aprt, Pa, 24 Oct 1942; Bradley Field, 
Conn, c. 3 Mar 1943; Green Field, RI, 28 
Apr 1943; Grenier Field, NH, 16 Sep-22 
Oct 1943; Sydney, Australia, 19 Nov 1943; 
Brisbane, Australia, 21 Nov 1943; Dobo- 
dura, New Guinea, 28 Dec 1943; Saidor, 
New Guinea, c. 3 Apr 1944; Noemfoor, 
30 Aug 1944; San Roque, Leyte, 18 Nov 
1944; San Jose, Mindoro, c. 30 Dec 1944; 
Mangaldan, Luzon, 5 Apr 1945; Porac, 
Luzon, 18 Apr 1945; Okinawa, 10 Jul 
1945; Japan, 26 Oct 1945; Ft William Mc- 
Kinley, Luzon, 28 Dec 1945-27 Jan 1946. 
Taegu, Korea, 10 Jul 1952; Osan-Ni, 
Korea, 15 Mar 1955-. 

CoMMANDERs. Capt John M Sterling, 
15 Jan 1941-unkn; Maj Louis W Chick, 
Jr, unkn; Col Gwen G Atkinson, 8 Dec 
1942; Lt Col Edward F Roddy, 12 Mar 
1945-unkn. Col Charles E Jordan, 1952; 
Col Frederick J Nelander, 1953; Col 
George V Williams, 1954; Col William 
R Brown, 1954; Col Clifford D Nash, i 
Nov 1955-. 

Campaigns. World War II: American 
Theater; Air Offensive, Japan; New 
Guinea; Bismarck Archipelago; Western 
Pacific; Leyte; Luzon; China Offensive. 
Korean War: Korea Summer-Fall, 1952; 
Third Korean Winter; Korea Summer- 
Fall, 1953. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VmTS— GROUPS 



123 



Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Philippines, 26 Dec 1944; Korea, i 
May-27 Jul 1953. Philippine Presidential 
Unit Citation. Republic of Korea Presi- 
dential Unit Citation: 10 Jul 1952-31 Mar 

1953- 
Insigne. Shield: Azure, on clouds in 

base a representation of the Greek mytho- 
logical goddess Artemis with quiver and 
bow, in her chariot drawn by the two deer, 
all or. Moito: NON REVERTAR IN- 
ULTUS— I Will Not Return Unavenged. 
(Approved 10 Aug 1942.) 

59th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 59th Observation Group 
on 21 Aug 1941. Activated on i Sep 1941. 
Assigned to First AF. Participated in 
maneuvers and after the outbreak of war 
engaged in patrol activity along the east 
coast of the US. Used BC-iA, L-59, 
O-46, O-47, O-49, and O-52 aircraft. In- 
activated on 18 Oct 1942. 



Activated on i Mar 1943. Assigned to 
Third AF. Redesignated 59th Recon- 
naissance Group in Apr 1943, and 59th 
Fighter Group in Aug 1943. Trained 
pilots, using P-39 aircraft, with part of the 
group converting to P-40's in Apr 1944. 
Disbanded on i May 1944. 

Squadrons, ^^th (formerly 126th): 
1941-1942; 1943. lo^d: 1941-1942. 
447th: 1943-1944. 488th (formerly 9th) : 
1942; 1943-1944. 48gth (formerly 104th) : 
1941-1942; 1943-1944. 4goth (formerly 
119th): 1942; 1943-1944. 

Stations. Newark, NJ, i Sep 1941; 
Pope Field, NC, c. Oct 1941; Ft Dix, NJ, 
Dec 1941-18 Oct 1942. Ft Myers, Fla, i 
Mar 1943; Thomasville AAFld, Ga, c. 30 
Mar 1943-1 May 1944. 

Commanders. Lt Col Victor Dallin, 
1941; Lt Col Chester A Charles, Jan 1942- 
unkn. Maj Leland S McGowan, c. 24 
Mar 1943; Lt Col William R Clingerman 
Jr, 14 Apr 1943; Col James B League Jr, 
Oct 1943; Lt Col James Van G Wilson, 11 
Mar-c. I May 1944. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure issuant fanwise 
from clouds in sinister base proper five 
rays, in dexter chief a mullet or. Motto: 
EXEMPLAR— An Example. (Approved 
24 Nov 1942.) 

60th TROOP CARRIER GROUP 

Constituted as 6oth Transport Group on 
20 Nov 1940. Activated on i Dec 1940. 



124 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 




Prepared for duty overseas with C-47's. 
Moved to England in Jun 1942. Redesig- 
nated 60th Troop Carrier Group in Jul 
1942. Received additional training in 
England, then assigned to Twelfth AF for 
operations in the Mediterranean theater. 
Flew its first mission on 8 Nov 1942, trans- 
porting paratroops from England and 
dropping them at Oran during the early 
hours of the invasion of North Africa. 
Operated from bases in Algeria, Tunisia, 
Sicily, and Italy until after V-E Day. Par- 
ticipated in the battle for Tunisia, drop- 
ping paratroops near the combat area on 
two occasions. Trained with gliders dur- 
ing Jun 1943, then towed gUders to 
Syracuse and dropped paratroops behind 
enemy lines at Catania when the Allies 
invaded Sicily in Jul. Dropped paratroops 
at Megava during the airborne invasion 
of Greece in Oct 1944. When not en- 
gaged in airborne operations, the group 
transported men and supplies and evacu- 
ated wounded personnel. Flew to north- 



ern Italy in Oct 1943 to drop supplies to 
men who had escaped from prisoner-of- 
war camps. Received a DUC for support- 
ing the partisans in the Balkans, Mar-Sep 
1944: flew at night, unarmed, over unfa- 
miliar and mountainous enemy territory 
and landed on small, poorly-constructed 
airfields to provide guns, ammunition, 
clothing, food, medical supplies, gas, oil, 
jeeps, mail, and mules for underground 
forces in Yugoslavia, Albania, and Greece; 
evacuated wounded partisans and escaped 
prisoners; also dropped propaganda leaf- 
lets. Moved to Trinidad in Jun 1945 and 
assigned to Air Transport Command. 
Inactivated on 31 Jul 1945. 

Activated in Germany on 30 Sep 1946. 
Assigned to United States Air Forces in 
Europe. Equipped first with C-47's, then 
(late in 1948) with C-54's. Participated in 
the Berlin airlift, Jun 1948-Sep 1949. Re- 
designated 60th Troop Carrier Group 
(Medium) in Jul 1948, 60th Troop Carrier 
Group (Heavy) in Nov 1948, and 6oth 
Troop Carrier Group (Medium) in Nov 
1949. Re-equipped with C-82 aircraft in 
1949 and with C-119's in 1953. 

Squadrons. loth: 1940-1945; 1946-. 
nth: 1940-1945; 1946-. i2th: 1940-1945; 
1946-. 28th: 1942-1945. 

Stations. Olmsted Field, Pa, i Dec 
1940; Westover Field, Mass, c. 20 May 
1941-Jun 1942; Chelveston, England, Jun 
1942; Aldermaston, England, Aug 1942; 
Tafaraoui, Algeria, 8 Nov 1942; Relizane, 
Algeria, 27 Nov 1942; Thiersville, Algeria, 
May 1943; El Djem, Tunisia, Jun 1943; 
Gela, Sicily, c. 30 Aug 1943; Gerbini, 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VNITS— GROUPS 



125 



Sicily, 29 Oct 1943; Brindisi, Italy, 26 Mar 
1944; Pomigliano, Italy, 8 Oct 1944-May 
1945; Waller Field, Trinidad, 4 Jun-31 Jul 
1945. Munich, Germany, 30 Sep 1946; 
Kaufbeuren AB, Germany, 14 May 1948; 
Wiesbaden AB, Germany, 15 Dec 1948; 
Rhein/Main AB, Germany, 26 Sep 1949; 
Dreux AB, France, 22 Sep 1955-. 

Commanders. Lt Col Samuel C Eaton 
Jr, I Dec 1940; Capt Arthur L Logan, 16 
May 1941 ; Lt Col Russell L Maughan, 28 
Jul 1941 ; Lt Col A J Kerwin Malone, 15 
Apr 1942, Lt Col T J Schofield, 11 Oct 
1942; Lt Col Julius A Kolb, 2 Dec 1942; 
Lt Col Frederick H. Sherwood, 29 Mar 
1943; Col Clarence J Galligan, 26 Jul 1943; 
Lt Col Kenneth W Hoibert, 8 Dec 1944 '> Lt 
Col Charles A Gibson Jr, 11 Jan 1945- 
unkn. Col Casper P West, 30 Sep 1946; 
Col Bertram C Harrison, Sep 1947; Col 
Theron H Coulter, Dec 1948; Lt Col 
Lawrence G Gilbert, Jan 1949; Col Robert 
D Forman, Mar 1949; Lt Col Rcesor M 
Lawrence, 26 Aug 1950; Col Jay D Bogue, 
5 Dec 1950; Col Donald J French, 29 Feb 
1952; Lt Col John W Osborn, 14 Jun 1952; 
Col Lorris W Moomaw, 25 May 1953; Lt 
Col Robert L Olingcr, 13 Jun 1954; Col 
Howard J Withycombe, i Jul 1954; Col 
Randolph E Churchill, c. 5 Jul 1955- 

Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME 
Theater; Algeria-French Morocco; 
Tunisia; Sicily; Naples-Foggia; Romc- 
Arno; Southern France; North Apen- 
nines; Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: MTO, 28 Mar-15 Sep 1944. 



Insigne. Shield: Azure a pale of seven 
variegated pallets proper, black, yellow, 
red, white, blue, orange, and green, the 
pale fimbriated and surmounted by three 
symbols of flight or, in bend, all within a 
narrow border of the last. Motto: TER- 
MINI NON EXISTENT— Boundaries 
Do Not Exist. (Approved 7 Sep 1955.) 

61st TROOP CARRIER GROUP 




Constituted as 6ist Transport Group on 
20 Nov 1940. Activated on i Dec 1940. 
Redesignated 6ist Troop Carrier Group 
in Jul 1942. Used C-47's to prepare for 
operations with Twelfth AF. Moved to 
North Africa in May 1943 and, after a 
period of special training, began opera- 
tions on the night of 9 Jul by dropping 
paratroops near Gela during the invasion 
of Sicily. Received a DUC for completing 
a reinforcement mission two nights later 
when the group sustained heavy attack by 
ground and naval forces. Moved to Sicily, 
Aug-Sep 1943, for participation in the in- 



126 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



vasion of Italy; dropped paratroops north 
of Agropoli on 13 Sep 1943 and flew a 
reinforcement mission to the same area 
on 14 Sep. Also transported cargo and 
evacuated patients while in the Mediter- 
ranean theater. Joined Ninth AF in Eng- 
land in Feb 1944 to prepare for the Nor- 
mandy invasion. Received a DUG for 
dropping paratroops and supplies near 
Cherbourg on 6 and 7 Jun 1944. Dropped 
British paratroops at Arnhem on 17 Sep 
1944 during the air attack on Holland; 
released gliders carrying reinforcements 
to that area on succeeding days. Moved 
to France in Mar 1945 for the airborne 
assault across the Rhine, dropping British 
paratroops near Wesel on 24 Mar. Also 
provided transport services in the Euro- 
pean theater, hauling gasoline, ammuni- 
tion, food, medicine, and other supplies, 
and evacuating wounded personnel. 
Moved to Trinidad in May 1945. As- 
signed to Air Transport Command. Used 
C-47's to transport troops returning to the 
US. Inactivated in Trinidad on 31 Jul 
1945. 

Activated in Germany on 30 Sep 1946. 
Assigned to United States Air Forces in 
Europe. Redesignated 6ist Troop Car- 
rier Group (Medium) in Jul 1948, and 6ist 
Troop Carrier Group (Heavy) in Aug 
1948. Participated in the Berlin Airlift 
from Jun 1948 to May 1949, using C-54's 
to ferry coal, flour, and other cargo into 
West Berlin. Moved to the US shortly 
after the outbreak of war in Korea for duty 
with Military Air Transport Service. Op- 
erated on the northern route to Japan, 



transporting supplies for UN forces in 
Korea. Moved to Japan in Dec 1950, at- 
tached to Far East Air Forces, and engaged 
in transport operations between Japan and 
Korea. Returned to the US in Nov 1952 
to join Tactical Air Command, to which 
the group had been assigned in Oct 1951. 
Converted from C-54 to C-124 aircraft. 

Squadrons, i^th: 1940-1942. i^h: 
1940-1945; 1946-. i^th: 1940-1945; 1946-. 
'y^d: 1942-1945; 1946-. ^gth: 1942-1945. 

Stations. Olmsted Field, Pa, i Dec 
1940; Augusta, Ga, c. 9 Jul 1941; Pope 
Field, NC, 26 May 1942; Lubbock, Tex, 23 
Sep 1942; Pope Field, NC, 26 Feb-4 May 
1943; Lourmel, French Morocco, 15 May 
1943; Kairouan, Tunisia, 21 Jun 1943; 
Licata, Sicily, i Sep 1943; Sciacca, Sicily, 
6 Oct 1943-12 Feb 1944; Barkston, Eng- 
land, 18 Feb 1944-13 Mar 1945; Abbeville, 
France, 13 Mar-19 May 1945; Waller 
Field, Trinidad, 29 May-31 Jul 1945. 
Eschborn AB, Germany, 30 Sep 1946; 
Rhein/Main AB, Germany, 8 Feb 1947- 
21 Jul 1950; McChord AFB, Wash, 26 Jul- 
5 Dec 1950; Ashiya, Japan, 10 Dec 1950; 
Tachikawa, Japan, 26 Mar-i8 Nov 1952; 
Larson AFB, Wash, 21 Nov 1952; Donald- 
son AFB, SC, 25 Aug 1954-. 

Commanders. Unkn, i Dec 1940-1 Feb 
1941; Capt John Waugh, i Feb 1941; ist 
Lt Thompson F Dow, c. i Jul 1941 ; Maj 
Lorin B Hillsinger, 11 Jul 1941; [ist(.'')] 
Lt Charles A Inskip, unkn; [ist(.'')] Lt 
Allen L Dickey, unkn ; Capt John C Ben- 
nett, 26 May 1942; Lt Col Ralph J Moore, 
unkn; Maj Donald French, 6 Mar 1943; 
Col Willis W Mitchell, 11 Mar 1943; Col 



AIR FORCE COMBAT l]mrS— GROUPS 



127 



Edgar W Hampton, 12 Apr 1945-unkn. 
Maj Charles E Pickering, 30 Sep 1946; Lt 
Col Henry J Lawrence, 6 Dec 1946; Maj 
Richard C Brock, 13 Jan 1947; Maj Dace T 
Garrison, 11 Apr 1947; Lt Col John C 
Evers, c. 21 Apr 1948; Col Richard W 
DaVania, 28 Aug 1948; Lt Col Jay D 
Bogue, Aug 1949; Col Frank Norwood, 
I Oct 1949; Lt Col Hal E Ercanbrack Jr, 
14 Feb 1952; Col Lionel F Johnson, 29 Jul 
1953; Lt Col Jerome M Triolo, 7 Feb 1954; 
Col Leland W Johnson, 1954; Col William 
G Forwood, 13 Dec 1954- 

Campaigns. World War II: American 
Theater; Sicily; Naples-Foggia; Rome- 
Arno; Normandy; Northern France; 
Rhincland; Central Europe. Korean 
War: CCF Intervention; ist UN Counter- 
offensive; CCF Spring Offensive; UN 
Summer-Fall Offensive; Second Korean 
Winter; Korea Summer-Fall, 1952. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Sicily, II Jul 1943; France, [6-7] 
Jun 1944; Korea, 13 Dec 1950-21 Apr 1951. 
Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Cita- 
tion: [i Jul 1951-1952]. 

Insigne. Shield: Barry of six, or and 
azure, a pale nebuly, all counterchanged. 
(Approved 20 Aug 1951.) 

62d TROOP CARRIER GROUP 

Constituted as 62d Transport Group on 
20 Nov 1940, Activated on 11 Dec 1940. 
Transported military freight and supplies 
in North and South America and trained 
with C-47 and C-53 aircraft. Redesig- 
nated 62d Troop Carrier Group in Jul 




1942. Moved to England, Aug-Sep 1942, 
and engaged in further training. As- 
signed to Twelfth AF and moved to North 
Africa to take part in the battle for Tu- 
nisia. Began operations on 29 Nov 1942 
by dropping paratroops to attack enemy 
airdromes in Tunisia. Trained with 
gliders for several months, then towed 
gliders to Syracuse and also dropped 
paratroops behind enemy lines at Catania 
during the Allied invasion of Sicily in Jul 

1943. Operated from bases in Sicily and 
Italy from Sep 1943 until after the war. 
Dropped paratroops in northern Italy in 
Jun 1944 to harass the retreating enemy 
and to prevent the Germans from destroy- 
ing bridges over which their forces had 
withdrawn. Flew two missions in connec- 
tion with the invasion of Southern France 
in Aug 1944, releasing gliders and para- 
troops in the battle area. Transported 
paratroops and towed gliders to Greece 
during the Allied assault in Oct 1944. In 



128 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



addition to the airborne operations, the 
group transported men and suppUes in the 
Mediterranean theater and to the front 
Hnes during the campaigns for Tunisia, 
Italy, and southern France. Also evacu- 
ated wounded personnel and flew missions 
behind enemy lines in Italy and the 
Balkans to haul guns, ammunition, food, 
clothing, medical supplies, and other ma- 
terials to the partisans and to drop propa- 
ganda leaflets. Aided in the redeployment 
of personnel after the war and also hauled 
freight and mail. Inactivated in Italy on 
14 Nov 1945. 

Activated in the US on 7 Sep 1946. Re- 
designated 62A Troop Carrier Group 
(Medium) in Jun 1948, and 62A Troop 
Carrier Group (Heavy) in Oct 1949. 
Used C-82, C-54, and C-124 aircraft. Car- 
ried out some special missions that in- 
cluded aiding flood-stricken areas in Ore- 
gon in 1948, dropping food to cattle snow- 
bound in Nevada in 1949, flying to Japan 
with mail for troops in Korea in 1952, and 
participating in the airlift of medical sup- 
plies to flooded areas in Pakistan in 1954. 
Received the AFOUA for transporting 
French troops and equipment from France 
to Indochina, Apr-May 1954. 

Squadrons. 4th: 1940-1945; 1946-. 
yth: 1940-1945; 1946-. 8th: 1940-1945; 
1946-. $ist: 1942-1945. 

Stations. McClellan Field, Calif, 11 
Dec 1940; Kellogg Field, Mich, c. 30 May 
1942; Florence, SC, i Jul-14 Aug 1942; 
Keevil, England, Sep 1942; Tafaraoui, Al- 
geria, 15 Nov 1942; Nouvion, Algeria, 24 
Dec 1942; Matemore, Algeria, 16 May 



1943; Tunisia, Jul 1943; Ponte Olivo, 
Sicily, 6 Sep 1943; Brindisi, Italy, Feb 1944; 
Ponte Olivo, Sicily, 20 Mar 1944; Gaudo 
Airfield, Italy, 8 May 1944; Galera Air- 
field, Italy, 30 Jun 1944; Malignano Air- 
field, Italy, 30 Sep 1944; Tarquinia, Italy, 
8 Jan 1945; Rosignano Airfield, Italy, 25 
May 1945; Naples, Italy, c. 17 Sep-14 Nov 
1945. Bergstrom Field, Tex, 7 Sep 1946; 
McChord Field, Wash, c. Aug 1947; Kelly 
AFB, Tex, 9 May 1950; McChord AFB, 
Wash, 27 Jul 1950; Larson AFB, Wash, 9 
May 1952-. 

Commanders. Lt Col Bernard J Too- 
her, II Dec 1940; Maj Donald E Shugart, 
unkn; Col Samuel J Davis, i Jul 1942; Lt 
Col Aubrey S Hurren, 27 Mar 1943; Col 
Gordon L Edris, 15 May 1944; Lt Col Wil- 
liam M Massengale Jr, 13 Dec 1944; Col 
Gordon L Edris, 23 Feb 1945; Col Paul A 
Jones, 27 May 1945; Lt Col Riley B 
Whearty, 3 Jun 1945; Lt Col Oliver K 
Halderson, 20 Jul 1945-unkn. Col Don- 
ald J French, 7 Sep 1946; Col Adriel N 
Williams, i Mar 1948; Col George S 
Brown, c. Jul 1950; Col Richard Jones, c. 
Aug 1951-. 

Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME Thea- 
ter; Tunisia; Sicily; Naples-Foggia ; 
Rome-Arno; Southern France; North 
Apennines ; Po Valley. 

Decorations. Air Force Outstanding 
Unit Award: 19 Apr-5 May 1954. 

Insigne. Shield: Medium blue, in chief, 
silhouetted land mass argent, in fcss a sun, 
the rays radiating upward all proper, in 
base a golden winged sword, tip upward, 
in pale, hilt and pommel or, blade of the 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



129 



second, all between two branches of olive 
proper. Motio: IN OMNIA PARA- 
TUS— In All Things Ready. (Approved 
i8 Aug 1955.) 

63d TROOP CARRIER GROUP 




Constituted as 63d Transport Group on 
20 Nov 1940. Activated on i Dec 1940. 
Trained with C-33, C-34, and C-50 air- 
craft; later equipped with C-47's and 
C-53's. Transported supplies, materiel, 
and personnel in the US and the Carib- 
bean area. Became part of Air Transport 
Command (later I Troop Carrier Com- 
mand) in Apr 1942. Redesignated 63d 
Troop Carrier Group in Jul 1942. Be- 
came a training organization, preparing 
cadres for troop carrier groups. Began 
training replacement crews in Jul 1943. 
Disbanded on 14 Apr 1944. 

Reconstituted, allotted to the reserve, 
and redesignated 63d Troop Carrier Group 
(Medium), on 10 May 1949. Activated 
on 27 Jun 1949. Ordered to active service 



on I May 195 1. Inactivated on 9 May 
1951. 

Redesignated 63d Troop Carrier Group 
(Heavy). Activated on 20 Jim 1953. 
Assigned to Tactical Air Command and 
equipped with C-124's. Trained, trans- 
ported personnel and supplies, and par- 
ticipated in exercises and maneuvers with 
airborne troops. In 1955 transported con- 
struction equipment from bases in Can- 
ada to points north of the Arctic Circle 
for use in setting up a warning network in 
the Canadian Arctic; for this operation, 
accomplished in severe weather and with- 
out adequate navigational equipment, the 
group received an AFOUA. 

Squadrons, ^d: 1940-1944; 1949-1951; 
1953-. 6th: 1940-1942. gth: 1940-1943; 
1949-1951; 1953-. 52^; 1942-1944; 1949- 
1951; 1953-. 60th: 1942-1944; 1949-1951. 
Stations. Wright Field, Ohio, i Dec 
1940; Patterson Field, Ohio, 17 Feb 1941; 
Brookley Field, Ala, 9 Sep 1941; Camp 
Williams, Wis, 24 May 1942; Dodd Field, 
Tex, c. 18 Sep 1942; Victorville, Calif, c. 
18 Nov. 1942; Lawson Field, Ga, 7 May 
1943; Grenada AAFld, Miss, c. 3 Jun 1943; 
Sedalia AAFld, Mo, 19 Jan-14 Apr 1944. 
Floyd Bennett NAS, NY, 27 Jun 1949-9 
May 1951. Altus AFB, Okla, 20 Jun 1953 ; 
Donaldson AFB, SC, 15 Oct 1953- 

CoMMANDERS. Capt James L Jackson, 
I Dec 1940; Maj Herman E Hurst, 30 
Apr 1942; Lt Col Edward P Dimmick, 3 
Oct 1942-14 Apr 1944. Col Kenneth L 
Johnson, 20 June 1953; Col Horace A 
Crosswell, 1955-. 



130 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. Air Force Outstanding 
Unit Award: 2 Mar-31 May 1955. 

Insigne. Shield: Light blue with a 
green embattled base, a red lightning flash 
striking from upper right corner and cross- 
ing the corner of one embattlement and 
a white parachute with shroud lines touch- 
ing the tip of the flash; above the para- 
chute three white aircraft, on the green 
base a circle of six yellow stars at the left 
and a triangle of three yellow stars. 
Motto: OMNIA, UBIQUE, SEMPER— 
Anything, Anywhere, Anytime. (Ap- 
proved 2 Oct 1953.) 

64th TROOP CARRIER GROUP 

Constituted as 64th Transport Group 
on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 4 Dec 1940. 
Used C-47's for training and flying trans- 
port missions in the US. Redesignated 
64th Troop Carrier Group in Jul 1942. 
Moved to England in Aug 1942 and re- 
ceived additional training. Assigned to 




Twelfth AF. Moved to the Mediterrane- 
an theater, Nov-Dec 1942. Flew first mis- 
sion on II Nov, landing paratroops at 
Maison Blanche. Dropped paratroops to 
capture airfields during the battle for 
Tunisia. Released paratroops near Gela 
and Catania when the Allies invaded Sic- 
ily in Jul 1943. Dropped paratroops near 
Avellino during the invasion of Italy in 
Sep 1943 to destroy a bridge on the enemy's 
supply line to Salerno. Participated in the 
assault on southern France in Aug 1944 
by releasing gliders and paratroops in the 
battle zone. Supported the partisans in 
northern Italy early in 1945 by dropping 
paratroops, supplies, and propaganda leaf- 
lets behind enemy lines. When not en- 
gaged in airborne operations, the group 
continually transported men and supplies 
to the front lines and evacuated wounded 
personnel. Most of the group was on 
detached service in the CBI theater, Apr- 
Jun 1944, while a skeleton force remained 
in Sicily. With its squadrons operating 
from separate bases in India, the 64th 
group aided the Allied offensive in Burma, 
being awarded a DUG for flying unarmed 
over rugged enemy territory to carry food, 
clothing, medical supplies, guns, ammuni- 
tion, and mules to the combat zone and 
to evacuate wounded personnel. Moved 
to Trinidad in Jun 1945. Assigned to Air 
Transport Command. Inactivated on 31 
Jul 1945. 

Activated in the US on 19 May 1947. 
Not manned during 1947-1948. Inacti- 
vated on 10 Sep 1948. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



131 



Redesignated 64th Troop Carrier Group 
(Medium). Activated on 14 Jul 1952. 
Assigned to Tactical Air Command. 
Used C-82 aircraft and later (after Jul 
1953) C-119's. Inactivated on 21 Jul 1954. 

Squadrons. i6th: 1940-1945; 1947-1948. 
lyth: 1940-1945; 1947-1948; 1952-1954. 
i8th: 1940-1945; 1952-1954. ^$th: 1942- 
1945; 1952-1954- 54ih: 1942. 

Stations. Duncan Field, Tex, 4 Dec 
1940; March Field, Calif, c. 13 Jul 1941; 
Hamilton Field, Calif, c. i Feb 1942; West- 
over Field, Mass, c. 8 Jun-31 Jul 1942; 
Ramsbury, England, Aug-Nov 1942; 
Blida, Algeria, Dec 1942; Kairouan, Tu- 
nisia, 28 Jun 1943; El Djem, Tunisia, 26 Jul 
1943; Comiso, Sicily, 29 Aug 1943; Ciam- 
pino, Italy, 10 Jul 1944; Rosignano Air- 
field, Italy, 10 Jan-23 May 1945; Waller 
Field, Trinidad, 4 Jun-31 Jul 1945. Lang- 
ley Field, Va, 19 May 1947-10 Sep 1948. 
Donaldson AFB, SC, 14 Jul 1952-21 Jul 
1954. 

Commanders. Lt Col Malcolm S Law- 
ton, c. Dec 1940; Col Tracey K Dorsett, 
unkn; Lt Col Claire B Collier, c. i Mar 
1943; Col John Cerny, 16 May 1943-1945. 
Col Steward H Nichols, c. Jul 1952; Col 
David E Kunkel Jr, c. Nov 1953; Lt Col 
William G Forwood, unkn-1954. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Al- 
geria-French Morocco; Tunisia; Sicily; 
Naples-Foggia ; Rome-Arno; Southern 
France; North Apennines; Po Valley; In- 
dia-Burma. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: CBI Theater, 7 Apr-15 Jun 1944. 



Insigne. Shield: Azure, an eagle's leg 
a la cuisse or charged with a mullet of the 
field. Motto: FLYING SUPPORT, (Ap- 
proved 16 Jun 1942.) 

65th RECONNAISSANCE 
GROUP 

Constituted as 65th Observation Group 
on 21 Aug 1941. Activated on i Sep 1941. 
Equipped with O-47's, O-49's, O-52's, and 
other observation aircraft. Supported 
ground units during the Carolina Maneu- 
vers in the fall and winter of 1941. Flew 
antisubmarine patrols off the east coast 
after Pearl Harbor. Inactivated on 18 Oct 
1942. 

Activated on i Mar 1943. Redesignated 
65th Reconnaissance Group in Apr 1943. 
Served as a training organization for crews 
that changed from observation aircraft to 
B-25's. Disbanded on 15 Aug 1943. 

Reconstituted, allotted to the reserve, 
and activated, on 27 Dec 1946. Inacti- 
vated on 27 Jun 1949. 

Redesignated 65th Troop Carrier Group 
(Medium) and allotted to the reserve. 
Activated on 14 Jun 1952. Equipped with 
C-46's. Inactivated on i Apr 1953. 

Squadrons. 2d: ig^y-ig^g; 1952-1953. 
i^th: 1947-1949; 1952-1953. 14th: ig^y- 
1949; 1952-1953. i8th: 1942; 1943. 
lo^th: 1941-1942; 1943. ii2th: 1941- 
1942. i2ist: 1941-1942. 

Stations. Columbia, SC, i Sep 1941; 
Langley Field, Va, Dec 1941-18 Oct 1942. 
Columbia AAB, SC, i Mar 1943; Florence 
AAFld, SC, c. 15 Apr-15 Aug 1943. 



132 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Rome AAFld, NY, 27 Dec 1946-27 Jun 
1949. Mitchel AFB, NY, 14 Jun 1952- 
I Apr 1953. 

Commanders. Col Dache M Reeves, 
1941; Lt Col Walter M Williams, c. 21 
Feb-i8 Oct 1942. Lt Col Blaine B Camp- 
bell, 1943. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

66th RECONNAISSANCE 
GROUP 




PJ^HIA CONSPlClf^^ 



Constituted as 66th Observation Group 
on 21 Aug 1941. Activated on i Sep 1941. 
Redesignated 66th Reconnaissance Group 
in Apr 1943, and 66th Tactical Reconnais- 
sance Group in Aug 1943. Equipped at 
various times with O-46, O-47, A-20, 
P-39, P-40, B-25, L-5, and L-6 aircraft. 
Supported ground units on maneuvers, in- 
cluding the Carolina Maneuvers of 1942, 
the Tennessee Maneuvers of 1942 and 1943, 



and the Second Army Maneuvers of 1943- 
1944. Trained personnel in aerial recon- 
naissance and artillery adjustment 
methods. Also flew antisubmarine patrols 
off the east coast, Jan-Aug 1942. Dis- 
banded on 20 Apr 1944. 

Reconstituted, redesignated 66th Recon- 
naissance Group, allotted to the reserve, 
and activated, on 27 Dec 1946. Equipped 
with RB-26's and RF-8o's. Redesignated 
66th Strategic Reconnaissance Group in 
Jun 1949. Called to active duty on i May 
1951. Inactivated on 16 May 1951. 

Redesignated 66th Tactical Reconnais- 
sance Group. Activated on i Jan 1953. 
Assigned to Tactical Air Command. 
Equipped with RB-26's and RF-8o's. 
Moved to Germany, Jun-Jul 1953, and as- 
signed to United States Air Forces in 
Europe. Transitioned to RB-57's and RF- 
84's, 1954-1955. 

Squadrons. i8th: 1947-1949. i^h 
Liaison: 1942-1943. igth Reconnaissance: 
1947-1949. 20th: 1947-1949, 1949-1951. 
23d: 1943. 30th: 1947-1951; 1953-. 
gyth: 1941-1943. io6th: 1941-1943. 
1 1 8th: 1941-1943. 502^; 1953-. 303d: 

I953-- 

Stations. Jacksonville, Fla, i Sep 1941 ; 
Charleston, SC, Jan 1942; Jacksonville 
Mun Aprt, Fla, Mar 1942; Pope Field, NC, 
May 1942; TuUahoma, Tenn, Sep 1942; 
Morris Field, NC, Nov 1942; Camp Camp- 
bell, Ky, Apr 1943; Aiken AAFld, SC, 
Jun 1943; Lebanon, Tenn, Oct 1943-20 
Apr 1944. Newark AAB, NJ, 27 Dec 
1946; McGuire AFB, NJ, 27 Jun 1949; 
Barksdale AFB, La, 10 Oct 1949-16 May 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



133 



1951. Shaw AFB, SC, i Jan-i Jul 1953; 
Sembach AB, Germany, c. 7 Jul 1953-. 

Commanders. Maj Harry W Generous, 
4 Nov 1941 ; Lt Col Charles A Masson, c. 
26 May 1942; Lt Col Theron Coulter, 6 
Dec 1942; Maj Edward O McComas, c. 
31 Aug 1943; Lt Col Frederick L Moore, 
c. 16 Oct 1943-20 Apr 1944. Lt Col Stan- 
ley W Irons, Jan 1953; Col Harvey E Hen- 
derson, Jul 1953-. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Per bend gules and 
azure, a bend nebule argent between a 
sprig of goldenrod or, and a sprig of moun- 
tain laurel vert, fimbriated of the fourth. 
Moito: OMNIA CONSPICIMUS-We 
Observe All. (Approved 5 Jan 1943.) 

67th RECONNAISSANCE 
GROUP 

Constituted as 67th Observation Group 
on 21 Aug 1941. Activated on i Sep 1941. 
Flew antisubmarine patrols along the east 
coast of the US after the Japanese attacked 
Pearl Harbor. Began training in Jan 1942 
for duty overseas. Moved to the European 
theater, Aug-Oct 1942. Assigned first to 
Eighth and later (Oct 1943) to Ninth AF. 
Redesignated 67th Reconnaissance Group 
in May 1943, 67th Tactical Reconnaissance 
Group in Nov 1943, and 67th Reconnais- 
sance Group in Jun 1945. Trained in Eng- 
land for more than a year before begin- 
ning operations in Dec 1943. Used P-38's, 
P-51's, and F-5's to fly artillery-adjust- 




ment, weather-reconnaissance, bomb-dam- 
age assessment, photographic-reconnais- 
sance, and visual-reconnaissance missions. 
Received a DUC for operations along 
the coast of France, 15 Feb-20 Mar 1944, 
when the group flew at low altitude in 
the face of intense flak to obtain photo- 
graphs that aided the invasion of the Con- 
tinent. Flew weather missions, made 
visual reconnaissance for ground forces, 
and photographed enemy positions to sup- 
port the Normandy campaign and later to 
assist First Army and other Allied forces 
in the drive to Germany. Took part in the 
offensive against the Siegfried Line, Sep- 
Dec 1944, and in the Battle of the Bulge, 
Dec 1944-Jan 1945. From Jan to May 
1945, photographed dams on the Roer 
River in preparation for the ground of- 
fensive to cross the river, and aided the 
Allied assault across the Rhine and into 
Germany. Returned to the US, Jul-Sep 
1945. Inactivated on 31 Mar 1946. 

Activated on 19 May 1947. Assigned to 
Tactical Air Command. Equipped with 
RB-26's and RF-80's. Redesignated 67th 



134 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Tactical Reconnaissance Group in Jun 
1948. Inactivated on 28 Mar 1949. 

Activated in Japan on 25 Feb 195 1. As- 
signed to Far East Air Forces. Moved to 
Korea in Mar 1951 and served in the 
Korean War until the armistice. Used 
RB-26, RF-51, RF-80, RF-86, and RF-84 
aircraft. Made photographic reconnais- 
sance of front lines, enemy positions, and 
installations; took pre-strike and bomb- 
damage assessment photographs; made 
visual reconnaissance of enemy artillery 
and naval gun positions; and flew weather 
missions. Received an AFOUA for the 
period i Dec 1952-30 Apr 1953 when, in 
the face of enemy opposition and adverse 
weather, the group performed reconnais- 
sance missions on a 24-hour-a-day, 7-day-a- 
week basis to provide valuable intelligence 
for UN forces. Returned to Japan, Nov- 
Dec 1954. 

Squadrons, nth: 1946; 1947-1949; 
1953-. i2th: 1942-1944; 1947-1949; 1951-. 
i^th (formerly Observation) : 1944; 1951-. 
/5M (formerly Photographic) : 1947. 
30th: 1944-1945. 33d: 1944, 1945. 4^th: 
1951-. loph: 1941-1945. lo^th: 1941- 
1945. 113th: 1941-1942. i$3d: 1941- 
1944. i6ist: 1945. 

Stations. Esler Field, La, i Sep 1941; 
Charleston, SC, Dec 1941 ; Esler Field, La, 
Jan-Aug 1942; Membury, England, Sep 
1942; Middle Wallop, England, Dec 1943; 
Le Molay, France, Jul 1944; Toussus le 
Noble, France, Aug 1944; Gosselies, Bel- 
gium, Sep 1944; Vogelsang, Germany, 
Mar 1945; Limburg an der Lahn, Ger- 
many, c. 2 Apr 1945; Eschwege, Germany, 



c. 10 Apr- Jul 1945; Drew Field, Fla, c. 21 
Sep 1945; MacDill Field, Fla, Dec 1945; 
Shaw Field, SC, Feb-31 Mar 1946. Lang- 
ley Field, Va, 19 May 1947; March Field, 
Calif, c. 25 Jul 1947-28 Mar 1949. Ko- 
maki, Japan, 25 Feb 1951 ; Taegu, Korea, 
Mar 1951 ; Kimpo, Korea, Aug 1951 ; Itami, 
Japan, c. i Dec 1954-. 

Commanders. Unkn, Sep-Nov 194 1; 
Lt Col Oliver H Stout, c. 21 Nov 1941; 
Col Frederick R Anderson, c. 4 May 1942; 
Col George W Peck, 6 Dec 1943; Lt Col 
Richard S Leghorn, 11 May 1945-unkn. 
Unkn, May-Jul 1947; Maj Edwin C Lar- 
son, 25 Jul 1947; Lt Col Arvis L Hilpert, 
15 Aug 1947; Col Leon W Gray, 16 Aug 
1947; Lt Col Royal B Allison, 20 Mar 
1948; Col Horace A Hanes, 22 Mar 1948; 
Col Loren G McCollom, c. 16 Jan 1949- 
unkn. Col Jacob W Dixon, c. 28 Feb 195 1 ; 
Lt Col [.?] Stone, c. 29 Aug 195 1; Col 
Charles C Andrews, Sep 195 1; Col Robert 
R Smith, May 1952; Lt Col George T 
Prior, Oct 1952; Col John G Foster, 1952- 
unkn; Col John C Egan, c. 22 Oct 1953; 
Lt Col Hartwell C Lancaster, 8 May 1954; 
Col Loren G McCollom, i June 1954; Col 
Prescott M Spicer, 11 Aug 1954; Lt Col 
Joseph C Smith, 24 Nov 1954-unkn; Col 
John W Baer, 31 Aug 1955-. 

Campaigns. World War II: Antisub- 
marine, American Theater; Air Offensive, 
Europe; Normandy; Northern France; 
Rhineland; Ardennes-Alsace; Central 
Europe. Korean War: ist UN Counter- 
offensive; CCF Spring Offensive; UN 
Summer-Fall Offensive; Second Korean 
Winter; Korea Summer-Fall, 1952; Third 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



135 



Korean Winter; Korea Summer-Fall, 

1953- 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Le Havre and Straits of Dover, 
15 Feb-20 Mar 1944; Korea, 25 Feb-21 
Apr 195 1 ; Korea, 9 Jul-27 Nov 1951; 
Korea, i May-27 Jul 1953. Cited in the 
Order of the Day, Belgian Army: 6 Jun- 

30 Sep 1944; 16 Dec 1944-25 Jan 1945. 
Belgian Fourragere. Republic of Korea 
Presidential Unit Citation: [Mar] 1951- 

31 Mar 1953. Air Force Outstanding Unit 
Award: i Dec 1952-30 Apr 1953. 

Insigne. Shield: Per bend sinister, sky 
proper (light blue) and azure between a 
lightning bolt gules, fimbriated sable, in 
bend sinister, the quarter section of a sun, 
issuing from the dexter chief, or, fimbri- 
ated sable, in sinister four stars argent, 
one, two and one, all the shield within a 
diminutive border sable. Motto: LUX 
EX TENEBRIS— Light from Darkness. 
(Approved 20 Mar 1952.) 

68th RECONNAISSANCE 
GROUP 

Constituted as 68th Observation Group 
on 21 Aug 1941. Activated on i Sep 1941. 
Redesignated 68th Reconnaissance Group 
in May 1943, and 68th Tactical Reconnais- 
sance Group in Nov 1943. Flew patrols 
over the Gulf of Mexico and along the 
Mexican border after the Japanese attacked 
Pearl Harbor. Began training in Feb 
1942 for duty overseas. Moved to the 
Mediterranean theater, Oct-Nov 1942, and 
assigned to Twelfth AF. Shortly after 




the group began operations most of its 
squadrons were detached for separate duty 
in order to carry out diverse activities over 
a wide area. Operating from bases in 
North Africa until Nov 1943, the group, or 
elements of the group, engaged in patrol- 
ling the Mediterranean; strafing trucks, 
tanks, gun positions, and supply dumps to 
support ground troops in Tunisia; train- 
ing fighter pilots and replacement crews; 
and flying photographic and visual recon- 
naissance missions in Tunisia, Sicily, and 
Italy to provide information needed to 
adjust artillery fire. Moved to Italy and 
assigned to Fifteenth AF, in Nov 1943. 
Continued visual and photographic recon- 
naissance and began flying weather recon- 
naissance missions in Italy, France, 
Germany, Austria, Hungary, and the 
Balkans. Also engaged in electronic- 
countermeasure activities, investigating 
radar equipment captured from the enemy, 
flying ferret missions along the coasts of 
Italy and southern France, and accom- 
panying bomber formations to detect ap- 



136 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



preaching enemy fighters. Used P-38, 
P-39, P-40, P-51, A-20, A-36, B-17, and 
B-24 aircraft for operations. Returned to 
North Africa in Apr 1944. Disbanded on 
15 Jun 1944. 

Reconstituted, redesignated 68th Recon- 
naissance Group, and allotted to the re- 
serve, on 10 Mar 1947. Activated in the 
US on 9 Apr 1947. Inactivated on 27 Jun 
1949. 

Redesignated 68th Strategic Reconnais- 
sance Group (Medium). Activated on 
10 Oct 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air 
Command. Trained with B-29's. In- 
activated on 16 Jun 1952. 

Squadrons. i6th: 1942-1944. 2/ith: 
1947-1949; 1951-1952. sist: 1947-1949; 
1951-1952. 52^; 1947-1949; 1951-1952. 
iiith: 1942-1944. /22^; 1941-1944. 
i2$th: 1941-1942. i2ph: 1941-1942. 
i$4th: 1941-1944. 

Stations. Brownwood, Tex, i Sep 1941 ; 
New Orleans AB, La, 17 Dec 1941 ; Daniel 
Field, Ga, 8 Feb 1942; Smith Reynolds 
Aprt, NC, 9 Jul 1942; Morris Field, NC, 
c. 17 Aug-i8 Oct 1942; Casablanca, French 
Morocco, Nov 1942; Oujda, French Mo- 
rocco, c. Nov 1942; Berrechid Airfield, 
French Morocco, 24 Mar 1943; Berteaux, 
Algeria, 5 Sep 1943; Massicault, Tunisia, 
Oct 1943; Manduria, Italy, Nov 1943; 
Blida, Algeria, c. Apr-15 Jun 1944. Ham- 
ilton Field, Calif, 9 Apr 1947^27 Jun 1949. 
Lake Charles AFB, La, 10 Oct 1951-16 
Jun 1952. 

Commanders. Unkn, Sep-Dec 1941; Lt 
Col Guy L McNeil, 15 Dec 1941; Maj 
John R Fordyce, 30 Jun 1942; Lt Col Eu- 



gene C Woltz, 13 Mar 1943; Col Charles 
D Jones, 8 Aug 1943-c. 15 Jan 1944; Capt 
Harper L McGrady, unkn; Col [ ?] Smith, 
unkn; Col Monro MacCloskey, Mar-c. 
May 1944. Col Lowell G Sidling, 26 Oct 
1951-C. 16 Jun 1952. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater ; Air Combat, EAME Theater ; Al- 
geria-French Morocco; Naples-Foggia; 
Rome-Arno. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, an eye of the 
first surmounting a tuft of six feathers, 
imposed on a tuft of eight feathers, be- 
tween and at the base of two wings con- 
joined in the form of a "V" or. Motto: 
VICTORIA PER OBSERVATIAM— 
Victory through Observation. (Approved 
17 Sep 1942. This insigne was replaced 
3 Oct 1952.) 

69th RECONNAISSANCE 
GROUP 

Constituted as 69th Observation Group 
on 21 Aug 1941. Activated on 3 Sep 1941. 
Redesignated 69th Reconnaissance Group 
in Apr 1943, and 69th Tactical Recon- 
naissance Group in Aug 1943. Used 
O-38, O-46, O-47, O-52, L-i, L-2, L-3, 
L-4, L-5, L-49, P-39, P-40, B-25, A-20, 
and other aircraft. Flew antisubmarine 
patrols along the Pacific coast after Pearl 
Harbor. Engaged primarily in air- 
ground training during 1943 and 1944. 
Began training with F-6's in Jan 1945 for 
duty overseas. Moved to France, Feb- 
Mar 1945. Assigned to Ninth AF. Flew 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



137 



visual-reconnaissance and photographic 
missions to provide intelligence for 
ground and air units. Redesignated 69th 
Reconnaissance Group in Jun 1945. Re- 
turned to the US, Jul-Aug 1945. Trained 
with F-6 and A-26 aircraft. Inactivated 
on 29 Jul 1946. 

Squadrons. loth: 1942-1946. 22^; 
1945-1946. 31st: 1942-1945, 1945-1946. 
34ih: 1945. 57M; 1943-1944. 39th: 1946. 
82d: 1941-1942. loist (formerly 39th): 
1944-1945. 702^; 1942-1944. iiith: 
1945. 115th: 1941-1943. 

Stations. Paso Robles, Calif, 3 Sep 
1941; Salinas, Calif, c. 3 Oct 1941; San 
Bernardino, Calif, Dec 1941 ; Ontario, 
Calif, <:. I Jun 1942; Laurel, Miss, Nov 
1942; Esler Field, La, Mar 1943; Abilene 
AAFld, Tex, Sep 1943; Esler Field, La, 
Nov 1943; Key Field, Miss, Jan-Feb 1945; 
Nancy, France, c. 22 Mar 1945; Haguenau, 
France, c. 2 Apr-c. 30 Jun 1945; Drew 
Field, Fla, Aug 1945; Stuttgart AAFld, 
Ark, Nov 1945; Brooks Field, Tex, Dec 
1945-29 Jul 1946. 

Commanders. Maj William C Sams, 
3 Oct 1941 ; Col John N Jeffers, 9 Dec 1941 ; 
Col Kenneth R Crosher, 8 Nov 1942; Maj 
Cecil E West, 12 May 1943; Lt Col Eugene 
C Woltz, 29 Sep 1943; Lt Col Arthur Fite 
Jr, 26 Oct 1944; Col John T Shields, 21 Jan 
1945; Lt Col Richard A Morehouse, c. 20 
Feb 1946; Col Russell A Berg, c. 10 Mar- 
29 Jul 1946. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater; Central Europe. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 



70th RECONNAISSANCE 
GROUP 




Constituted as 70th Observation Group 
on 21 Aug 1941. Activated on 13 Sep 1941. 
Redesignated 70th Reconnaissance Group 
in Apr 1943, and 70th Tactical Reconnais- 
sance Group in Aug 1943. Aircraft: 
O-46's, O-47's, B-25's, A-2o's, P-39's, 
L-2's, L-4's, L-5's, and L-6's. Provided 
artillery adjustment, reconnaissance, and 
fighter and bomber support to ground 
forces in training and on maneuvers along 
the west coast. Also flew antisubmarine 
patrols off the west coast from 7 Dec 1941 
through Sep 1942. Disbanded on 30 Nov 

1943- 

Reconstituted, redesignated 70th Recon- 
naissance Group, and allotted to the re- 
serve, on 10 Mar 1947. Activated on 26 
Apr 1947. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949. 

Squadrons. 26th Tactical Reconnais- 
sance: 1942-1943. 26th Photographic 
Reconnaissance: 1947-1949. ^jth: 1947- 
1949. 6ist: 1947-1949. ii2th: 1943. 
ii6th: 1941-1943. 123d: 1941-1943. 

Stations. Gray Field, Wash, 13 Sep 
1941; Salinas AAB, Calif, Mar 1943; Red- 
mond AAFld, Ore, 15 Aug 1943; Corval- 



138 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



lis AAFld, Ore, Oct 1943; Will Rogers 
Field, Okla, c. 14-30 Nov 1943. Hill Field, 
Utah, 26 Apr 1947-27 Jun 1949. 

Commanders. Maj Hillford R Wallace, 
Sep 194 1 ; Maj Wallace J O'Daniels, c. i 
Apr 1942; Maj G Robert Dodson, c. 3 May 
1942; Col Don W Mayhue, c. 9 May 1942; 
Lt Col G Robert Dodson, c. 3 Nov 1942; 
Lt Col Stanley R Stewart, c. 3 Dec 1942; 
Lt Col G Robert Dodson, c. 3 Jan 1943- 
unkn. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, on a bend 
nebuly between six billets or, two crowing 
cocks palewise gules. Motto: WE 
WATCH OUT FOR YOU. (Approved 
5 Jan I943-) 

71st RECONNAISSANCE 
GROUP 

Constituted as 71st Observation Group 
on 21 Aug 1941. Activated on i Oct 1941. 
Trained with B-25, P-38, P-39, and P-40 
aircraft. Flew antisubmarine patrols off 
the west coast, Dec I94i-Jan 1943. Re- 
designated 71st Reconnaissance Group in 
Apr 1943, 71st Tactical Reconnaissance 
Group in May 1944, and 71st Reconnais- 
sance Group in May 1945. 

Moved to the Southwest Pacific, Sep- 
Nov 1943, and assigned to Fifth AF. 
Equipped with B-25, P-38, P-39, L-4, L-5, 
and later some L-6 aircraft. Based on 
New Guinea and Biak, flew reconnaissance 
missions over New Guinea, New Britain, 



and the Admiralties to provide target and 
damage-assessment photographs for air 
force units. Also bombed and strafed 
Japanese installations, airfields, and ship- 
ping; supported Allied forces on New 
Guinea and Biak; flew courier missions; 
participated in rescue operations; and 
hauled passengers and cargo. Moved to 
the Philippines in Nov 1944. Flew recon- 
naissance missions over Luzon to provide 
information for US forces as to Japanese 
troop movements, gun positions, and 
supply routes. Also supported ground 
forces on Luzon, photographed and 
bombed airfields in Formosa and China, 
and attacked enemy shipping off the 
Asiatic coast. Maj William A Shomo was 
awarded the Medal of Honor for action 
on II Jan 1945: sighting a formation of 
thirteen Japanese aircraft while leading a 
two-plane flight, Maj Shomo attacked the 
superior enemy force and destroyed seven 
planes. After moving to le Shima in Aug 
1945, the group attacked transportation 
targets on Kyushu and flew over southern 
Japan to locate prisoner of war camps, to 
assess bomb damage, and to obtain infor- 
mation on Japanese military movements. 
Moved to Japan in Oct 1945. Inactivated 
on I Feb 1946. 

Activated in Japan on 28 Feb 1947. As- 
signed to Far East Air Forces. Manned 
in Nov 1947 and equipped with RB-17, 
RB-29, RF-51, RF-61, and RF-80 aircraft. 
Photographed areas of Japan and South 
Korea. Redesignated 71st Tactical Recon- 
naissance Group in Aug 1948. Inactivated 
in Japan on i Apr 1949. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VNITS— GROUPS 



139 



Squadrons. 8ih: 1947-1949. lyth: 
1942-1946. 25M Liaison: 1942-1945. 2pk 
Reconnaissance: 1947-1949. Sid: 1942- 
1946; 1947-1949. io2d: 1941-1942. iioth: 
1941-1946. 128th: 1941-1942. 

Stations. Birmingham, Ala, i Oct 
1941; Salinas AAB, Calif, 21 Dec 1941; 
Rice, Calif, 18 Aug 1942; Salinas AAB, 
Calif, 19 Oct 1942; Esler Field, La, 24 Jan 
1943; Laurel AAFld, Miss, 31 Mar-24 Sep 
1943; Port Moresby, New Guinea, 7 Nov 
1943; Nadzab, New Guinea, 20 Jan 1944; 
Biak, 8 Aug 1944; Leyte, 5 Nov 1944; 
Binmaley, Luzon, 2 Feb 1945; le Shima, 
Aug 1945; Chofu, Japan, 6 Oct 1945; 
Tachikawa, Japan, 23 Oct 1945; Iruma- 
gawa, Japan, c. 15 Jan-i Feb 1946. Itami, 
Japan, 28 Feb 1947; Johnson AAB, Japan, 
15 Apr 1947; Yokota, Japan, 31 Oct 1947-1 
Apr 1949. 

Commanders. Unkn, to Feb 1942; Col 
William C Sams, Feb 1942; Col Henry C 
Thompson, Oct 1944; Maj Jowell C Wise, 
12 Oct 1945; ist Lt Wilburn H Ohle, 21 
Oct 1945-unkn. Lt Col William L Gray, 
3 Nov 1947; Lt Col Ben K Armstrong, 23 
Feb 1948; Lt Col Donald Lang, 25 Feb 
1948; Col William E Basye, 5 Jun 1948; Lt 
Col Ben K Armstrong, 25 Mar-i Apr 1949. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater; Air Offensive, Japan; China De- 
fensive; New Guinea; Bismarck Archi- 
pelago; Western Pacific; Leyte; Luzon; 
China Offensive. 

Decorations. Philippine Presidential 
Unit Citation. 

Insigne. None. 



72d RECONNAISSANCE 
GROUP 

Constituted as 72d Observation Group 
on 21 Aug 1941. Activated on 26 Sep 
194 1. Redesignated 72d Reconnaissance 
Group in 1943. Used O-47, O-49, O-52, 
L-i, L-4, B-18, P-39, and other aircraft. 
Moved to the Panama Canal Zone, Dec 
1941-Jan 1942. Flew patrol missions, car- 
ried mail, searched for missing aircraft, 
provided reconnaissance support to ground 
forces, and occasionally did photographic- 
mapping work. Disbanded in the Canal 
Zone on i Nov 1943. 

Reconstituted and allotted to the reserve, 
on 13 May 1947. Activated on 12 Jul 1947. 
Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949. 

Squadrons. ist: 1941-1943. 4th: 
1942-1943. jpM.' 1942-1943. 60th: 1947- 
1949. 73^ Fighter: 1947-1949. io8th: 
1941-1943. 124th: 1941. 

Stations. Shreveport, La, 26 Sep 1941 ; 
Little Rock, Ark, Oct 1941; Marshall 
Field, Kan, ii-c. 27 Dec 1941; Howard 
Field, CZ, c. 18 Jan 1942-1 Nov 1943. 
Hamilton Field, Calif, 12 Jul 1947-27 Jun 
1949. 

Commanders. Lt Col Jasper K Mc- 
Duffie, Oct 194 1 ; Col Perry B Griffin, c. i 
Feb 1942; Col Vernon C Smith, 19 May-i 
Nov 1943. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 



140 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



74th RECONNAISSANCE 
GROUP 

Constituted as 74th Observation Group 
on 5 Feb 1942 and activated on 27 Feb. 
Redesignated 74th Reconnaissance Group 
in Apr 1943, and 74th Tactical Reconnais- 
sance Group in Aug 1943. Equipped at 
various times with O-52's, L-i's, L-4's, 
L-5's, B-25's, A-2o's, P-39's, P-40's, and 
P-51's. Vltvv reconnaissance, mapping, 
artillery adjustment, bombing, dive-bomb- 
ing, and strafing missions to support 
ground units in training or on maneuvers; 
trained personnel in aerial reconnaissance, 
medium bombardment, and fighter tech- 
niques. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945. 

Redesignated 74th Reconnaissance 
Group, allotted to the reserve, and acti- 
vated, on 27 Dec 1946. Inactivated on 27 
Jun 1949. 

Squadrons. $th: 1943. 8th: 1945. 
nth: 1942-1945. i^th: 1942-1945. 21st: 
1947-1949. 22<^ Tactical Reconnaissance: 
1942-1945. 22d Photographic Reconnais- 
sance: 1947-1949. ssd (formerly 31st): 
1947-1949. ^6th: 1943-1944. loist: 1945. 

Stations. Lawson Field, Ga, 27 Feb 
1942; DeRidder, La, c. 10 Apr 1942; Esler 
Field, La, c. 13 Dec 1942; Desert Center, 
Calif, c. 28 Dec 1942; Morris Field, NC, 
Sep 1943; Camp Campbell AAFld, Ky, 
Nov 1943; D&Ridder AAB, La, Apr 1944; 
Stuttgart AAFld, Ark, Feb-7 Nov 1945. 
Stewart Field, NY, 27 Dec 1946-27 Jun 
1949. 

Commanders. Capt Austin H Burleigh, 
1942; Maj George G Finch, c. 27 Mar 1942; 



Col Clarence D Wheeler, c. 7 Apr 1942; 
Lt Col James R Gunn Jr, 26 Oct 1943; Lt 
Col Herbert A Bott, c. 10 Nov 1943; Maj 
Woodrow W Ramsey, 23 Apr 1944; Lt 
Col Richard A Morehouse, 22 Sep 1944; 
Col Yancey S Tarrant, Aug 1945; Col John 
T Shields, 26 Sep-7 Nov 1945. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

75 th RECONNAISSANCE 
GROUP 




Constituted as 75th Observation Group 
on 5 Feb 1942 and activated on 27 Feb. 
Redesignated 75th Reconnaissance Group 
in Apr 1943, and 75th Tactical Reconnais- 
sance Group in Aug 1943. Used B-25's, 
A-2o's, L-i's, L-2's, L-4's, O-47's, O-52's, 
P-39's, P-40's, and P-51's. Until the fall 
of 1942 the group aided ground units with 
their training by flying reconnaissance, 
artillery adjustment, strafing, and dive- 
bombing missions; one squadron (124th) 
flew antisubmarine patrols over the Gulf 
of Mexico. In the fall of 1942 the group 
participated in the Louisiana Maneuvers. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



141 



Beginning early in 1943 it functioned pri- 
marily as a replacement training unit. 
Disbanded on i May 1944. 

Squadrons. 21st: 1942-1944. ^oth: 
1942-1944. 124th: 1942-1944. i2jth: 
1942-1943. 

Stations. Ellington Field, Tex, 27 Feb 
1942; Birmingham, Ala, Mar 1942; TuUa- 
homa, Tenn, Nov 1942; Key Field, Miss, 
Aug 1943-1 May 1944. 

Commanders. Col Frederick A Bacher, 
c. 30 Mar 1942; Col John E Bodle, 5 Apr 
1943; Maj Del win B Avery, 15 Sep 1943; 
Lt Col George C P Giflord, 17 Sep 1943; 
Lt Col John R Dyas, i Jan-i May 1944. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure on a ship's 
crow's nest issuant from base an albatross 
sejant or, holding in its beak a mullet 
gules. Mo«o; APPERCEPTION. (Ap- 
proved 23 Sep 1942.) 

76th RECONNAISSANCE 
GROUP 

Constituted as 76th Observation Group 
on 5 Feb 1942 and activated on 27 Feb. 
Redesignated 76th Reconnaissance Group 
in Apr 1943, and 76th Tactical Reconnais- 
sance Group in Aug 1943. Aircraft in- 
cluded P-39's, P-40's, A-2o's, B-25's, L-i's, 
L-4's, L-5's, and L-6's. Trained in aerial 
reconnaissance and air support techniques 
and aided ground units in their training, 
Feb 1942-May 1943 ; assisted Second Army 
on maneuvers, May-Sep 1943 ; participated 




in maneuvers with ground forces in the 
California-Arizona desert training area 
beginning in Sep 1943. Disbanded on 15 
Apr 1944. 

Squadrons. 20th: 1942-1943. 22d: 
1942-1943, 1943-1944. 24th: 1942-1943. 
yoth: 1943. gist: 1943. gph: 1943-1944. 
loist: 1943-1944. io2d: 1944. io6th: 1943. 
i2ist: 1943. 

Stations. MacDill Field, Fla, 27 Feb 
1942; Key Field, Miss, c. 3 Mar 1942; Pope 
Field, NC, c. 28 Mar 1942; Vichy, Mo, 
Dec 1942; Morris Field, NC, May 1943; 
Thermal AAFld, Calif, Sep 1943-15 Apr 
1944. 

Commanders. Lt Col H N Burkhalter, 
Mar 1942; Maj James E Ilgenfritz, c. 21 
Jan 1943; Lt Col John T Shields, c. 18 Sep 
1943-unkn; Maj Klem F Kalberer, 1944. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure a drop bomb 
argent surmounted by a pair of binoculars 
bendwise gules winged or. Motto: OUR 
OBSERVATION, YOUR SECURITY. 
(Approved 5 Nov 1942.) 



142 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



77th RECONNAISSANCE 
GROUP 




Constituted as 77th Observation Group 
on 5 Feb 1942. Activated on 2 Mar 1942. 
Redesignated 77th Reconnaissance Group 
in Apr 1943, and 77th Tactical Reconnais- 
sance Group in Aug 1943. Aircraft in- 
cluded P-39's, P-40's, A-20's, B-25's, 
O-47's, O-52's, and L-5's. Supported 
ground units in training by flying recon- 
naissance, artillery adjustment, fighter, 
and bomber missions, and in the process 
trained reconnaissance personnel who 
later served overseas. One squadron 
(113th) flew antisubmarine patrols over 
the Gulf of Mexico from Mar until Jun 
1942 when it was relieved by another 
squadron (128th). Still another squadron 
(i20th) patrolled the Mexican border, 
Mar-Jul 1942. A detachment of the 77th 
served in India from Feb until Jul 1943. 
The group was disbanded on 30 Nov 1943. 

Squadrons. 5/A; 1942-1943. 2'jth: 
1942-1943. ssth: 1943. 113th: 1942-1943. 
i2oth: 1942-1943. i2$th: 1942-1943. 
128th: 1942-1943. 



Stations. Salinas AAB, Calif, 2 Mar 
1942; Brown wood, Tex, c. 17 Mar 1942; 
DeRidder AAB, La, 25 Jul 1942; Alamo 
Airfield, Tex, 28 Sep 1942; Abilene 
AAFld, Tex, 6 Apr 1943; Esler Field, La, 
13 Sep 1943; Birmingham AAFld, Ala, 
14-30 Nov 1943. 

Commanders. Maj Harrison W Well- 
man, Mar 1942; Lt Col Christopher C 
Scott, c. 3 Apr 1942; Col J C Kennedy, 
1942-unkn; Lt Col Joseph E Barzynski, 
c. 19 Apr 1943-unkn. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Or, a broad-winged 
hawk volant proper holding in its beak a 
mullet gules and emitting from its eyes 
seven flashes of the last, issuant from base 
a mountain range of seven peaks azure. 
Motto: ALL SEEING. (Approved 28 
Feb 1943.) 

78th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 78th Pursuit Group (In- 
terceptor) on 13 Jan 1942. Activated on 
9 Feb 1942. Redesignated 78th Fighter 
Group in May 1942. Trained for combat 
with P-38's and served as part of the air 
defense organization. Moved to England, 
Nov-Dec 1942. Assigned to Eighth AF. 
Lost its P-38's and most of its pilots in 
Feb 1943 when they were assigned to 
Twelfth AF for service in North Africa. 
Began operations from England with 
P-47's in Apr 1943, converted to P-51's 
in Dec 1944, and continued combat until 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROWS 



143 




^OVE THE F0&, 



Apr 1945. Flew many missions to escort 
bombers that attacked industries, subma- 
rine yards and docks, V-weapon sites, and 
other targets on the Continent. Also en- 
gaged in counter-air activities and on nu- 
merous occasions strafed and dive-bombed 
airfields, trains, vehicles, barges, tugs, 
canal locks, barracks, and troops. In addi- 
tion to other operations, participated in the 
intensive campaign against the German 
Air Force and aircraft industry during Big 
Week, 20-25 Feb 1944; helped to prepare 
the way for the invasion of France; sup- 
ported landings in Normandy in Jun 1944; 
contributed to the breakthrough at St Lo 
in Jul 1944; participated in the Battle of 
the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945; and sup- 
ported the airborne assault across the 
Rhine in Mar 1945. Received a DUG for 
activities connected with the airborne at- 
tack on Holland in Sep 1944 when the 
group covered troop carrier and bombard- 



ment operations and carried out strafing 
and dive-bombing missions. Received 
second DUG for destroying numerous air- 
craft on five airfields near Prague and 
Pilsen on 16 Apr 1945. Returned to the 
US in Oct. Inactivated on 18 Oct 1945. 

Activated in Germany on 20 Aug 1946. 
Assigned to United States Air Forces in 
Europe for duty with the occupation force. 
Transferred, without personnel and equip- 
ment, to the US in Jun 1947 and had few, 
if any, personnel assigned until Nov 1948. 
Equipped with F-84's in the spring of 
1949. Redesignated 78th Fighter-Inter- 
ceptor Group in Jan 1950. Inactivated on 
6 Feb 1952. 

Redesignated 78th Fighter Group (Air 
Defense). Activated oni% Kug ig^'^. As- 
signed to Air Defense Command. 

Squadrons. 82d: 1942-1945; 1946-1952. 
8^d: 1942-1945; 1946-1952; 1955-. 8^h: 
1942-1945; 1946-1952; 1955-. 

Stations. Baer Field, Ind, 9 Feb 1942; 
Muroc, Calif, c. 30 Apr 1942; Hamilton 
Field, Calif, May-Nov 1942; Goxhill, Eng- 
land, Dec 1942; Duxford, England, Apr 
1943-Oct 1945; Camp Kilmer, NJ, c. 16-18 
Oct 1945. Straubing, Germany, 20 Aug 
1946-Jun 1947; Mitchel Field, NY, Jun 
1947; Hamilton AFB, Calif, Nov 1948-6 
Feb 1952. Hamilton AFB, Calif, 18 Aug 

I955-- 

Commanders. Col Arman Peterson, 
May 1942; Lt Col Melvin F McNickle, Jul 
1943; Col James J Stone Jr, 31 Jul 1943; 
Col Frederic C Gray Jr, 22 May 1944; Lt 
Col Olin E Gilbert, 29 Jan 1945; Col John 



144 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



D Landers, c. 22 Feb 1945; Lt Col Roy B 
Caviness, i Jul 1945-unkn. Col Robert 
P Montgomery, c. 20 Aug 1946-unkn; Col 
Earl H Dunham, 1946-unkn; Col John B 
Patrick, c. 1 Apr 1947; Col Earl H Dun- 
ham, c. I May 1947; Col Robert W 
Stephens, c. i Jun 1947-unkn ; Col Barton 
M Russell, c. 8 Dec 1948; Col Brian 
O'Neill, Aug 1949-unkn; Col Jack W 
Hayes Jr, 1951-unkn. Col Wilton H 
Earle, 1955-. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Holland, 17-23 Sep 1944; Czecho- 
slovakia, 16 Apr 1945. 

Insigne. Shield: Per pale indented 
azure and gules, in chief five chain lengths 
conjoined fesswise or. Motto: ABOVE 
THE FOE. (Approved 26 Sep 1942.) 

79th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 79th Pursuit Group (In- 
terceptor) on 13 Jan 1942. Activated on 
9 Feb 1942. Redesignated 79th Fighter 
Group in May 1942. Moved to the Middle 
East, Oct-Nov 1942, and became part of 
Ninth AF. Trained with P-40's while 
moving westward in the wake of the Brit- 
ish drive across Egypt and Libya to 
Tunisia. Although many of the group's 
pilots flew combat missions with other or- 
ganizations, the 79th group itself did not 
begin operations until Mar 1943. By 
escorting bombers, attacking enemy ship- 
ping, and supporting ground forces, the 



79th took part in the Allied operations that 
defeated Axis forces in North Africa, cap- 
tured Pantelleria, and conquered Sicily, 
the group being awarded a DUG for its 
support of British Eighth Army during 
that period, Mar-Aug 1943. Assigned to 
Twelfth AF in Aug 1943 and continued 
to support British Eighth Army by at- 
tacking troop concentrations, gun posi- 
tions, bridges, roads, and rail lines in 
southern Italy. Operated in the area of 
the Anzio beachhead, Jan-Mar 1944. 
Participated in the drive on Rome, Mar- 
Jun 1944, and converted to P-47's during 
that time. Flew escort and strafing mis- 
sions in southern France during Aug and 
Sep 1944, and afterward engaged in inter- 
dictory and close support operations in 
northern Italy. Received second DUC for 
numerous missions flown at minimum 
altitude in intense flak to help pierce the 
enemy line at the Santerno River in Italy, 
16-20 Apr 1945. Remained overseas as part 
of United States Air Forces in Europe 
after the war. Transferred, without per- 
sonnel and equipment, to the US in Jun 
1947. Inactivated on 15 Jul 1947. 

Redesignated 79th Fighter Group (Air 
Defense). Activated oniS Aug ig^^. As- 
signed to Air Defense Command. 

Squadrons. 8§th: 1942-1947. 86th: 1942- 
1947; I955-- 87th: 1942-1947. 

Stations. Dale Mabry Field, Fla, 9 Feb 
1942; Morris Field, NC, c. i May 1942; 
Hillsgrove, RI, c. 22 Jun 1942; Bedford, 
Mass, 2 Jul-28 Sep 1942; Egypt, 18 Nov 
1942; Libya, c. 25 Jan 1943; Tunisia, c. 12 
Mar 1943; Sicily, 16 Jul 1943; Southern 



AIR FORCE COMfiAT UNITS— GROUPS 



145 



Italy, c. 15 Sep 1943; Foggia, Italy, c. 9 Oct 
1943; Madna Airfield, Italy, 19 Nov 1943; 
Capodichino, Italy, Jan 1944; Pomigliano, 
Italy, I May 1944; Corsica, Jun 1944; 
Southern France, c. 25 Aug 1944; lesi, Italy, 
Oct 1944; Fano, Italy, c. 5 Dec 1944; 
Cesenatico, Italy, c. 20 Mar 1945; Horsch- 
ing, Austria, Jul 1945-25 Jun 1947; Lang- 
ley Field, Va, 25 Jun-15 Jul 1947. Youngs- 
town Mun Aprt, Ohio, 18 Aug 1955-. 

Commanders. 2d Lt Thomas G. 
Mitchell, II Feb 1942; Lt Col J Stanley 
Holtoner, 17 Feb 1942; Lt Col Peter Mc- 
Goldrick, 1942; Col Earl E Bates, Nov 
1942; Col Charles W Stark, Apr 1944; Lt 
Col Melvin J Neilson, May 1944; Col 
Gladwyn E Pinkston, 28 Nov 1944; Lt Col 
John F Martin, 17 May 1945; Col German 
P Culver, May 1946; Lt Col Bascom A 
Brooks, 4 Feb 1947; Lt Col John M 
Thacker, Apr 1947-unkn. Col Benjamin 
H Emmert Jr, 1955-. 

Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME 
Theater; Egypt-Libya; Tunisia; Sicily; 
Naples-Foggia ; Anzio; Rome-Arno; 
Southern France; North Apennines; Po 
Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: North Africa and Sicily, Mar-17 
Aug 1943; Italy, 16-20 Apr 1945. 

Insigne. None. 

80th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 80th Pursuit Group (In- 
terceptor) on 13 Jan 1942. Activated on 
9 Feb 1942. Redesignated 8oth Fighter 
Group in May 1942. Used P-47's to train 




for combat and to serve as part of the de- 
fense force for the northeastern US. Sailed 
for India, via Brazil, Cape of Good Hope, 
and Ceylon, in May 1943. Assigned to 
Tenth AF. Began operations in Sep 1943 
with P-38 and P-40 aircraft; later used 
P-47's. Supported Allied ground forces 
during the battle for northern Burma and 
the push southward to Rangoon, bombing 
and strafing troop concentrations, supply 
dumps, lines of communication, artillery 
positions, and other objectives. Defended 
the Indian terminus of the Hump route 
by striking Japanese airfields and by pa- 
trolling Allied airfields to safeguard them 
from attack. Received a DUC for inter- 
cepting a formation of enemy planes and 
preventing its attack on a large oil refinery 
in Assam, India, on 27 Mar 1944. Re- 
turned to the US in Oct 1945. Inactivated 
on 3 Nov 1945. 

Squai^ons. 88th: 1942-1945. 8gth: 
1942-1945. goth: 1942-1945. 4$gth: 1943- 
1944. 

Stations. Selfridge Field, Mich, 9 Feb 
1942; Farmingdale, NY, 5 Jul 1942; Miteh- 
el Field, NY, 9 Mar-30 Apr 1943; Karachi, 
India, 28 Jun 1943; Nagaghuli, India, Oct 



146 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



1943; Tingkawk Sakan, Burma, 29 Aug 
1944; Myitkyina, Burma, 20 Jan 1945; 
Dudhkundi, India, 24 May-6 Oct 1945; 
Camp Kilmer, NJ, 1-3 Nov 1945. 

Commanders. Unkn, Feb-May 1942; 
Col John C Crosthwaite, c. 20 May 1942; 
Maj Albert L Evans Jr, i Jul 1942; Col 
Ivan W McElroy, 14 Jul 1943; Col Albert 
L Evans Jr, 13 Apr 1944; Col Sydney D 
Grubbs Jr, i Feb 1945; Col Hiette S Wil- 
liams Jr, c. 29 Apr 1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. American Theater; India- 
Burma; Central Burma. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Assam, India, 27 Mar 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Per bend azure and 
sable a bend raguly or. Motto: ANGELS 
ON OUR WINGS. (Approved 14 Oct 
1942.) 

81st FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 8ist Pursuit Group (In- 
tercepter) on 13 Jan 1942. Activated on 9 
Feb 1942. Redesignated 8ist Fighter 
Group in May 1942. Trained with P-39's. 
Moved overseas, Oct 1942-Feb 1943, the 
ground echelon arriving in French Moroc- 
co with the force that invaded North Afri- 
ca on 8 Nov, and the air echelon, which 
had trained for a time in England, arriv- 
ing in North Africa between late Dec 
1942 and early Feb 1943. Began combat 
with Twelfth AF in Jan 1943. Supported 
ground operations during the Allied drive 
against Axis forces in Tunisia. Patrolled 
the coast of Africa and protected Allied 




shipping in the Mediterranean Sea, Apr- 
Jul 1943. Provided cover for the convoys 
that landed troops on Pantelleria on 11 
Jun and on Sicily on 10 Jul 1943. Sup- 
ported the landings at Anzio on 22 Jan 
1944 and flew patrols in that area for a 
short time. Moved to India, Feb-Mar 
1944, and began training with P-40 and 
P-47 aircraft. Moved to China in May 
and became part of Fourteenth AF. Con- 
tinued training and on occasion flew pa- 
trol and escort missions before returning 
to full-time combat duty in Jan 1945. At- 
tacked enemy airfields and installations, 
flew escort missions, and aided the opera- 
tions of Chinese ground forces by attack- 
ing troop concentrations, ammunition 
dumps, lines of communications, and 
other targets to hinder Japanese efiorts 
to move men and materiel to the front. 
Inactivated in China on 27 Dec 1945. 

Activated in Hawaii on 15 Oct 1946. 
Equipped with P-51's; converted to F-47's 
early in 1948. Moved to the US in 1949 
and converted to jet aircraft, receiving 
F-8o's at first but changing to F-86's soon 
afterward. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS—GROUPS 



147 



Redesignated 8ist Fighter-Interceptor 
Group in Jan 1950. Moved to England, 
Aug-Sep 1951. Assigned to United States 
Air Forces in Europe. Redesignated 8ist 
Fighter-Bomber Group in Apr 1954. In- 
activated in England on 8 Feb 1955. 

Squadrons. yStk: 1952-1955. gist: 
1942-1945; 1946-1955. 92d: 1942-1945; 
1946-1955. 93d: 1942-1945; 1946-1951. 
ii6th: 1951-1952. 

Stations. Morris Field, NC, 9 Feb 
1942; Dale Mabry Field, Fla, c. i May 
1942; Muroc, Calif, c. 28 Jun-4 Oct 1942; 
Mediouna, French Morocco, c. 5 Jan 1943 ; 
Thelepte, Tunisia, 22 Jan 1943; Le Kouif 
Airfield, Algeria, 17 Feb 1943; Youks-les- 
Bains, Algeria, 22 Feb 1943 ; Le Kouif Air- 
field, Algeria, 24 Feb 1943; Thelepte, 
Tunisia, c. Mar 1943; Algeria, c. 3 Apr 
1943; Monastir, Tunisia, c. 26 May 1943; 
Sidi Ahmed, Tunisia, 10 Aug 1943; Castel- 
vetrano, Sicily, 12 Oct 1943; Montecor- 
vino Airfield, Italy, c. Feb 1944; Karachi, 
India, c. 2 Mar 1944 ; Kwanghan, China, 12 
May 1944; Fungwansham, China, Feb 
1945; Huhsien, China, Aug-Dec 1945. 
Wheeler Field, TH, 15 Oct 1946-21 May 
1949; Kirtland AFB, NM, 17 Jun 1949; 
Moses Lake AFB, Wash, c. i May 1950-21 
Aug 195 1 ; Bentwaters RAF Station, Eng- 
land, 3 Sep 195 1-8 Feb 1955. 

Commanders. Unkn, Feb-May 1942; 
Capt Harry E Hammond, 5 May 1942; 
Capt John D Sureau, 10 May 1942; Lt Col 
Paul M Jacobs, 22 May 1942; Lt Col Ken- 
neth S Wade, c. Jul 1942; Col Philip B 
Klein, May 1943; Lt Col Michael J Gor- 
don, 2 Jul 1943; Maj Frederick S Hanson, 



15 Jul 1943; Col Philip B Klein, 26 Aug 
1943; Lt Col Fred G Hook Jr, 27 Sep 1944; 
Col Oliver G Cellini, 24 Oct 1944-unkn. 
Col Oswald W Lunde, [c. 1946]; Col 
Gladwyn E Pinkston, [c. 1948]; Lt Col 
Clay Tice Jr, c. Apr 1950; Lt Col Lucius 
D Clay Jr, 1950; Lt Col Clay Tice Jr, c. 
Feb 1951; Col Robert J Garrigan, c. Aug 
1951; Col Benjamin B Cassiday Jr, c. Jul 
1953; Col Walter L Moore, i Dec 1954- 

1955- 

Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME The- 
ater; Algeria-French Morocco; Tunisia; 
Sicily; Naples-Foggia ; Anzio; Rome- 
Arno; China Defensive; China Offensive. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Or, a dragon salient 
wings displayed and addorsed azure, 
armed and langued gules, incensed proper, 
holding in its dexter claw a stylized boll 
weevil sable. Motto: LE NOM— LES 
ARMES— LA LOYAUTE— The Name, 
The Arms, and Loyalty. (Approved 2 
Mar 1943.) 

82d FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 82d Pursuit Group (In- 
terceptor) on 13 Jan 1942. Activated on 
9 Feb 1942. Redesignated 82d Fighter 
Group in May 1942. Trained with P-38's. 
Moved to Northern Ireland during Sep- 
Oct 1942 for further training. Moved to 
North Africa in Dec 1942 and served with 
Twelfth AF until Nov 1943. Took part 
in the defeat of Axis forces in Tunisia, the 
reduction of Pantelleria, the conquest of 
Sicily, and the invasion of Italy. Operated 



148 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 




against the enemy's air transports; flew 
dive-bombing and strafing missions; 
escorted medium bombers in their attacks 
on enemy shipping and their raids on 
Naples and Rome; and gave direct sup- 
port to the ground forces during the in- 
vasion of Italy. Received a DUG for a 
low-level strafing raid against enemy air- 
craft concentrations at Foggia on 25 Aug 
1943. Received second DUG for perform- 
ance on 2 Sep 1943 when the group pro- 
tected a formation of bombers that 
encountered strong opposition from enemy 
interceptors during an attack on marshal- 
ling yards near Naples. 

Moved to Italy in Oct 1943. Assigned 
to Fifteenth AF in Nov. Gontinued to 
function occasionally as a fighter-bomber 
organization, supporting Allied armies, 
flying interdictory missions, and attacking 
strategic targets. Received third DUG for 
performance on 10 Jun 1944 when the 82d 
Group braved head-on attacks by hostile 
fighters to dive-bomb an oil refinery at 



Ploesti and then strafed targets of oppor- 
tunity while returning to base. Engaged 
primarily in escort work, however, from 
Oct 1943 to May 1945, covering the opera- 
tions of heavy bombers that attacked air- 
craft industries, oil refineries, and other 
targets in France, Germany, Gzecho- 
slovakia, Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, 
Rumania, and Bulgaria. Inactivated in 
Italy on 9 Sep 1945. 

Activated in the US on 12 Apr 1947. 
Assigned to Strategic Air Gommand and 
equipped with P-51's. Assigned to Gon- 
tinental Air Gommand in Aug 1949. In- 
activated on 2 Oct 1949. 

Redesignated 82d Fighter Group (Air 
Defense). Activated on 18 Aug 1955. 
Assigned to Air Defense Gommand and 
equipped with F-94 aircraft. 

Squadrons, g^th: 1942-1945; 1947- 
1949. g6th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949; 1955-. 
gjth: 1942-1945; 1947-1949; 1955-. 

Stations. Harding Field, La, 9 Feb 
1942; Muroc, Galif, 30 Apr 1942; Los 
Angeles, Galif, May 1942; Glendale, Galif, 
c. 16 Aug-i6 Sep 1942; Northern Ireland, 
Oct 1942; Telergma, Algeria, Jan 1943; 
Berteaux, Algeria, 28 Mar 1943; Souk-el- 
Arba, Algeria, 13 Jun 1943; Grombalia, 
Tunisia, 3 Aug 1943 ; San Pancrazio, Italy, 
c. 3 Oct 1943; Lecce, Italy, 10 Oct 1943; 
Vincenzo Airfield, Italy, 11 Jan 1944; 
Lesina, Italy, c. 30 Aug-9 Sep 1945. Gre- 
nier Field, NH, 12 Apr 1947-2 Oct 1949. 
New Gastle Gounty Aprt, Del, 18 Aug 

I955-- 
GoMMANDERs. ist Lt Gharlcs T Duke, 

Feb 1942; Gol Robert Israel Jr, May 1942; 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



149 



Lt Col William E Covington Jr, 17 Jun 
1942; Col John W Weltman, 4 May 1943; 
Lt Col Ernest C Young, 2 Aug 1943; Lt 
Col George M MacNicol, 26 Aug 1943; 
Col William P Litton, Jan 1944; Lt Col 
Ben A Mason Jr, 4 Aug 1944; Col Clarence 
T Edwinson, 28 Aug 1944; Col Richard A 
Legg, 22 Nov 1944; Col Joseph S Holtoner, 
4 Jun 1945; Lt Col Robert M Wray, 16 
Jul 1945-unkn. Maj Leland R Raphun, 
c. Apr 1947; Lt Col Gerald W Johnson, 2 
Jun 1947; Col Henry Viccellio, 14 Jun 
1947; Col William M Banks, 5 Nov 1948-c. 
Oct 1949. Col Clay D Albright Jr, 1955-. 

Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME Thea- 
ter ; Air Offensive, Europe ; Tunisia ; Sicily ; 
Naples-Foggia; Rome-Arno; Normandy; 
Northern France; Southern France; North 
Apennines; Rhineland; Central Europe; 
Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Italy, 25 Aug 1943; Italy, 2 Sep 
1943; Ploesti, Rumania, 10 Jun 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Per bend or and 
azure a lightning bolt in bend throughout 
point to base, with two beviles, per bend 
argent, gules and or, between three fleurs- 
de-lis, two and one, of the second, and 
eleven stars in bend, six and five, of the 
first ; over all in dexter chief a roundle per 
fess, wavy of two, sable and vert. Motto: 
ADORIMINI— "Up and at 'em!" (Ap- 
proved 4 Nov 1957.) 

83d FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 83d Fighter Group on 18 
Sep 1943 and activated on 25 Sep. As- 




signed to First AF. Served as a replace- 
ment training unit to train pilots for duty 
in P-47's. Disbanded on 10 Apr 1944. 

Reconstituted, redesignated 83d Fighter- 
Day Group, and assigned to Tactical Air 
Command, on 24 Feb 1956. Activated on 
8 Jul 1956. 

(This group is not related to an 83d 
Pursuit Group (Interceptor) that was 
constituted on 13 Jan 1942; activated at 
New Orleans by Third AF on 9 Feb 1942; 
assigned the 301st, 302d, and 303d squad- 
rons; and disbanded a few days later in 
order to bring AAF within the authorized 
number of pursuit groups.) 

Squadrons. 448th: 1943-1944. $^2d: 
1943-1944; 1956-. 555</; 1943-1944; 1956-. 

SS4th: 1943-1944; 1956-- 

Stations. Richmond AAB, Va, 25 Sep 
1943; Dover AAFld, Del, 22 Nov 1943-10 
Apr 1944. Seymour-Johnson AFB, NC, 
8 Jul 1956-. 

Commanders. Lt Col Woodrow W 
Korges, 25 Sep 1943 ; Lt Col Ernest H Bev- 



150 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



erly, 23 Feb-io Apr 1944. Maj Amos H 
Domberger II, Jul 1956-. 

Campaigns. None. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Per pile transposed 
azure and or; over all on an escutcheon per 
bend gules and medium blue, a bend em- 
battled inverted, vert, fimbriated through- 
out argent; superimposed over the chief 
area of the escutcheon a stylized demi fal- 
con bendwise, in profile, sable, his head 
and wings raised upward above the es- 
cutcheon; his eye gules, the falcon fimbri- 
ated throughout argent. (Approved 29 
Mar 1957.) 

84th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 84th Bonabardment 
Group (Light) on 13 Jan 1942. Activated 
on 10 Feb 1942. Redesignated 84th Bom- 
bardment Group (Dive) in Jul 1942, and 
84th Fighter-Bomber Group in Aug 1943. 
Assigned to Third AF and later (Nov 
1943) to Second AF. Aircraft included 
A-24's (1942-1943) and P-47's (1943- 



1944). Served as an operational training 
and a replacement training unit. Also 
participated occasionally in demonstra- 
tions and maneuvers. Disbanded on i 
Apr 1944. 

Reconstituted, redesignated 84th Fighter 
Group (All Weather), and allotted to the 
reserve, on 26 May 1949. Activated on i 
Jun 1949. Ordered into active service on i 
Jun 195 1. Inactivated on 2 Jun 1951. 

Redesignated 84th Fighter Group (Air 
Defense). Activated oni% A.\xgi<)<^'^. As- 
signed to Air Defense Command. 
Equipped with F-86 aircraft. 

Squadrons, ^gist (formerly 304th): 
1942-1944. 4g6th (formerly 301st) : 1942- 
1944; 1949-1951. ^gjth (formerly 302d): 
1942-1944; 1955-. 4g8th (formerly 303d) : 
1942-1944; 1955-. 

Stations. Savannah AB, Ga, 10 Feb 
1942; Drew Field, Fla, c. 7 Feb 1943; 
Harding Field, La, 4 Oct 1943-1 Apr 1944. 
Mitchel AFB, NY, i Jun 1949; McGuire 
AFB, NJ, 10 Oct 1949-2 Jun 1951. Geiger 
Field, Wash, 18 Aug 1955-. 

Commanders. Maj Augustus Nelson, 
10 Feb 1942; Col Philo G Meisenholder, 
Mar 1942; Lt Col Harry R Melton Jr, 
Aug 1942; Lt Col John R Kelly, Dec 1942; 
Lt Col Paul A Zartman, 31 Jan 1943; Col 
Reginald F C Vance, 15 Aug 1943; Lt Col 
William D Gilchrist, Sep 1943-1944. Col 
Grover C Willcox Jr, 18 Aug 1955-. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a flash in pale 
between in dexter chief a gun sight and 
in sinister base a drop bomb palewise, all 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



151 



or. Motto: CURSUM PERFICIO— 1 Ac- 
complish My Course. (Approved 22 Jan 
I943-) 

85th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 85th Bombardment 
Group (Light) on 13 Jan 1942. Activated 
on 10 Feb 1942. Redesignated 85th Bom- 
bardment Group (Dive) in Jul 1942, and 
85th Fighter-Bomber Group in Aug 1943. 
Assigned to Third AF, then to Second, and 
again to Third. Equipped first with V-72 
aircraft; converted to A-24's in Aug 1942, 
A-36's early in 1943, and P-40's early in 
1944, receiving a few P-47's in Mar 1944. 
Participated in maneuvers in California 
during fall and winter of 1942-1943 and in 
Kentucky in April 1943. Afterward served 
as a replacement training unit. Dis- 
banded on I May 1944. 

Squadrons. 4ggth (formerly 305th): 
1942-1944. ^ooth (formerly 306th) : 1942- 
1944. ^oist (formerly 307th) : 1942-1944. 
502d (formerly 308th) : 1942-1944. 



Stations. Savannah AB, Ga, 10 Feb 
i9.'!2; Bowman Field, Ky, c. 16 Feb 1942; 
Hunter Field, Ga, 9 Jun 1942; Waycross, 
Ga, 15 Aug 1942; Gillespie Field, Tenn, 3 
Oct 1942; Blythe AAB, Calif, 2 Nov 1942; 
Rice, Calif, c. 11 Dec 1942; Harding Field, 
La, c. 9 Apr 1943; Waycross AAFld, Ga, 
c. 27 Aug 1943-1 May 1944. 

Commanders. 2d Lt Benson M Sher- 
man, 18 Feb 1942; Capt Orren L Briggs, 23 
Feb 1942; Capt Joseph Ralph Deming, 31 
Mar 1942; Lt Col Arnold L Schroeder, 13 
Jun 1942; Lt Col William R Clingerman 
Jr, 10 Oct 1943; Col James E Ellison, 13 
Nov 1943; Col Joseph S Holtoner, 26 Jan 
1944; Lt Col Thomas A Holdiman, 4 Mar 
1944; Lt Col Robert C Bagby, 20 Mar 1944; 
Col Joseph S Holtoner, i Apr-i May 1944. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, five drop bombs 
or, arranged one large in pale, two to dex- 
ter bendwise in pale, and two to sinister 
bend sinisterwise in pale, a chief indented 
of eight points of the last. Motto: COUP 
DE main— a Sudden (Unexpected) At- 
tack. (Approved 6 Nov 1942.) 

86th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 86th Bombardment 
Group (Light) on 13 Jan 1942. Activated 
on 10 Feb 1942. Redesignated 86th Bom- 
bardment Group (Dive) in Sep 1942, 86th 
Fighter-Bomber Group in Aug 1943, and 
86th Fighter Group in May 1944. Moved 
to North Africa, Mar-May 1943. Trained 
until Jul, then began combat with Twelfth 



152 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 




AF. Engaged primarily in close support 
of ground forces, with the group moving 
forward to bases in Sicily, Italy, Corsica, 
France, and Germany as the battle line 
changed. Also flew patrol and interdic- 
tory missions. Used A-36, P-40, and P-47 
aircraft to attack convoys, trains, ammuni- 
tion dumps, troop and supply columns, 
shipping, bridges, rail lines, and other 
objectives. Participated in the softening 
up of Sicily and supported the invasion by 
Seventh Army in Jul 1943. Provided 
cover for the landings at Salerno in Sep 

1943. Assisted the Allied advance toward 
Rome during Jan-Jun 1944. Supported 
the invasion of Southern France in Aug 

1944. Operated against enemy communi- 
cations in northern Italy from Sep 1944 to 
Apr 1945. Attacked enemy transporta- 
tion in Germany during Apr and May 

1945. Received two DUC's: for action on 
25 May 1944 when the group repeatedly 
dived through intense flak to destroy 
enemy vehicles and troops as German 
forces tried to stop the Allies short of 
Rome; for activity against convoys and air- 
field installations in northern Germany on 



20 Apr 1945 to disorganize the enemy's 
withdrawal from that area. Remained in 
Germany after the war as part of United 
States Air Forces in Europe. Transferred, 
without personnel and equipment, to the 
US in Feb 1946. Inactivated on 31 Mar 
1946. 

Activated in Germany on 20 Aug 1946. 
Assigned to United States Air Forces in 
Europe. Redesignated 86th Composite 
Group in May 1947, 86th Fighter Group 
in Jan 1948, 86th Fighter-Bomber Group 
in Jan 1950, and 86th Fighter-Interceptor 
Group in Aug 1954. Equipped successive- 
ly with F-47, F-84, and F-86 aircraft. 

Squadrons. 4$th: 1947-1948. ^iith: 
1942-1943. 525;^ (formerly 309th) : 1942- 
1946; 1946-. $26th (formerly 310th): 
1942-1946; 1946-. $2jth (formerly 
312th) : 1942-1946; 1946-1947, 1948-. 

Stations. Will Rogers Field, Okla, 10 
Feb 1942; Hunter Field, Ga, c. 20 Jun 1942; 
Key Field, Miss, c. 7 Aug 1942-19 Mar 
1943; La Senia, Algeria, c. 12 May 1943; 
French Morocco, 3 Jun 1943; Tafaraoui, 
Algeria, 11 Jun 1943; Korba, Tunisia, 30 
Jun 1943; Gela, Sicily, 20 Jul 1943; Barce- 
lona, Sicily, 27 Aug 1943; Sele Airfield, 
Italy, 22 Sep 1943; Serretella Airfield, Italy, 
12 Oct 1943; Pomigliano, Italy, 19 Nov 
1943; Marcianise, Italy, 30 Apr 1944; 
Ciampino, Italy, c. 12 Jun 1944; Orbetello, 
Italy, c. 19 Jun 1944; Corsica, c. 12 Jul 
1944; Grosseto, Italy, c. 17 Sep 1944; Pisa, 
Italy, 23 Oct 1944; Tantonville, France, c. 
20 Feb 1945; Braunschardt, Germany, c. 
18 Apr 1945; Schweinfurt, Germany, 26 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



153 



Sep 1945-15 Feb 1946; Boiling Field, 
DC, 15 Feb-31 Mar 1946. Nordholz, 
Germany, 20 Aug 1946; Lechfeld, Ger- 
many, c. I Dec 1946; Bad Kissingen, Ger- 
many, 5 Mar 1947; Neubiberg AB, Ger- 
many, 12 }un 1947; Landstuhl AB, Ger- 
many, 9 Aug 1952-. 

CoMMANDERs. Unkn, Feb 1942-Feb 
1943; Maj Clinton U True, 10 Feb 1943; 
Lt Col Robert C Paul, 7 Aug 1943; Col 
Harold E Hofahl, 4 Dec 1943; Col Earl E 
Bates Jr, 2 Aug 1944; Lt Col George T 
Lee, 14 Feb 1945; Maj John H Buckner, 
23 Sep 1945-C. 14 Feb 1946. Col Adolphus 
R McConnell, 20 Aug 1946; Col Clarence 
T Edwinson, 15 Dec 1946; Col Maurice L 
Martin, Feb 1947; Maj John B England, 
c. Jul 1947; Col Clarence T Edwinson, c. 
Aug 1947; Col Michael J Ingelido, Jul 
1948; Lt Col James G Thorsen, May 1949; 
Col William H Councill, Jun 1949; Col 
George T Lee, 25 Sep 1950; Col Richard 
O Hunziker, 6 Mar 1951; Col George 
Laven Jr, 18 Oct 195 1 ; Col George R Bick- 
ell, 26 Apr 1952; Col George B Simler, 
14 Jun 1952-1954; Col Robin Olds, Oct 

I955-- 

Campaigns. American Theater; Air 
Combat, EAME Theater; Sicily; Naples- 
Foggia; Anzio; Rome-Arno; Southern 
France; North Apennines; Rhineland; 
Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Italy, 25 May 1944; Germany, 20 
Apr 1945. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, on a pile or a 
drop bomb palewise gules. Motto: VIR- 



TUS PERDURAT— Courage Will En- 
dure. (Approved 17 Oct 1942. This in- 
signe was replaced 27 Jul 1956.) 

87th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 87th Fighter Group on 
24 Sep 1943. Activated on i Oct 1943. 
Assigned to First AF. Trained replace- 
ment pilots, using P-47's. Disbanded on 
10 Apr 1944. 

Reconstituted on 16 May 1949 and al- 
lotted to the reserve. Activated on 27 
Jun 1949. Redesignated 87th Fighter- 
Escort Group in Mar 1950. Ordered into 
active service on i May 195 1. Inactivated 
on 25 Jun 1951. 

Redesignated 87th Troop Carrier Group 
(Medium) and allotted to the reserve. 
Activated on 15 Jun 1952. Inactivated on 
I Feb 1953. 

(This group is not related to an 87th 
Pursuit Group (Interceptor) that was 
constituted on 13 Jan 1942; activated at 
Selfridge Field by Third AF on 10 Feb 
1942; assigned the 304th, 305th, and 306th 
squadrons; and disbanded a few days later 
in order to bring AAF within the au- 
thorized number of pursuit groups.) 

Squadrons. 4^oth: 1943-1944. SSSth: 

1943-1944; 1949-1951; 1952-1953. ss6th: 

1943-1944; 1952-1953- 537th: 1943-1944; 

1952-1953- 
Stations. Richmond AAB, Va, i Oct 

1943; Camp Springs AAFld, Md, 21 Jan- 

10 Apr 1944. Bergstrom AFB, Tex, 27 Jun 



154 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



1949-25 Jun 195 1. Atterbury AFB, Ind, 
15 Jun 1952-1 Feb 1953. 

Commanders. Lt Col Robert N 
Maupin, Oct 1943-1944. 

Campaigns. None. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

88th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 88th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Acti- 
vated on 15 Jul 1942, but not manned ur>til 
Sep. Equipped with B-17's. Served for 
a short time as an operational training unit 
and afterward as a replacement training 
unit. Assigned to Second and later to 
Third AF. Inactivated on i May 1944. 

Squadrons. ^i6th: 1942-1944. ^ijth: 
1942-1944. ^i8th: 1942-1944. 399th: 
1942-1944. 

Stations. Salt Lake City AAB, Utah, 
15 Jul 1942; Geiger Field, Wash, i Sep 
1942; Walla Walla, Wash, 21 Sep 1942; 



Rapid City AAB, SD, c. 28 Oct 1942; 
Walla Walla, Wash, c. 28 Nov 1942; Avon 
Park AAFld, Fla, Nov 1943-1 May 1944. 

Commanders. Lt Col Edgar M Wittan, 
I Sep 1942; Lt Col Hewitt T Wheless, i 
Mar 1943; Lt Col William K Kincaid, 28 
Oct 1943-1 May 1944. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a glass through- 
out shattered, argent. Motto: POWER 
TO SHATTER. (Approved 7 Jan 1943.) 

89th TROOP CARRIER GROUP 




Constituted as 89th Transport Group on 
19 Jan 1942. Activated on i Feb 1942. 
Assigned to Air Transport Command 
(later I Troop Carrier Command) in Apr 
1942. Redesignated 89th Troop Carrier 
Group in Jul 1942. Provided transition 
training for pilots, using DC-3's and later 
C-47's. Began training replacement crews 
in Mar 1944. Disbanded on 14 Apr 1944. 

Reconstituted, allotted to the reserve, 
and redesignated 89th Troop Carrier 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VNirS— GROUPS 



155 



Group (Medium), on lo May 1949. Ac- 
tivated on 27 Jun 1949. Ordered to active 
service on i May 1951. Inactivated on 10 
May 195 1. 

Redesignated 89th Fighter-Bomber 
Group and allotted to the reserve. Acti- 
vated on 14 Jun 1952. 

Squadrons. 24th: 1942-1944; 1949- 
1951; 1952-. 2$th: 1942-1944; 1949-1951; 
1952-. 26th: 1942-1944; 1949-1951; 1952-. 
2ph: 1942. 28th: 1942. ^oth: 1942-1944; 
1949-1951. ^ist: 1942-1944. 

Stations. Daniel Field, Ga, i Feb 1942 ; 
Harding Field, La, 8 Mar 1942; Camp 
Williams, Wis, 20 Jun 1942; Sedalia, Mo, 
8 Sep 1942; Del Valle, Tex, 14 Dec 1942-14 
Apr 1944. Hanscom Aprt, Mass, 27 Jun 
1949-10 May 195 1. Laurence G Hanscom 
Field, Mass, 14 Jun 1952-. 

Commanders. Capt William C Allen, 
I Feb 1942; Col Julian M Chappell, 8 Apr 
1942; Lt Col Ralph J Gibbons, 4 Apr 1943- 
14 Apr 1944. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Or, upon and over a 
bendlet gules^ stylized radial motor azure, 
that portion over the second fimbriated of 
the field surmounted by a torteau fim- 
briated argent, and charged with a winged 
helmeted head of a soldier couped of the 
last. Motto: PRIMIS CUM PLURIMIS— 
First with the Most Men. (Approved 5 
Jan 1943. This insigne became an ele- 
ment of a new insigne approved 12 Mar 
I953-) 



90th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 90th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Acti- 
vated on 15 Apr 1942. Prepared for com- 
bat with B-24's, Moved to Hawaii in Sep 
1942 and assigned to Seventh AF. Com- 
pleted training, moved to the Southwest 
Pacific in Nov 1942, and assigned to Fifth 
AF. Entered combat immediately, and 
from Nov 1942 to Jan 1945 operated from 
Australia, New Guinea, and Biak, attack- 
ing enemy airfields, troop concentrations, 
ground installations, and shipping in New 
Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago, Palau, 
and the southern Philippines. Received a 
DUC for strikes, conducted through heavy 
flak and fighter opposition, on Japanese 
airfields at Wewak, New Guinea, in Sep 
1943. Other operations included partici- 
pation in the Battle of the Bismarck Sea in 
Mar 1943 and long-range raids on oil re- 
fineries at Balikpapan, Borneo, in Sep and 
Oct 1943. Moved to the Philippines in Jan 
1945. Supported ground forces on Luzon, 
attacked industries on Formosa, and 
bombed railways, airfields, and harbor 



156 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



facilities on the Asiatic mainland. Moved 
to le Shima in Aug 1945, and after the 
war flew reconnaissance missions over 
Japan and ferried Allied prisoners from 
Okinawa to Manila. Returned to the 
Philippines in Dec 1945. Inactivated on 27 
Jan 1946. 

Redesignated 90th Bombardment Group 
(Very Heavy). Activated in the US on i 
Jul 1947. Assigned to Strategic Air Com- 
mand. Probably not manned during 1947 
and 1948. Inactivated on 6 Sep 1948. 

Redesignated 90th Bombardment 
Group (Medium). Activated on 2 Jan 
1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Com- 
mand and equipped with B-29's. Inacti- 
vated on 16 Jun 1952. 

Squadrons, ^igth: 1942-1946; 1947- 
1948; 1951-1952. ^2oth: 1942-1946; 1947- 
1948; 1951-1952. ^21 St: 1942-1946; 1947- 
1948; 1951-1952. 400th: 1942-1946. 

Stations. Key Field, Miss, 15 Apr 
1942; Barksdale Field, La, 17 May 1942; 
Greenville AAB, SC, 21 Jun 1942; Ypsi- 
lante, Mich, 9-c. 18 Aug 1942; Hickam 
Field, TH, 12 Sep 1942; Iron Range, Aus- 
tralia, Nov 1942; Port Moresby, New 
Guinea, 10 Feb 1943; Dobodura, New 
Guinea, Dec 1943; Nadzab, New Guinea, 
23 Feb 1944; Biak, 10 Aug 1944; San Jose, 
Mindoro, 26 Jan 1945; le Shima, c. 10 Aug 
1945; Ft William McKinley, Luzon, Dec 
1945-27 Jan 1946. Andrews Field, Md, 
I Jul 1947-6 Sep 1948. Fairchild AFB, 
Wash, 2 Jan 1951; Forbes AFB, Kan, 14 
Mar 1951-16 Jun 1952. 



Commanders, ist Lt Newman W En- 
loe, 17 Apr 1942; Lt Col Eugene P Mus- 
sett, 17 May 1942; Col Roger M Ramey, 
14 Sep 1942; Lt Col Eugene P Mussett, 
16 Oct 1942; Col Arthur Meehan, 21 Oct 
1942; Lt Col Arthur H Rogers, 16 Nov 
1942; Col Ralph E Koon, 18 Nov 1942; 
Col Arthur H Rogers, 11 Jul 1943; Lt Col 
Harry J Bullis, c. 20 Dec 1943; Col Carl 
A Brandt, 16 Mar 1944; Col Edward W 
Scott Jr, 10 Jun 1944; Lt Col Wilson H 
Banks, 8 Dec 1944; Col Ellis L Brown, 24 
Feb 1945-unkn. Unkn, 1947-1948. Lt 
Col William L Gray, Jan 1951; Col Con- 
rad F Necrason, Feb 1951-16 Jun 1952. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Japan; 
China Defensive; Papua; New Guinea; 
Bismarck Archipelago; Western Pacific; 
Leyte; Luzon; China Offensive. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Ci- 
tations: Papua, [Nov] 1942-23 Jan 1943; 
New Guinea, 13 and 15 Sep 1943. Philip- 
pine Presidential Unit Citation. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a pterodactyl 
(Dimorphodon Macronyx) volant or 
langued gules, eyed vert. Motto: IMPA- 
VIDE — Undauntedly. (Approved 22 Sep 
1942.) 

91st BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 91st Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated 
on 15 Apr 1942. Trained with B-17's. 
Moved to England, Aug-Oct 1942, and as- 
signed to Eighth AF. Operated primarily 
as a strategic bombardment organization 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



157 




throughout the war. Entered combat in 
Nov 1942 and concentrated its attacks on 
submarine pens, ship-building yards, har- 
bors, and dock facilities until mid-1943. 
During this period, also struck airdromes, 
factories, and communications. Attacked 
the navy yard at Wilhelmshaven on 27 
Jan 1943 when heavy bombers of Eighth 
AF first penetrated Germany. Received a 
DUG for bombing marshalling yards at 
Hamm on 4 Mar 1943 in spite of adverse 
weather and heavy enemy opposition. 
From the middle of 1943 until the war 
ended, engaged chiefly in attacks on air- 
craft factories, airdromes, and oil facili- 
ties. Specific targets included airfields at 
Villacoublay and Oldenburg, aircraft fac- 
tories in Oranienburg and Brussels, chemi- 
cal industries in Leverkusen and Peene- 
munde, ball-bearing plants in Schweinfurt, 
and other industries in Ludwigshafen, Ber- 
lin, Frankfurt, and Wilhelmshaven. On 
II Jan 1944 organizations of Eighth AF 
went into central Germany to attack vital 



aircraft factories; participating in this 
operation, the 91st group successfully 
bombed its targets in spite of bad weather, 
inadequate fighter cover, and severe enemy 
attack, being awarded a DUG for the per- 
formance. Expanding its operations to in- 
clude interdictory and support missions, 
the group contributed to the Normandy 
invasion by bombing gun emplacements 
and troop concentrations near the beach- 
head area in Jun 1944; aided the St Lo 
breakthrough by attacking enemy troop 
positions, 24-25 Jul 1944; supported troops 
on the front lines near Gaen in Aug 1944 ; 
attacked communications near the battle 
area during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 
1944-Jan 1945; and assisted the push across 
the Rhine by striking airfields, bridges, and 
railroads near the front lines in the spring 
of 1945. Evacuated prisoners from Ger- 
man camps after the war ended. Returned 
to the US, Jun-Jul 1945. Inactivated on 7 
Nov 1945. 

Redesignated 91st Reconnaissance 
Group. Activated on i Jul 1947. Assigned 
to Strategic Air Command. Redesignated 
91st Strategic Reconnaissance Group in 
Nov 1948. Used a variety of aircraft, in- 
cluding B- and RB-17's, B- and RB-29's, 
and B-50's. Redesignated 91st Strategic 
Reconnaissance Group (Medium) in Jul 
1950. Equipped with RB-45's. Inacti- 
vated on 28 May 1952. 

Squadrons, jth Geodetic: 1949-1950. 
gist: 1949-1950. 522^; 1942-1945; 1947- 
1948, 1949-1952. 324th: 1942-1945; 1947- 
1952. 401st: 1942-1945. 



158 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Stations. Harding Field, La, 15 Apr 
1942; MacDill Field, Fla, 16 May 1942; 
Walla Walla, Wash, c. 26 Jun-24 Aug 
1942; Kimbolton, England, Sep 1942; Bas- 
singbourn, England, c. 14 Oct 1942-23 
Jun 1945; Drew Field, Fla, 3 Jul-7 Nov 
1945. Andrews Field, Md, i Jul 1947; 
McGuire AFB, NJ, 20 Jul 1948; Barksdale 
AFB, La, I Oct 1949; Lockbourne AFB, 
Ohio, c. 5 Sep 1950-28 May 1952. 

Commanders, ist Lt Edward R Eckert, 
15 Apr 1942; Col Stanley T Wray, 15 May 
1942; Lt ColBaskin R Lawrence Jr, c. 
25 May 1943; Lt Col Clemens L Wurz- 
bach, 25 Jun 1943; Col Claude E Putnam, 
Dec 1943; Col Henry W Terry, 17 May 
1944; Lt Col Donald E Sheeler, 30 May 
1945-unkn. Col Frank L Dunn, 1948; 
Lt Col Robert S Kittel,<io Nov 1948; Col 
Charles R Greening, 24 Jun 1949; Maj 
James I Cox, 23 Aug 1949; Col Jean R 
Byerly, i Oct 1949; Col Lewis E Lyle, 25 
Nov 1950-C. Aug 1951 ; Col Joseph A Pres- 
ton, c. Aug 1951-28 May 1952. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes- Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Hamm, Germany, 4 Mar 1943; 
Germany, 11 Jan 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure (sky blue), a 
lightning flash issuing from dexter base 
and pointing to an eye proper on a cloud 
issuing from the sinister chief, on the 
flash in dexter base a sphere proper in an 
orbit argent; over all a bend azure fim- 
briated argent. (Approved 23 Dec 1952.) 



92d BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 92d Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Acti- 
vated on I Mar 1942. Trained with B-17's 
and performed antisubmarine duty. 
Moved to England, Jul-Aug 1942, and 
assigned to Eighth AF. Flew a few com- 
bat missions in Sep and Oct 1942, then 
trained replacement crews. Began bom- 
bardment of strategic objectives in May 
1943 and engaged primarily in such op- 
erations throughout the war. Targets 
from May 1943 to Feb 1944 included ship- 
yards at Kiel, ball-bearing plants at 
Schweinfurt, submarine installations at 
Wilhelmshaven, a tire plant at Hannover, 
airfields near Paris, an aircraft factory at 
Nantes, and a magnesium mine and re- 
ducing plant in Norway. Flight Officer 
John C Morgan, co-pilot, received the 
Medal of Honor for action aboard a B-17 
during a mission over Europe, [26] Jul 
1943: when the aircraft was attacked by 
enemy fighters, the pilot suffered a brain 
injury which left him in a crazed condi- 
tion; for two hours Morgan flew in forma- 
tion with one hand at the controls and 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VNITS—GROUPS 



159 



the other holding off the struggUng pilot 
who was attempting to fly the plane; fi- 
nally another crew member was able to 
relieve the situation and the B-17 made a 
safe landing at its base. Although handi- 
capped by weather conditions, enemy fire, 
and insufficient fighter protection, the 
group bombed aircraft factories in central 
Germany on 11 Jan 1944 and received a 
DUG for the mission. Took part in the 
intensive campaign of heavy bombers 
against the German aircraft industry dur- 
ing Big Week, 20-25 F^b 1944. After that, 
attacked V- weapon sites in France; air- 
fields in France, Germany, and the Low 
Countries; and industrial targets in 
France, Germany, and Belgium, making 
concentrated strikes on oil and transpor- 
tation facilities after Oct 1944. In addi- 
tion to strategic missions, performed some 
interdictory and support operations. As- 
sisted the Normandy invasion in Jun 1944 
by hitting gun emplacements, junctions, 
and marshalling yards in the beachhead 
area. Supported ground forces at St Lo 
during the breakthrough in Jul 1944. 
Bombed gun positions and bridges to aid 
the airborne assault on Holland in Sep 
1944. Participated in the Battle of the 
Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945, by attacking 
bridges and marshalling yards in and near 
the battle area. Bombed airfields near the 
landing zone to cover the airborne assault 
across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Moved 
to France in Jun 1945 and transported 
troops from Marseilles to Casablanca for 
return to the US. Inactivated in France 
on 28 Feb 1946. 



Redesignated 92d Bombardment Group 
(Very Heavy). Activated in the US on 4 
Aug 1946. Assigned to Strategic Air Com- 
mand and equipped with B-29's. Re- 
designated 92d Bombardment Group 
(Medium) in May 1948. Temporarily 
stationed in Japan and attached to Far 
East Air Forces for duty in the Korean 
War. Served in combat against the com- 
munist forces from 12 Jul to 20 Oct 1950. 
Bombed strategic and interdictory targets, 
including factories, refineries, iron works, 
airfields, bridges, tunnels, troop concen- 
trations, barracks, marshalling yards, road 
junctions, rail lines, supply dumps, docks, 
and vehicles. Returned to the US, Oct- 
Nov 1950. Redesignated 92d Bombard- 
ment Group (Heavy) in Jun 1951. Con- 
verted to B-36 aircraft. Inactivated on 16 
Jun 1952. 

Squadrons. 525/A; 1942-1946; 1946- 
1952. ^26th: 1942-1946; 1946-1952. 
^2jth: 1942-1946; 1946-1952. /(.oyth: 1942- 
1946. 

Stations. Barksdale Field, La, i Mar 
1942; MacDill Field, Fla, c. 26 Mar 1942; 
Sarasota, Fla, May-Jul 1942; Bovingdon, 
England, Aug 1942; Alconbury, England, 
Jan 1943; Podington, England, Sep 1943; 
Istres, France, Jun 1945-28 Feb 1946. Ft 
Worth AAFld, Tex, 4 Aug 1946; Smoky 
Hill AAFld, Kan, Oct 1946; Spokane 
AAFld, Wash, Jun 1947-16 Jun 1952. 

Commanders. Col James S Sutton, c. 
27 Mar 1942; Lt Col Baskin R Lawrence 
Jr, c. 2 May 1943 ; Col William M Reid, c. 
23 May 1943 ; Col James W Wilson, 27 Sep 
1944; Lt Col Albert L Cox, Aug 1945; Lt 



160 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Col James A Smyrl, c. 12 Oct 1945; Maj 
Victor A Cherbak Jr, c. 18 Oct 1945-unkn. 
Col John G Eriksen, 4 Aug 1946; Col 
Brooks A Lawhon, Oct 1946; Capt Wil- 
liam M Carrithers, Dec 1946-unkn; Lt Col 
Frank A Sharp, 14 Jul 1947; Col Albert J 
Shower, Jul 1947; Lt Col Richard J Fry, 18 
Nov 1947; Col George A Blakey, Apr 
1948; Col Salvatore E Manzo, c. i Jul 
1948; Col Claude E Putnam Jr, 3 Oct 1949; 
Col Conrad F Necrason, c. Feb 1951 ; Col 
Claude E Putnam Jr, c. 14 Apr 1951 ; Col 
Kenneth B Hobson, c. Jun 1951 ; Col David 
Wade, c. 9 Feb-i6 Jun 1952. 

Campaigns. World War II: Antisub- 
marine, American Theater ; Air Offensive, 
Europe; Normandy; Northern France; 
Rhineland; Ardennes- Alsace; Central 
Europe. Korean War: UN Defensive; 
UN Offensive. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Germany, 11 Jan 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a pterodactyl 
(pteranodon) volant, in bend or, langued 
gules, eyed vert. Motto: HIGHER- 
STRONGER— FASTER. (Approved 9 
Mar 1943. This insigne was replaced 21 
Nov 1957.) 

93d BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 93d Bombardment Group 
(Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on i 
Mar 1942. Prepared for combat with 
B-24's. Engaged in antisubmarine opera- 
tions over the Gulf of Mexico and the 
Caribbean Sea, May-Jul 1942. 




Moved to England, Aug-Sep 1942, and 
assigned to Eighth AF. Entered combat 
on 9 Oct 1942 by attacking steel and engi- 
neering works at Lille. Until Dec 1942, 
operated primarily against submarine pens 
in the Bay of Biscay. A large detachment 
was sent to North Africa in Dec 1942, the 
group receiving a DUC for operations in 
that theater, Dec 1942-Feb 1943, when, 
with inadequate supplies and under the 
most difficult desert conditions, the de- 
tachment struck heavy blows at enemy 
shipping and communications. The de- 
tachment returned to England, Feb-Mar 
1943, and until the end of Jun the group 
bombed engine repair works, harbors, 
power plants, and other targets in France, 
the Low Countries, and Germany. A de- 
tachment returned to the Mediterranean 
theater, Jun-Jul 1943, to support the inva- 
sion of Sicily and to participate in the 
famous low-level attack on enemy oil in- 
stallations at Ploesti on i Aug. Having 
followed another element of the forma- 
tion along the wrong course to Ploesti, the 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



161 



93d hit targets that had been assigned 
to other groups, but it carried out its bomb- 
ing of the vital oil installations despite 
heavy losses inflicted by attacks from the 
fully-alerted enemy and was awarded a 
DUG for the operation. Lt Col Addison 
E Baker, group commander, and Maj John 
L . Jerstad, a former member of the group 
who had volunteered for this mission, 
were posthumously awarded the Medal of 
Honor for action in the Ploesti raid: re- 
fusing to make a forced landing in their 
damaged B-24, these men, as pilot and 
co-pilot of the lead plane, led the group to 
bomb the oil facilities before their plane 
crashed in the target area. After the de- 
tachment returned to England in Aug 
1943, the group flew only two missions 
before the detachment was sent back to the 
Mediterranean to support Fifth Army at 
Salerno during the invasion of Italy in 
Sep 1943. The detachment rejoined the 
group in Oct 1943, and until Apr 1945 the 
93d concentrated on bombardment of 
strategic targets such as marshalling yards, 
aircraft factories, oil refineries, chemical 
plants, and cities in Germany. In addi- 
tion it bombed gun emplacements, choke 
points, and bridges near Cherbourg dur- 
ing the Normandy invasion in Jun 1944; 
attacked troop concentrations in northern 
France during the St Lo breakthrough in 
Jul 1944; transported food, gasoline, water, 
and other supplies to the Allies advancing 
across France, Aug-Sep 1944; dropped 
supplies to airborne troops in Holland on 
18 Sep 1944; struck enemy transportation 
and other targets during the Battle of the 



Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945; and flew two 
missions on 24 Mar 1945 during the air- 
borne assault across the Rhine, dropping 
supplies to troops near Wesel and bomb- 
ing a night-fighter base at Stormede. 
Ceased operations in Apr 1945. Returned 
to the US, May-Jun 1945. 

Redesignated 93d Bombardment Group 
(Very Heavy) in Jul 1945. Assigned to 
Strategic Air Command on 21 Mar 1946. 
Trained with B-29's. Redesignated 93d 
Bombardment Group (Medium) in May 
1948. Converted to B-50 aircraft in 1949. 
Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952. 

Squadrons. p.8th: 1942-1952. 529M; 
\^^-i-\^<yi. ^^oth: 1942-1952. 4ogth: 
1942-1946. 

Stations. Barksdale Field, La, i Mar 
1942; Ft Myers, Fla, 15 May-2 Aug 1942; 
Alconbury, England, 7 Sep 1942; Hard- 
wick, England, 6 Dec 1942-19 May 1945; 
Sioux Falls AAFld, SD, Jun 1945; Pratt 
AAFld, Kan, 24 Jul 1945; Clovis AAFld, 
NM, 13 Dec 1945; Castle Field, Calif, 21 
Jun 1946-16 Jun 1952. 

Commanders, ist Lt Robert M Tate, i 
Mar 1942; Col Edward J Timberlake Jr, 
26 Mar 1942; Lt Col Addison E Baker, 17 
May 1943; Col Leland G Fiegel, 9 Aug 
1943 ; Lt Col Harvey P Barnard Jr, 27 Sep 
1944; Col William R Robertson Jr, 5 Dec 
1944; Lt Col Therman D Brown, 6 Apr 
1945 ; Maj Jacob A Herrmann, 29 Jul 1945 ; 
Lt Col William W Amorous, 6 Aug 1945 ; 
Col Henry W Dorr, c. 5 Oct 1945-unkn; 
Lt Col Kenneth Grunewald, 1946; Maj 
Arthur R Pidgeon, 1946; Maj Loyd D 
Griffin, 1946; CWO Steve Stanowich, 



162 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



1946; Capt Joe W Moore Jr, Oct 1946; 
Capt Allen Milnes, 1946-unkn; Lt Col 
John C Thrift, Aug 1947; Col Glendon P 
Overing, i Sep 1948; Lt Col Colin E An- 
derson, 3 Nov 1949; Col John E Dough- 
erty, I Dec 1949; Brig Gen Robert H Ter- 
rill, Feb 1951 ; Col Richard H Carmichael, 
16 Apr 1951; Col John E Dougherty, 19 
Oct 1951-16 Jun 1952. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater; Air Combat, EAME Theater; 
Egypt-Libya; Air Offensive, Europe; 
Tunisia; Sicily; Naples-Foggia ; Nor- 
mandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace ; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: North Africa, 17 Dec 1942-20 Feb 
1943; Ploesti, Rumania, i Aug 1943. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, in front of a 
bend parti per bend sable and argent be- 
tween two globes of the last with latitude 
and longitude lines of the second, the one 
in chief bearing a wreath vert and the one 
in base bearing a cross of four arrows, 
points out of the first, gules, or and of the 
fifth, a lightning flash bend sinisterwise 
or. (Approved 4 Sep 1953.) 

94th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 94th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated 
on 15 Jun 1942. Trained for duty over- 
seas with B-17's. Moved to England, 
Apr-May 1943, and assigned to Eighth 
AF. Served chiefly as a strategic bom- 
bardment organization throughout the 
war. Flew its first mission on 13 Jun 1943, 







bombing an airdrome at St Omer. After 
that, attacked such strategic objectives as 
the port of St Nazaire, shipyards at Kiel, 
an aircraft component parts factory at 
Kassel, a synthetic rubber plant at Hanno- 
ver, a chemical factory at Ludwigshafen, 
marshalling yards at Frankfurt, oil facili- 
ties at Merseburg, and ball-bearing works 
at Eberhausen. Withstood repeated as- 
saults by enemy interceptors to bomb an 
aircraft factory at Regensburg on 17 Aug 
1943, being awarded a DUC for the mis- 
sion. Braving adverse weather, heavy flak, 
and savage fighter attacks, the group com- 
pleted a strike against an aircraft parts 
factory in Brunswick on 11 Jan 1944 and 
received another DUC for this operation. 
Took part in the campaign of heavy 
bombers against the enemy aircraft indus- 
try during Big Week, 20-25 F^^ 1944. 
Sometimes operated in support of ground 
forces and flew interdictory missions. 
Prior to D-Day in Jun 1944, helped to 
neutralize V-weapon sites, airdromes, and 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



163 



other military installations along the coast 
of France. On 6 Jun bombed enemy posi- 
tions in the battle area to support the in- 
vasion of Normandy. Struck troops and 
gun batteries to aid the advance of the 
Allies at St Lo in Jul and at Brest in 
Aug. Covered the airborne attack on Hol- 
land in Sep. Hit marshalling yards, air- 
fields, and strong points near the combat 
area during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 
1944-Jan 1945. Bombed transportation, 
communications, and oil targets in the 
final push over the Rhine and across Ger- 
many. After V-E Day, dropped leaflets 
to displaced persons and German civilians. 
Returned to the US in Dec 1945. Inacti- 
vated on 21 Dec 1945. 

Redesignated 94th Bombardment Group 
(Very Heavy). Allotted to the reserve. 
Activated on 29 May 1947. Redesignated 
94th Bombardment Group (Light) in Jun 
1949. Called to active duty on 10 Mar 
195 1. Inactivated on 20 Mar 1951. 

Redesignated 94th Tactical Reconnais- 
sance Group. Allotted to the reserve. 
Activated on 14 Jun 1952. Redesignated 
94th Bombardment Group (Tactical) in 
May 1955. 

Squadrons, ^^ist: 1942-1945; 1947- 
1951; 1952-. 532^.- 1942-1945; 1947-1951; 
1952-- Jii^.- 1942-1945; 1947-1951; 1952- 
1955. 410th: 1942-1945; 1947-195 1. 

Stations. MacDill Field, Fla, 15 Jun 
1942; Pendleton Field, Ore, c. i Jul 1942; 
Davis-Monthan Field, Ariz, Aug 1942; 
Biggs Field, Tex, i Nov 1942; Pueblo 
AAB, Colo, Jan-Apr 1943; Earls Colne, 
England, May 1943; Bury St Edmunds, 



England, 15 Jun 1943-c. 12 Dec 1945; 
Camp Kilmer, NJ, c. 20-21 Dec 1945. 
Marietta AAFld, Ga, 29 May 1947-20 Mar 
1951. Dobbins AFB, Ga, 14 Jun 1952; 
Scott AFB, 111, 18 May 1955-. 

Commanders. Col John G Moore, 
1942; Col Frederick W Castle, Jun 1943; 
Col Charles B Dougher, 17 Apr 1944; Col 
Nicholas T Perkins, 16 Mar 1945; Lt Col 
Ernest B Maxwell,. 3 Jun 1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Germany, 17 Aug 1943; Germany, 
II Jan 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: On a shield azure, 
over a cloud formation argent, a chimeri- 
cal creature, with the body of a panther, 
the head of a buffalo all sable, horns, talons, 
and eyes proper, and eagle's wings or, 
crouching over the top of a sphere of the 
last, lined of the third, the creature snort- 
ing fire proper. Motto: CUNNING— 
R U G G E D— COURAGEOUS. (Ap- 
proved 6 Apr 1956.) 

95tJi BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 95th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Acti- 
vated on 15 Jun 1942. Used B-17's in 
preparing for duty overseas. Moved to 
England, Mar-May 1943, and assigned to 
Eighth AF. Entered combat on 13 May 
1943 by attacking an airfield at St Omer. 
During the next two months, made re- 
peated attacks against V-weapon sites and 



164 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 




airfields in France. Began bombing stra- 
tegic objectives in Germany in Jul 1943 
and engaged primarily in such operations 
until V-E Day. Targets included harbors, 
industries, marshalling yards, and cities. 
Received a DUG for maintaining a tight 
defensive formation in spite of severe as- 
sault by enemy fighters and bombing the 
aircraft assembly plant at Regensburg on 
17 Aug 1943. Withstanding concentrated 
attacks by fighters during the approach to 
the target and intense antiaircraft fire 
directly over the objective, the group ef- 
fectively bombarded marshalling yards at 
Munster on 10 Oct 1943, being awarded 
a DUG for the performance. Participated 
in the intensive campaign of heavy bomb- 
ers against the German aircraft industry 
during Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944. Re- 
ceived another DUG for action during an 
attack by AAF bombers on Berlin on 4 
Mar 1944: while many participating or- 
ganizations, because of weather condi- 
tions, either abandoned the operation or 
struck other targets, the 95th proceeded to 
Berlin and successfully bombed a suburb 
of the German capital despite snowstorms. 



dense clouds, and severe enemy attack. 
The group interrupted its strategic opera- 
tions to strike coastal defenses and com- 
munications during the invasion of 
Normandy in Jun 1944; hit enemy troop 
concentrations and thus assist the Allied 
breakthrough at St Lo in Jul 1944; drop 
ammunition, food, and medical supplies 
to Polish troops in Warsaw on 18 Sep 1944; 
attack enemy transportation during the 
Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945; 
and bomb airdromes in support of the 
Allied assault across the Rhine in Mar 
1945. Flew its last combat mission, an 
attack on marshalling yards at Oranien- 
burg, on 20 Apr 1945. Dropped food to 
the Dutch during the first week in May. 
After V-E Day, transported liberated pris- 
oners and displaced persons from Austria 
to France and England. Returned to the 
US, Jun-Aug 1945. Inactivated on 28 
Aug 1945. 

Redesignated 95th Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the re- 
serve. Activated on 29 May 1947. Inac- 
tivated on 27 Jun 1949. 

Squadrons. 334th: 1942-1945; 1947- 

1949- 335th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949- 
336th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 412th: 1942- 

1945; 1947-1949- 

Stations. Barksdale Field, La, 15 Jun 
1942; Pendleton Field, Ore, 26 Jun 1942; 
Geiger Field, Wash, 28 Aug 1942; Ephra- 
ta. Wash, 31 Oct 1942; Geiger Field, Wash, 
24 Nov 1942; Rapid City AAB, SD, 14 
Dec 1942-11 Mar 1943; Framlingham, 
England, 12 May 1943; Horham, England, 
15 Jun 1943-19 Jun 1945; Sioux Falls 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UmrS— GROUPS 



165 



AAFld, SD, 14-28 Aug 1945. Memphis 
Mun Aprt, Tenn, 29 May 1947-27 Jun 
1949. 

Commanders. Col Alfred A Kessler Jr, 
23 Oct 1942; Col John K Gerhart, 22 Jun 
1943; Col Chester P Gilger, c. 29 Jan 1944; 
Col Karl Truesdell Jr, 10 May 1944; Col 
Jack E Shuck, Dec 1944; Lt Col Robert 
H Stuart, 28 Apr 1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy ; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes- Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Germany, 17 Aug 1943; Munster, 
Germany, 10 Oct 1943; Berlin, Germany, 
4 Mar 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a Justin cross 
throughout or, over all a feather in bend 
gules. Moito: JUSTICE WITH VIC- 
TORY. (Approved 26 Feb 1943. This 
insigne was modified 3 Sep 1957.) 

96th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 96th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Acti- 
vated on 15 Jul 1942. Trained with B-17's 
and also served as an operational training 
unit. Moved to England, Apr-May 1943, 
for duty with Eighth AF. Entered com- 
bat in May 1943 and functioned primarily 
as a strategic bombardment organization 
throughout the war. Attacked shipyards, 
harbors, railroad yards, airdromes, oil re- 
fineries, aircraft factories, and other indus- 
trial targets in Germany, France, Holland, 
Belgium, Norway, Poland, Hungary, and 
Czechoslovakia. Received a DUG for 




withstanding severe assault by enemy 
fighters to bomb the vital aircraft factories 
at Regensburg on 17 Aug 1943. Received 
another DUC for leading the 45th Wing 
a great distance through heavy clouds and 
intense antiaircraft fire to raid important 
aircraft component factories in Poland on 
9 Apr 1944. Other significant targets in- 
cluded airdromes in Bordeaux and Augs- 
burg; marshalling yards in Kiel, Hamm, 
Brunswick, and Gdynia; aircraft factories 
in Chemnitz, Hannover, and Diosgyor; 
oil refineries in Merseburg and Brux; and 
chemical works in Weisbaden, Ludwigs- 
hafen, and Neunkirchen. In addition to 
strategic operations, missions included 
bombing coastal defenses, railway bridges, 
gun emplacements, and field batteries in 
the battle area prior to and during the in- 
vasion of Normandy in Jun 1944; attack- 
ing enemy positions in support of the 
breakthrough at St Lo in Jul 1944; aiding 
the campaign in France in Aug by striking 
roads and road junctions, and by dropping 
supplies to the Maquis; and attacking, 
during the early months of 1945, the com- 
munications supplying German armies on 
the western front. After V-E Day, flew 



166 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



food to Holland and hauled redeployed 
personnel to French Morocco, Ireland, 
France, and Germany. Returned to the 
US in Dec. Inactivated on 21 Dec 1945. 

Redesignated 96th Bombardment Group 
(Very Heavy). Allotted to the reserve. 
Activated on 29 May 1947. Inactivated 
on 27 Jun 1949. 

Squadrons. 337th: 1942-1945; 1947- 
1949. 338th: 1942-1945; 1947. 33gth: 
1942-1945; 1947. 413th: 1942-1945; 1947- 
1949. S4(>th: 1947-1949. S4yth: 1947- 
1949. 

Stations. Salt Lake City AAB, Utah, 
15 Jul 1942; Gowen Field, Idaho, 6 Aug 
1942; Walla Walla, Wash, 14 Aug 1942; 
Rapid City AAB, SD, 30 Sep 1942; Poca- 
tello, Idaho, 30 Oct 1942; Pyote AAB, Tex, 
Jan-Mar 1943; Great Saling, England, 
May 1943; Snetterton Heath, England, 12 
Jun 1943-12 Dec 1945; Camp Kilmer, NJ, 
20-21 Dec 1945. Gunter Field, Ala, 29 
May 1947-27 Jun 1949. 

Commanders. Col Archie J Old Jr, 6 
Aug 1942; Col James L Travis, c. 6 Sep 
1943; Col Robert W Warren, Jun 1944; 
Lt Col Robert J Nolan, c. 27 May 1945- 
unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Germany, 17 Aug 1943; Poznan, 
Poland, 9 Apr 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure a falcon's head 
erased or, holding in its beak a drop bomb 
bendwise gules, that portion over the first 



fimbriated of the second. Motto: E 
SEMPRE L'ORA— It Is Always the Hour. 
(Approved 18 Feb 1943.) 

97th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 97th Bombardment Group 
(Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 3 
Feb 1942. Trained with B-17's; also flew 
some antisubmarine patrols. Moved to 
England, May- Jul 1942, for duty with 
Eighth AF. Entered combat on 17 Aug 
1942 by bombing a marshalling yard at 
Rouen, the first mission flown by AAF's 
heavy bombers based in England. After 
that, attacked airfields, marshalling yards, 
industries, naval installations, and other 
targets in France and the Low Countries. 
Moved to the Mediterranean theater in 
Nov 1942, being assigned first to Twelfth 
and later (Nov 1943) to Fifteenth AF. 
Struck shipping in the Mediterranean and 
airfields, docks, harbors, and marshalling 
yards in North Africa, southern France, 
Sardinia, Sicily, and southern Italy, Nov 
1942-May 1943, in the campaign to cut 
supply lines to German forces in North 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



167 



Africa. Helped to force the capitulation 
of Pantelleria in Jun 1943. Bombed in 
preparation for and in support of the in- 
vasions of Sicily and southern Italy in the 
summer and fall of 1943. From Nov 1943 
to Apr 1945, engaged chiefly in long-range 
missions to targets in Italy, France, Ger- 
many, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, 
Rumania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, and 
Greece, attacking oil refineries, aircraft 
factories, marshalling yards, and other 
strategic objectives. Received a DUG for 
leading a strike against an aircraft factory 
at Steyr on 24 Feb 1944 during Big Week, 
the intensive air campaign against the 
German aircraft industry. 2d Lt David 
R Kingsley, bombardier, was av^'arded the 
Medal of Honor for saving the life of a 
wounded gunner on 23 Jun 1944: during 
a mission to Ploesti, Kingsley's B-17 was 
seriously crippled and the tail gunner was 
injured; when the crew was ordered to 
bail out, Kingsley gave his parachute to 
the gunner, whose own had been dam- 
aged, and assisted him in bailing out; 
Kingsley died a few moments later when 
his bomber crashed and burned. The 
group received its second DUG for a 
devastating raid against one of the Plo- 
esti refineries on 18 Aug 1944. Other 
operations of the 97th included pounding 
enemy communications, transportation, 
and airfields in support of Allied forces 
at Anzio and Cassino; bombing coastal 
defenses in preparation for the invasion of 
Southern France; and assisting US Fifth 
and British Eighth Army in their advance 



through the Po Valley. Inactivated in 
Italy on 29 Oct 1945. 

Redesignated 97th Bombardment Group 
(Very Heavy). Activated in the US on 4 
Aug 1946. Assigned to Strategic Air 
Command. Equipped with B-29's. Re- 
designated 97th Bombardment Group 
(Medium) in May 1948. Converted to 
B-50's in 1950. Inactivated on 16 Jun 
1952. 

Squadrons, ^^oth: 1942-1945; 1946- 
1952. 341st: 1942-1945; 1946-1952. 342d: 
1942-1945; 1946-1952. 414th: 1942-1945. 

Stations. MacDill Field, Fla, 3 Feb 
1942; Sarasota, Fla, 29 Mar-c. 16 May 1942; 
Polebrook, England, c. 13 Jun-c. 9 Nov 
1942; Maison Blanche, Algeria, c. 13 Nov 
1942; Tafaraoui, Algeria, c. 22 Nov 1942; 
Biskra, Algeria, c. 25 Dec 1942; Chateau- 
dun-du-Rhumel, Algeria, c. 8 Feb 1943; 
Pont-du-Fahs, Tunisia, c. i Aug 1943; 
Depienne, Tunisia, c. 15 Aug 1943; Cerig- 
nola, Italy, c. 20 Dec 1943; Amendola, 
Italy, 16 Jan 1944; Marcianise, Italy, c. i- 
29 Oct 1945. Smoky Hill AAFld, Kan, 4 
Aug 1946; Biggs AFB, Tex, 17 May 1948- 
16 Jun 1952. 

Commanders. Col Cornelius W Cous- 
land, Feb 1942; Col James H Walsh, c. Jul 
1942 ; Col Frank A Armstrong Jr, c. 2 Aug 
1942; Brig Gen Joseph H Atkinson, c. 27 
Sep 1942; Col Stanley J Donovan, 5 Jan 
1943; Col Leroy A Rainey, 29 Jun 1943; 
Col Frank Allen, Nov 1943; Col Jacob E 
Smart, 7 Apr 1944; Col Frank Allen, 11 
May 1944 ; Col Elmer J Rogers Jr, Jun 1944 ; 
Col Nils O Ohman, 22 Aug 1944; Col Wil- 



168 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



liam K Kincaid, May 1945-unkn. Col 
Walter S Lee, c. 4 Aug 1946; Lt Col Wil- 
liam D Bacon, c. 27 Aug 1946; Col William 
E McDonald, 9 Oct 1946; Col George L 
Robinson, 10 Sep 1947-unkn; Col George 
L Robinson, 30 Sep 1948; Col Dalene E 
Bailey, 20 Apr 1949; Col Harvey C Dor- 
ney, Feb 1951; Col John D Ryan, 16 Jul 
1951-16 Jun 1952. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater; Air Combat, EAME Theater; 
Air Offensive, Europe; Tunisia; Sicily; 
Naples-Foggia; Anzio; Rome-Arno; Nor- 
mandy; Northern France; Southern 
France; North Apennines; Rhineland; 
Central Europe; Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Steyr, Austria, 24 Feb 1944; Ploesti, 
Rumania, 18 Aug 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a spear in pale 
or, point to base flammant and embrued 
proper. Motto: VENIT HORA— The 
Hour Has Come. (Approved 5 Mar 

I943-) 

98th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 98th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Acti- 
vated on 3 Feb 1942, Trained with B-24's. 
Moved to the Mediterranean theater, Jul- 
Aug 1942, and served in that area until the 
end of the war. Assigned to Ninth AF in 
Nov 1942, to Twelfth AF in Sep 1943, and 
to Fifteenth AF in Nov 1943. Entered 
combat in Aug 1942. Bombed shipping 
and harbor installations in Libya, Tunisia, 
Sicily, Italy, Crete, and Greece to cut 




enemy supply lines to Africa. Also hit air- 
dromes and rail facilities in Sicily and 
Italy. Received a DUC for action against 
the enemy in the Middle East, North 
Africa, and Sicily from Aug 1942 to Aug 
1943. Awarded another DUC for partici- 
pation in the low-level assault on oil re- 
fineries at Ploesti on i Aug 1943: although 
its target had already been attacked by an- 
other group, the 98th proceeded through 
dense smoke and intense flak to bomb its 
assigned objective. Col John R Kane, 
group commander, received the Medal of 
Honor for leading the 98th to complete 
this attack despite the hazards of oil fires, 
delayed-action bombs, and alerted de- 
fenses. Afterward the group flew many 
long-range missions to Italy, France, Ger- 
many, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, 
and the Balkans to bomb such strategic 
targets as industries, airdromes, harbors, 
and communications, and engaged pri- 
marily in such operations until Apr 1945. 
ist Lt Donald D Pucket, one of the group's 
pilots, was awarded the Medal of Honor 
for action during a mission against oil re- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VNITS— GROUPS 



169 



fineries at Ploesti on 9 Jul 1944: just after 
bombing the target, Lt Pucket's plane was 
crippled by antiaircraft fire and crew mem- 
bers were wounded; he calmed the crew, 
administered first aid, surveyed the dam- 
age, and, realizing it was impossible to 
reach friendly territory, gave the order to 
abandon ship ; refusing to desert three men 
who were unable to leave the bomber, Lt 
Pucket stayed with the plane that a few 
moments later crashed on a mountainside. 
In addition to strategic operations, the 98th 
also flew interdictory and support missions. 
Aided Allied forces at Anzio and Cas- 
sino. Participated in the invasion of 
Southern France. Assisted the Russian 
advance in the Balkans. Returned to the 
US, Apr-May 1945. Redesignated 98th 
Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) in 
May. Inactivated on 10 Nov 1945. 

Activated on i Jul 1947. Assigned to 
Strategic Air Command. Trained with 
B-29's. Redesignated 98th Bombardment 
Group (Medium) in May 1948. Moved 
to Japan in Aug 1950 and attached to Far 
East Air Forces for duty in the Korean 
War. Engaged primarily in interdicting 
enemy communications but also operated 
in support of UN ground forces. Targets 
included marshalling yards, oil centers, 
rail facilities, bridges, roads, troop concen- 
tratiorw, airfields, and military installa- 
tions. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952 while 
on temporary duty in Japan. 

Squadrons. ^4^d: 1942-1945; 1947- 
1952. S4^h: 1942-1945; 1947-1952. ^4sth: 
1942-1945; 1947-1952. 41 ^th: 1942-1945. 



Stations. MacDill Field, Fla, 3 Feb 
1942; Barksdale Field, La, Feb 1942; Ft 
Myers, Fla, 30 Mar 1942; Drane Field, Fla, 
c. 15 May-3 Jul 1942; Ramat David, Pales- 
tine, 25 Jul 1942; Fayid, Egypt, c. 11 Nov 
1942; Benina, Libya, c. 9 Feb 1943; Hergla, 
Tunisia, c. 21 Sep 1943; Brindisi, Italy, c. 
18 Nov 1943 ; Manduria, Italy, 19 Dec 1943; 
Lecce,' Italy, 17 Jan 1944-19 Apr 1945; 
Fairmont AAFld, Neb, c. 6 May 1945 ; Mc- 
Cook AAFld, Neb, 25 Jun-io Nov 1945. 
Andrews Field, Md, i Jul 1947; Spokane 
AAFld, Wash, 24 Sep 1947-16 Jun 1952. 

Commanders. Lt Col Frank H Robin- 
son, c. Feb 1942; Col Hugo P Rush, 1942; 
Col John R Kane, c. 29 Dec 1942; Lt Col 
Julian M Bleyer, i Nov 1943; Col William 
E Karnes, 18 Nov 1943; Lt Col Marshall 
R Gray, 13 Jan 1944; Col Salvatore E Man- 
zo, c. Jul 1944-unkn; Col John G Eriksen, 
25 Jun-c. Sep 1945; unkn, Sep-Nov 1945. 
Unkn, Jul-Oct 1947; Lt Col Joseph D 
White, 20 Oct 1947; Col William D 
Cairnes, 12 Apr 1948 ; Col Richard D Dick, 
20 Jan 1949; Col Richard H Carmichael, 
c. Apr 1950; Col David Wade, c. 31 Mar 
1951 ; Col Edwin F Harding Jr, Sep 1951 ; 
Col Lewis A Curtis, Nov 1951 ; Col Win ton 
R Close, May-i6 Jun 1952. 

Campaigns. World War II: Air Com- 
bat, EAME Theater; Egypt-Libya; Air 
Offensive, Europe; Tunisia; Sicily; 
Naples-Foggia; Anzio; Rome-Arno; Nor- 
mandy; Northern France; Southern 
France; North Apennines; Rhineland; 
Central Europe; Po Valley. Korean War: 
UN Defensive; UN Offensive; CCF Inter- 
vention; ist UN Counteroff ensive ; CCF 



170 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Spring Offensive; UN Summer-Fall Of- 
fensive; Second Korean Winter; Korea 
Summer-Fall, 1952. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: North Africa and Sicily, Aug 1942- 
17 Aug 1943; Ploesti, Rumania, i Aug 
1943. Republic of Korea Presidential Unit 
Citation: [Aug 1950-Jun 1952]. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a bend in- 
dented between a dexter mailed hand 
couped at the vi^rist, in bend, grasping a 
drop bomb and an olive wreath, all or. 
Motto: FORCE FOR FREEDOM. (Ap- 
proved 29 Jul 1942.) 

99th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 99th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Acti- 
vated on I Jun 1942. Trained with B-17's. 
Moved to North Africa, Feb-May 1943, 
and assigned to Twelfth AF. Entered 
combat in Mar 1943 and bombed such 



targets as airdromes, harbor facilities, ship- 
ping, railroads, viaducts, and bridges in 
Tunisia, Sardinia, Sicily, Pantelleria, and 
Italy until Dec 1943. Received a DUC for 
performance on 5 Jul 1943 when the group 
helped to neutralize fighter opposition 
prior to the invasion of Sicily by pene- 
trating enemy defenses to bomb planes, 
hangars, fuel supplies, and ammunition 
dumps at the Gerbini airfield. Assigned 
to Fifteenth AF in Nov 1943 and moved 
to Italy in Dec. Flew long-range missions 
to attack such strategic objectives as oil re- 
fineries, marshalling yards, aircraft fac- 
tories, and steel plants in Italy, France, 
Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Aus- 
tria, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, Yugo- 
slavia, and Greece. Received another 
DUC for withstanding severe fighter as- 
saults to bomb the vital aircraft factory 
and facilities at Wiener Neustadt on 23 
Apr 1944. Other operations included as- 
sisting ground forces at Anzio and Cassino, 
Feb-Mar 1944; participating in the pre- 
invasion bombing of southern France, 
Aug 1944; and supporting the Allied of- 
fensive in the Po Valley, Apr 1945. Inacti- 
vated in Italy on 8 Nov 1945. 

Redesignated gcfth Bombardment Group 
(Very Heavy). Allotted to the reserve. 
Activated on 29 May 1947. Inactivated on 
27 Jun 1949. 

Squadrons. ^46th: 1942-1945; 1947- 
1949- 347th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 
348th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 416th: 
1942-1945; 1947-1949. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROC/W 



171 



Stations. Orlando AB, Fla, i Jun 1942 ; 
MacDill Field, Fla, i Jun 1942; Pendleton 
Field, Ore, 29 Jun 1942; Gowen Field, 
Idaho, 28 Aug 1942; Walla Walla, Wash, 
c. 30 Sep 1942; Sioux City AAB, Iowa, 17 
Nov 1942-3 Jan 1943; Navarin, Algeria, c. 
23 Feb 1943; Oudna, Tunisia, 4 Aug 1943; 
Tortorella Airfield, Italy, c. 11 Dec 1943; 
Marcianise, Italy, Oct-8 Nov 1945. Bir- 
mingham Mun Aprt, Ala, 29 May 1947- 
27 Jun 1949. 

Commanders. Unkn, Jun-Sep 1942; 
Col Fay R Upthegrove, c. Sep 1942; Lt 
Col Wayne E Thurman, 24 Nov 1943; 
Col Charles W Lawrence, 19 Dec 1943; 
Lt Col Wayne E Thurman, 26 Jan 1944; 
Col Ford J Lauer, 15 Feb 1944; Col 
Trenholm J Meyer, Jul 1944; Lt Col James 
A Barnett, Aug 1944; Col Ford J Lauer, 
Sep 1944; Col Raymond V Schwanbeck, 
Jan 1945; Lt Col Robert E Guay, 8 Oct 
1945; Maj Joseph D Russell, 11 Oct 1945; 
Maj John S Giegel, 16 Oct 1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Combat, FAME Thea- 
ter; Air Offensive, Europe; Tunisia; Si- 
cily; Naples-Foggia; Anzio; Rome-Arno; 
Normandy; Northern France; Southern 
France; North Apennines; Rhineland; 
Central Europe; Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Sicily, 5 Jul 1943; Austria, 23 Apr 
1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, issuant from 
sinister chief a cloud argent emitting a 
lightning flash to dexter base or between 
an eye of the second with pupil sable 
represented as a radar scope of the third 



with eyelid of the like, and a globe of the 
last with lines of the fifth encircled by a 
motion picture film silver, Motto: SIGHT 
WITH MIGHT. (Approved 3 Nov 1943. 
This insigne was replaced 7 Feb 1958.) 

100th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as looth Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated 
on I Jun 1942. Used B-17's to prepare 
for duty overseas. Moved to England, 
May-Jun 1943, and assigned to Eighth 
AF. Operated chiefly as a strategic bom- 
bardment organization until the war 
ended. From Jun 1943 to Jan 1944, con- 
centrated its efforts against airfields in 
France and naval facilities and industries 
in France and Germany. Received a DUC 
for seriously disrupting German fighter- 
plane production with an attack on, an 
aircraft factory at Regensburg on 17 Aug 
1943. Bombed airfields, industries, mar- 



172 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



shalling yards, and missile sites in western 
Europe, Jan-May 1944. Operations in this 
period included participation in the Allied 
campaign against enemy aircraft factories 
during Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944. Com- 
pleted a series of attacks against Berlin 
in Mar 1944 and received a DUG for the 
missions. Beginning in the summer of 
1944, oil installations became major tar- 
gets. In addition to strategic operations, 
the group engaged in support and inter- 
dictory missions, hitting bridges and gun 
positions in support of the Normandy 
invasion in Jun 1944; bombing enemy posi- 
tions at St Lo in Jul and at Brest in Aug 
and Sep; striking transportation and 
ground defenses in the drive against the 
Siegfried Line, Oct-Dec 1944; attacking 
marshalling yards, defended villages, and 
communications in the Ardennes sector 
during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944- 
Jan 1945; and covering the airborne as- 
sault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Re- 
ceived the French Croix de Guerre with 
Palm for attacking heavily defended in- 
stallations in Germany and for dropping 
supplies to French Forces of the Interior, 
Jun-Dec 1944. Returned to the US in 
Dec 1945. Inactivated on 21 Dec 1945. 

Redesignated looth Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the 
reserve. Activated on 29 May 1947. In- 
activated on 27 Jun 1949. 

Squadrons. ^4gth: 1942-1945; 1947- 
1949. 250th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 
351 St: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 418th: 1942- 
1945; 1947-1949- 



Stations. Orlando AB, Fla, i Jun 1942 ; 
Barksdale Field, La, c. 18 Jun 1942; Pen- 
dleton Field, Ore, c. 26 Jun 1942; Gowen 
Field, Idaho, 28 Aug 1942; Walla Walla, 
Wash, c. I Nov 1942; Wendover Field, 
Utah, c. 30 Nov 1942; Sioux City AAB, 
Iowa, c. 28 Dec 1942; Kearney AAFld, 
Neb, c. 30 Jan-May 1943 ; Thorpe Abbotts, 
England, 9 Jun 1943-Dec 1945; Camp 
Kilmer, NJ, c. 20-21 Dec 1945. Miami 
AAFld, Fla, 29 May 1947-27 Jun 1949. 

Commanders. Unkn, Jun-Nov 1942; 
Col Darr H Alkire, c. 14 Nov 1942; Col 
Howard M Turner, c. 28 Apr 1943; Col 
Harold Q Huglin, Jun 1943; Col Neil B 
Harding, c. Jul 1943; Col Robert H Kelly, 
19 Apr 1944; Col Thomas S Jeffery, c. 9 
May 1944; Col Frederick J Sutterlin, 2 Feb 
1945; Lt Col John B Wallace, 23 Jun 
1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy ; Northern France ; Rhineland ; 
Ardennes-Alsace ; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Germany, 17 Aug 1943; Berlin, Ger- 
many, 4, 6, 8 Mar 1944. French Croix de 
Guerre with Palm, 25 Jun-31 Dec 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Gray, issuing from a 
base nebuly azure bearing in fess arched 
reversed six mullets argent, nine billets in 
chevron sable, surmounted by two lions 
respectant or langued gules, grasping in 
saltire a palm branch bend sinisterwise 
vert and a lightning flash of the sixth. 
Motto: PEACE THROUGH 
STRENGTH. (Approved 22 Nov 1957.) 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



173 



301st BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 301st Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Acti- 
vated on 3 Feb 1942. Trained with B-17's. 
Moved to England, Jul-Aug 1942, and 
assigned to Eighth AF. Began combat in 
Sep 1942 and attacked submarine pens, 
airfields, railroads, bridges, and other tar- 
gets on the Continent, primarily in France. 
Operated with Twelfth AF after moving 
to North Africa in Nov 1942. Bombed 
docks, shipping facilities, airdromes, and 
railroad yards in Tunisia, Sicily, and Sar- 
dinia. Attacked enemy shipping between 
Tunisia and Sicily. Received a DUG for 
action on 6 Apr 1943 when the group with- 
stood intense antiaircraft fire from shore 
defenses and nearby vessels to attack a con- 
voy of merchant ships oflf Bizerte and thus 
destroy supplies essential to the Axis de- 
fense of Tunisia. Assaulted gun positions 
on Pantelleria during May-Jun 1943. Flew 
numerous missions to Italy, Jul-Oct 1943. 
Assigned to Fifteenth AF in Nov 1943, 
moved to Italy in Dec, and afterward di- 
rected most of its attacks against such 



strategic targets as oil centers, communi- 
cations, and industrial areas in Italy, 
France, Germany, Poland, Czechoslo- 
vakia, Austria, Hungary, Rumania, Bul- 
garia, Yugoslavia, and Greece. Received 
another DUG for a mission to Germany on 
25 Feb 1944 when, in spite of vicious en- 
counters with enemy fighters, the group 
bombed aircraft production centers at 
Regensburg. Other operations for the 
group during 1944-1945 included flying 
missions in support of ground forces in the 
Anzio and Cassino areas, supporting the 
invasion of Southern France, knocking 
out targets to assist the Russian advance 
in the Balkans, and aiding the Allied drive 
through the Po Valley. Returned to the 
US in July 1945. Redesignated 301st Bom- 
bardment Group (Very Heavy) in Aug. 
Inactivated on 15 Oct 1945. 

Activated on 4 Aug 1946. Assigned to 
Strategic Air Command. Equipped with 
B-29's. Redesignated 301st Bombardment 
Group (Medium) in May 1948. Inacti- 
vated on 16 Jun 1952. 

Squadrons, pd: 1942-1945; 1946-1952. 
352d: 1942-1945; 1946-1952. 3S3d' 1942- 
1945; 1946-1952. 3S4th: 1942. 4igth: 
1942-1945. 

Stations. Geiger Field, Wash, 3 Feb 
1942; Alamogordo, NM, 27 May 1942; 
Richard E Byrd Field, Va, 21 Jun-19 Jul 
1942; Chelveston, England, 9 Aug 1942; 
Tafaraoui, Algeria, c. 26 Nov 1942; Maison 
Blanche, Algeria, 5 Dec 1942; Biskra, Al- 
geria, c. 16 Dec 1942; Ain M'lila, Algeria, 
c. 17 Jan 1943; St-Donat, Algeria, 6 Mar 



174 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



1943; Oudna, Tunisia, 6 Aug 1943; Cerig- 
nola, Italy, c. 7 Dec 1943; Lucera, Italy, i 
Feb 1944-1945; Sioux Falls AAFld, SD, 
28 Jul 1945; Pyote AAFld, Tex, 23 Aug-15 
Oct 1945. Clovis AAFld, NM, 4 Aug 
1946; Smoky Hill AAFld, Kan, 16 Jul 
1947; Barksdale AFB, La, 7 Nov 1949-16 
Jun 1952. 

Commanders. Col Ronald R Walker, 
Feb 1942; Lt Col Samuel J Gormly Jr, c. 
Feb 1943; Col John K Brown Jr, 3 Sep 
1943; Col Jean R Byerly, 24 Nov 1943; Lt 
Col Karl T Barthelmess, 25 Dec 1943; Col 
John F Batjer, 3 Mar 1944; Lt Col John D 
Moorman, Sep 1944; Col Ernest S Holmes 
Jr, 8 Dec 1944; Lt Col Robert H AUyn, 
1945; Col Raymond L Winn, 31 Aug 1945- 
unkn. Unkn, Aug 1946-Aug 1947; Col 
George L Robinson, i Aug 1947; Lt Col 
Frank W Ellis, Sep 1947; Lt Col Thomas 
J Classen, 20 Jun 1949; Col Harris E Rog- 
ner, 21 Jul 1949; Col Chester C Cox, 15 Dec 
1950; Col Horace M Wade, Mar 1951-16 
Jun 1952. 

Campaigns, Air Combat, EAME 
Theater; Air Offensive, Europe; Tunisia; 
Sicily; Naples-Foggia; Anzio; Rome- 
Arno; Normandy; Northern France; 
Southern France; North Apennines; 
Rhineland; Central Europe; Po Valley. 

Decorations, Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Tunisia, 6 Apr 1943; Germany, 25 
Feb 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, three ravens 
pendent from a spear fessways or. Motto: 
WHO FEARS? (Approved 11 Aug 
1942.) 



302d BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 302d Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Acti- 
vated on I Jun 1942. Assigned to Second 
AF, later (Dec 1943) to First AF. Using 
B-24's, served first as an operational train- 
ing and later as a replacement training 
unit. Inactivated on 10 Apr 1944. 

Redesignated 302d Troop Carrier Group 
(Medium) and allotted to the reserve. 
Activated on 27 Jun 1949, Redesignated 
302d Troop Carrier Group (Heavy) in 
Jan 1950. Ordered to active duty on i Jun 
195 1. Inactivated on 8 Jun 195 1. 

Redesignated 302d Troop Carrier Group 
(Medium) and allotted to the reserve. 
Activated on 14 Jun 1952. 

Squadrons. SSSth: 1942-1944; 1949- 
1951; 1952-. 3$6th: 1942-1944; 1949- 
1951; 1952-. 3S7th: 1942-1944; 1949-1951; 
1952-. 420th: 1942. 

Stations Geiger Field, Wash, i Jun 
1942; Davis-Monthan Field, Ariz, 23 Jun 
1942; Wendover Field, Utah, 30 Jul 1942; 
Pueblo AAB, Colo, 30 Sep 1942; Davis- 
Monthan Field, Ariz, i Dec 1942; Clovis, 
NM, 29 Jan 1943; Langley Field, Va, 17 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VNITS^-GROUPS 



175 



Dec 1943-10 Apr 1944. McChcwcl AFB, 
Wash, 27 Jun 1949-8 Jun 1951. Clinton 
County AFB, Ohio, 14 Jun 1952-. 

CoMMANDERs. Lt Col Joscph J Nazzafo, 
I Jun 1942; Col Eugene H Beebe, 12 Jul 
1942; Lt Col Joseph J Nazzaro, 15 Sep 
1942; Lt Col William K Martin, i Jan 
1943; Maj Horace S Carswell, 15 Oct 1943; 
Lt Col Thomas J Gent Jr, 2 Nov 1943; 
Lt Col Carlos J Cochrane, 3 Jan-Apr 
1944. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a thunderbolt 
in pale irradiated or, inflamed proper, 
winged, gules. Motto: JUSTUM ET 
TENACEM— Just and Resolute. (Ap- 
proved 27 Feb 1943.) 

303d BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 303d Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Acti- 
vated on 3 Feb 1942. Prepared for combat 
with B-17's. Moved to England, Aug- 
Sep 1942, and assigned to Eighth AF. 
Entered combat in Nov 1942 and raided 
targets such as airdromes, railroads, and 



submarine pens in France until 1943. 
Began bombardment of industries, mar- 
shalling yards, cities, and other strategic 
objectives in Germany in Jan 1943, and 
engaged primarily in such operations 
until V-E Day. Took part in the first 
penetration into Germany by heavy 
bombers of Eighth AF by striking the 
U-boat yard at Wilhelmshaven on 27 Jan 
1943. Other targets included ball-bearing 
plants at Schweinfurt, shipbuilding yards 
at Bremen, a synthetic rubber plant at 
Huls, an aircraft engine factory at Ham- 
burg, industrial areas of Frankfurt, an air- 
drome at Villacoublay, and a marshalling 
yard at Le Mans. Flying through intense 
antiaircraft fire during an attack on Vegc- 
sack on 18 Mar 1943, ist Lt Jack W Mathis, 
the leading bombardier of his squadron, 
was knocked from his bombsight; 
although mortally wounded, he returned 
to his position and released the bombs; 
for this action, which ensured an accurate 
attack against the enemy, Lt Mathis was 
posthumously awarded the Medal of 
Honor. T/Sgt Forrest L Vosler, radio 
operator and gunner, received the Medal 
of Honor for a mission to Bremen on 20 
Dec 1943: after bombing the target, Sgt 
Vosler's plane was hit by antiaircraft fire 
that knocked out two engines, damaged 
the radio equipment, seriously injured the 
tail gunner, and wounded Sgt Vosler in 
the legs and thighs; the burst of another 
20-mm shell nearly blinded the sergeant; 
nevertheless, he maintained a steady stream 
of fire to protect the tail of the aircraft; 
when the pilot announced that the plane 



176 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



would ditch, Sgt Vosler, working entirely 
by touch, repaired the radio and sent out 
distress signals; after the plane went down 
in the Channel, the sergeant secured the 
tail gunner and himself on the wing; Sgt 
Vosler's radio signals brought help, and 
the entire crew was rescued. The organi- 
zation received a DUG for an operation on 
II Jan 1944 when, in spite of continuous 
attacks by enemy fighters in weather that 
prevented effective fighter cover from 
reaching the group, it successfully struck 
an aircraft assembly plant at Oschersleben. 
Sometimes the group engaged in support 
and interdictory missions. Attacked gun 
emplacements and bridges in the Pas de 
Calais area during the invasion of Nor- 
mandy in Jun 1944. Bombed enemy 
troops to support the breakthrough at St 
Lo in Jul 1944. Struck airfields, oil depots, 
and other targets during the Battle of the 
Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Bombed mili- 
tary installations in the Wesel area to aid 
the Allied assault across the Rhine in Mar 
1945. Flew last combat mission, an attack 
on armament works in Pilsen, on 25 Apr 
1945. Moved to French Morocco, May- 
Jun 1945. Inactivated on 25 Jul 1945. 

Redesignated 303d Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy). Activated in the 
US on I Jul 1947. Assigned to Strategic 
Air Command. There is no evidence that 
the group was manned during 1947 and 
1948. Inactivated on 6 Sep 1948. 

Redesignated 303d Bombardment 
Group (Medium). Activated on 4 Sep 
1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Com- 



mand and equipped with B-29's. Inacti- 
vated on 16 Jun 1952. 

Squadrons. ^^8th: 1942-1945; 1947- 
1948; 1951-1952- 359ih: 1942-1945; 1947- 
1948; 1951-1952. ^oth: 1942-1945; 1947- 
1948; 1951-1952. 42ph: 1942-1945. 

Stations. Pendleton Field, Ore, 3 Feb 
1942; Gowen Field, Idaho, 11 Feb 1942; 
Alamogordo, NM, 17 Jun 1942; Biggs 
Field, Tex, 7-23 Aug 1942; Molesworth, 
England, 12 Sep 1942; Casablanca, French 
Morocco, c. 31 May-25 Jul 1945. Andrews 
Field, Md, i Jul 1947-6 Sep 1948. Davis- 
Monthan AFB, Ariz, 4 Sep 1951-16 Jun 
1952. 

Commanders. Col Ford J Lauer, Feb 
1942; Col Warren H Higgins, c. 29 May 
1942; Col James H Wallace, c. 14 Jul 1942; 
Col Charles E Marion, c. 12 Feb 1943; Col 
Kermit D Stevens, Jul 1943; Col William 
S Raper, Oct 1944; Lt Col William C Sipes, 
19 Apr 1945; Capt Bernard Thompson, 
Jun-25 Jul 1945. Unkn, 1947-1948. Maj 
Joe Maddalena Jr, Sep 1951; Col David 
Wade, 9 Oct 195 1; Col John K Hester, 
Jan-i6 Jun 1952. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Germany, 11 Jan 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a diminutive 
pile between four flashes of lightning, two 
issuant palewise from chief and one from 
dexter and sinister chief sides chevronwise 
inverted, issuant from base a burst of five 
rays, all or. Motto: MIGHT IN 
FLIGHT. (Approved 9 Jan 1943.) 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



177 



304th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 



\ f I 

! ! I 




Constituted as 304th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated 
on 15 Jul 1942. Assigned to Second AF. 
Received personnel in Sep and began train- 
ing on the west coast. Later, operated with 
AAF Antisubmarine Command, using 
such planes as B-17's, B-i8's, B-24's, 
B-34's, and A-2o's to fly patrols along the 
east coast. Also trained crews for duty 
overseas. Inactivated on 30 Dec 1942. 

Squadrons, ist Antisubmarine (form- 
erly 361st Bombardment): 1942. i8th 
Antisubmarine (formerly 362d Bombard- 
ment): 1942. igth Antisubmarine (for- 
merly 363d Bombardment): 1942. 421st 
Bombardment: 1942. 

Stations. Salt Lake City AAB, Utah, 
15 Jul 1942; Geiger Field, Wash, 15 Sep 
1942; Ephrata, Wash, i Oct 1942; Langley 
Field, Va, 29 Oct-30 Dec 1942. 

Commanders. Col Ford J Lauer, 24 Sep 
1942; Lt Col Dale O Smith, c. 29 Oct 1942; 
Maj Francis H Matthews, Nov-Dec 1942. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater. 

Decorations. None. 



Insigne. Shield: Azure, seme of drop 
bombs or. Motto: AQUILA NON 
CAPTAT MUSCAS— The Eagle Does 
Not Catch Flies. (Approved 7 Nov 1942.) 

305th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 305th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Acti- 
vated on I Mar 1942. Trained for duty 
overseas with B-17's. Moved to England, 
Aug-Oct 1942, and assigned to Eighth AF. 
Began combat on 17 Nov 1942 and oper- 
ated chiefly as a strategic bombardment 
organization until Apr 1945. Until mid- 
1943, attacked such targets as submarine 
pens, docks, harbors, shipyards, motor 
works, and marshalling yards in France, 
Germany, and the Low Countries. 
Bombed the navy yards at Wilhelmshaven 
on 27 Jan 1943 when heavy bombers of 
Eighth AF made their first penetration 
into Germany. Received a DUC for a 
mission on 4 Apr 1943 when an industrial 



178 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



target in Paris was bombed with precision 
in spite of pressing enemy fighter attacks 
and heavy flak. During the second half of 
1943, began deeper penetration into enemy 
territory to strike heavy industry. Signifi- 
cant objectives included aluminum, mag- 
nesium, and nitrate works in Norway, 
industries in Berlin, oil plants at Merse- 
burg, aircraft factories at Anklam, ship- 
ping at Gdynia, and ball-bearing works at 
Schweinfurt. Received another DUG for 
withstanding severe opposition to bomb 
aircraft factories in central Germany on 
II Jan 1944. Participated in the intensive 
campaign of heavy bombers against the 
German aircraft industry during Big 
Week, 20-25 Feb 1944. ist Lt William 
R Lawley Jr, and ist Lt Edward S Michael, 
pilots, each received the Medal of Honor 
for similar performances on 20 Feb and 11 
Apr 1944, respectively; in each case a B-17 
was severely damaged by fighters after it 
had bombed a target in Germany, crew 
members were wounded, and the pilot 
himself was critically injured; recovering 
in time to pull his aircraft out of a steep 
dive, and realizing that the wounded men 
would be unable to bail out, each pilot flew 
his plane back to England and made a 
successful crash landing. In addition to 
bombardment of strategic targets, the 
group often flew interdictory missions and 
supported infantry units. Prior to the 
Normandy invasion in Jun 1944, it helped 
to neutralize enemy installations such as 
V-weapon sites, airfields, and repair shops; 
and on D-Day, 6 Jun, bombed enemy 



strongholds near the battle area. Attacked 
enemy positions in advance of ground 
forces at St Lo in Jul 1944. Struck antiair- 
craft batteries to cover the airborne in- 
vasion of Holland in Sep. Took part in 
the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945, 
by bombing military installations in the 
battle zone. Supported the airborne as- 
sault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Some- 
times flew missions at night to bomb 
enemy installations or to drop propaganda 
leaflets. Flew its last combat mission on 
25 Apr 1945. Remained in the theater as 
part of United States Air Forces in Europe 
after V-E Day; and, from stations in 
Belgium and Germany, engaged in photo- 
graphic mapping missions over parts of 
Europe and North Africa. Inactivated in 
Germany on 25 Dec 1946. 

Redesignated 305th Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy). Activated in the 
US on I Jul 1947. Assigned to Strategic 
Air Command. Few, if any, personnel 
were assigned. Inactivated on 6 Sep 1948. 

Redesignated 305th Bombardment 
Group (Medium). Activated on 2 Jan 
1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Com- 
mand and equipped with B-29's. Inac- 
tivated on 16 Jun 1952. 

Squadrons. ^64th: 1942-1946; 1947- 
1948; 1951-1952. ^6$th: 1942-1946; 1947- 
1948; 1951-1952. ^66th: 1942-1946; 1947- 
1948; 1951-1952. ^22^; 1942-1946. 

Stations. Salt Lake City, Utah, i Mar 
1942; Geiger Field, Wash, c. 10 Jun 1942; 
Muroc, Calif, c. 31 Jun-Aug 1942; Grafton 
Underwood, England, Sep 1942; Chelves- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VNITS— GROUPS 



179 



ton, England, Dec 1942; St Trond, Bel- 
gium, Jul 1945; Lechfeld, Germany, Dec 
1945-25 Dec 1946. Andrews Field, Md, 

1 Jul 1947-6 Sep 1948. MacDill AFB, Fla, 

2 Jan 1951-16 Jun 1952. 
Commanders. Capt John H deRussy, 

c. 15 Mar 1942; Lt Col Ernest H Lawson, 
c. I Apr 1942; Lt Col Fay R Upthegrove, 
c. 27 May 1942; Col Curtis E LeMay, c. 2 
Jun 1942; Lt Col Donald K Fargo, 18 
May 1943-unkn; Col Ernest H Lawson, 
Nov 1943; Col Anthony Q Mustoe, Jun 
1944; Col Henry G MacDonald, Oct 1944; 
Col Paul L Barton, 22 Apr 1946; Col G M 
Palmer, Sep 1946-unkn. Unkn, 1947- 
1948. Lt Col James B Irwin, c. 2 Jan 1951 ; 
Col Elliot Vandevanter Jr, c. i Feb 1951- 
16 Jun 1952. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: France, 4 Apr 1943; Germany, 11 
Jan 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, in pale a bomb 
proper, winged or, in base a target proper, 
all within a bordure of the second. 
Motto: CAN DO. (Approved 23 Apr 
1951.) 

306th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 306th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated 
on I Mar 1942. Trained for combat with 
B-17's. Moved to England, Aug-Sep 
1942, and assigned to Eighth AF. Dur- 




ing combat, Oct 1942-Apr 1945, operated 
primarily against strategic targets, striking 
locomotive works at Lille, railroad yards 
at Rouen, submarine pens at Bordeaux, 
shipbuilding yards at Vegesack, ball-bear- 
ing works at Schweinfurt, oil plants at 
Merseburg, marshalling yards at Stuttgart, 
a foundry at Hannover, a chemical plant 
at Ludwigshafen, aircraft factories at 
Leipzig, and other objectives on the Con- 
tinent. Took part in the first penetration 
into Germany by heavy bombers of Eighth 
AF on 27 Jan 1943 by attacking U-boat 
yards at Wilhelmshaven. Sgt Maynard 
H Smith received the Medal of Honor for 
his performance on i May 1943: when the 
aircraft on which he was a gunner was hit 
by the enemy and fires were ignited in the 
radio compartment and waist sections, the 
sergeant threw exploding ammunition 
overboard, manned a gun until the Ger- 
man fighters were driven off, administered 
first aid to the wounded tail gunner, and 
extinguished the fire. Without fighter 
escort and in the face of powerful opposi- 
tion, the 306th completed an assault 
against aircraft factories in central Ger- 



180 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



many on ii Jan 1944, being awarded a 
DUG for the mission. Received another 
DUG for action during Big Week, the in- 
tensive campaign against the German 
aircraft industry, 20-25 Feb 1944: although 
hazardous weather forced supporting ele- 
ments to abandon the mission, the group 
effectively bombarded an aircraft assembly 
plant at Bernberg on 22 Feb. Often sup- 
ported ground forces and attacked inter- 
dictory targets in addition to its strategic 
operations. Helped to prepare for the 
invasion of Normandy by striking airfields 
and marshalling yards in France, Belgium, 
and Germany ; backed the assault on 6 Jun 
1944 by raiding railroad bridges and 
coastal guns. Assisted ground forces dur- 
ing the St Lo breakthrough in Jul. Gov- 
ered the airborne invasion of Holland in 
Sep. Helped stop the advance of German 
armies in the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 
1944-Jan 1945, by attacking airfields and 
marshalling yards. Bombed enemy posi- 
tions in support of the airborne assault 
across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Remained 
in the theater after V-E Day as part of 
United States Air Forces in Europe, and 
engaged in special photographic mapping 
duty in western Europe and North Africa. 
Inactivated in Germany on 25 Dec 1946. 

Redesignated 306th Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy). Activated in the 
US on I Jul 1947. Assigned to Strategic 
Air Command. Not manned until Aug 
1948. Redesignated 306th Bombardment 
Group (Medium) in Aug 1948. Equipped 
with B-29's and later with B-50's. In- 
activated on 16 Jun 1952. 



Squadrons. 567/A; 1942-1946; 1947- 
1952. 368/A; 1942-1946; 1947-1952. 
^6gth: 1942-1946; 1947-1952. 42^d: 1942- 
1946. 

Stations. Gowen Field, Idaho, i Mar 
1942; Wendover Field, Utah, c. 6 Apr- 
I Aug 1942; Thurleigh, England, Sep 
1942; Giebelstadt, Germany, Dec 1945; Is- 
tres, France, Feb 1946; Furstenfeldbruck, 
Germany, 16 Aug 1946; Lechfeld, Ger- 
many, 13 Sep-25 Dec 1946. Andrews 
Field, Md, I Jul 1947; MacDill AFB, Fla, 
Aug 1948-16 Jun 1952. 

Commanders. Col Charles B Overacker 
Jr, c. 16 Mar 1942; Col Frank A Arm- 
strong Jr, 3 Jan 1943; Col Claude E Put- 
nam, 17 Feb 1943; Col George L Robin- 
son, c. 20 Jun 1943; Col James S Sutton, 
Sep 1944; Col Hudson H Upham, c. 16 
Apr 1945; Col Robert F Harris, May 1946; 
Lt Col Earl W Kesling, Jun 1946-unkn. 
Lt Col Charles R Heffner, 13 Aug 1948; 
Lt Col Loran D Briggs, c. i Nov 1948; 
Col John A Hilger, i Sep 1949; Col Mi- 
chael N W McCoy, Mar 1950-16 Jun 1952. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy ; Northern France ; Rhineland ; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Germany, 11 Jan 1944; Germany, 
22 Feb 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Per fess enhanced dan- 
cette azure and or, in base the Indian idio- 
gram for the jaws of a rattlesnake gules. 
Motto: ABUNDANCE OF STRENGTH. 
(Approved 6 Jan 1943. This insigne be- 
came an element of a new insigne ap- 
proved 2 Oct 1951.) 



AIR FORCE COMBAT imiTS— GROUPS 



181 



307th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 307th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Acti- 
vated on 15 Apr 1942. Trained and flew 
patrols off the west coast, first in B-17's 
and later in B-24's. Moved to Hawaii, 
Oct-Nov 1942, and assigned to Seventh 
AF. Trained and flew patrol and search 
missions. Attacked Wake Island, Dec 
1942-Jan 1943, by staging through Mid- 
way. Moved to Guadalcanal in Feb 1943 
and assigned to Thirteenth AF. Served in 
combat, primarily in the South and South- 
west Pacific, until the war ended. At- 
tacked Japanese airfields, installations, and 
shipping in the Solomons and Bismarcks. 
Helped to neutralize enemy bases on Yap 
and in the Truk and Palau Islands. Re- 
ceived a DUG for an unescorted, daylight 
attack on heavily defended airfields in the 
Truk Islands on 29 Mar 1944. Supported 
operations in the Philippines by striking 
Japanese shipping in the southern Philip- 
pines and by bombing airfields on Leyte, 
Luzon, Negros, Ceram, and Halmahera. 
Also took part in Allied air operations 



against the Netherlands Indies by hitting 
airfields, shipping, and installations. Re- 
ceived a DUG for an unescorted mission 
against vital oil refineries at Balikpapan, 
Borneo, on 3 Oct 1944. Supported Aus- 
tralian forces on Borneo and bombed tar- 
gets in French Indochina during the last 
three months of the war. Flew patrol 
missions along the Asiatic mainland and 
ferried liberated prisoners from Okinawa 
to Manila after V-J Day. Returned to the 
US, Dec 1945-Jan 1946. Inactivated on 
18 Jan 1946. 

Redesignated 307th Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy). Activated on 4 
Aug 1946. Assigned to Strategic Air Com- 
mand. Equipped with B-29's. Trained 
and developed antisubmarine tactics. Re- 
designated 307th Bombardment Group 
(Medium) in May 1948. Based tempo- 
rarily on Okinawa and attached to Far 
East Air Forces for operations during the 
Korean War. Attacked strategic objec- 
tives in North Korea, Aug-Sep 1950. Aft- 
er that, struck interdictory targets, includ- 
ing communications and supply centers, 
and supported UN ground forces by hit- 
ting gun emplacements and troop concen- 
trations. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952. 

Squadrons, yjoth: 1942-1946; 1946- 
1952. y]ist: 1942-1946; 1946-1952. 
yj2d: 1942-1945; 1946-1952. ^/fih: 
1942-1945. 

Stations. Geiger Field, Wash, 15 Apr 
1942; Ephrata, Wash, 28 May 1942; Sioux 
Gity AAB, Iowa, 30 Sep-20 Oct 1942; 
Hickam Field, TH, 1 Nov 1942; Guadal- 
canal, Feb 1943; New Georgia, 28 Jan 1944; 



182 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Los Negros, c. 29 Apr 1944; Wakde, 24 
Aug 1944; Morotai, c. 18 Oct 1944; Clark 
Field, Luzon, Sep-Dec 1945; Camp Stone- 
man, Calif, 16-18 Jan 1946. MacDill Field, 
Fla, 4 Aug 1946-16 Jun 1952. 

Commanders. Capt Bill Jarvis, i May 
1942; Col William A Matheny, 22 May 
1942; Col Oliver S Picher, 19 Aug 1943; 
Col Glen R Birchard, 27 Oct 1943; Col 
Robert F Burnham, 28 Mar 1944; Col Clif- 
ford H Rees, Nov 1944-unkn. Col Rich- 
ard T King Jr, 4 Aug 1946; Lt Col Clyde 
G Gillespie, 25 Aug 1946; Lt Col Frank L 
Davis, Sep 1946; Col John G Eriksen, 13 
Jan 1947; Col Clifford J Heflin, 12 Aug 
1947; Lt Col John P Proctor, 15 Feb 1950; 
Col John A Hilger, 13 Mar 1950; Col John 
M Reynolds, Mar 1951; Col William H 
Hanson, Aug 1951; Col John C Jennison 
Jr, 14 Feb 1952; Col Raymond L Winn, 
May-i6 Jun 1952. 

Campaigns. World War II: Central 
Pacific; Guadalcanal; New Guinea; 
Northern Solomons; Eastern Mandates; 
Bismarck Archipelago; Western Pacific; 
Leyte; Luzon; Southern Philippines; 
China Offensive. Korean War: UN De- 
fensive; UN Offensive; CCF Intervention; 
ist UN Counteroffensive; CCF Spring Of- 
fensive; UN Summer-Fall Offensive; Sec- 
ond Korean Winter; Korea Summer-Fall, 
1952. 

Decx>rations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Truk, 29 Mar 1944; Borneo, 3 Oct 
1944. Philippine Presidential Unit Cita- 
tion. Republic of Korea Presidential Unit 
Citation: [Aug] 1950- [Jun 1952]. 



Insigne. Shield: Azure, a four-petalled 
dogwood bloom slipped or. (Approved 21 
Dec 1942.) 

308th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 







Constituted as 308th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Acti- 
vated on 15 Apr 1942. Trained with 
B-24's. Moved to China early in 1943, 
with the air echelon flying its planes by 
way of Africa, and the ground echelon 
traveling by ship across the Pacific. As- 
signed to Fourteenth AF. Made many 
trips over the Hump to India to obtain 
gasoline, oil, bombs, spare parts, and 
other items the group needed to prepare 
for and then to sustain its combat opera- 
tions. The 308th Group supported Chi- 
nese ground forces; attacked airfields, coal- 
yards, docks, oil refineries, and fuel dumps 
in French Indochina; mined rivers and 
ports; bombed shops and docks at Ran- 
goon; attacked Japanese shipping in the 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



183 



East China Sea, Formosa Strait, South 
China Sea, and Gulf of Tonkin. Received 
a DUG for an unescorted bombing attack, 
conducted through antiaircraft fire and 
fighter defenses, against docks and ware- 
houses at Hankow on 21 Aug 1943. Re- 
ceived second DUC for interdiction of 
Japanese shipping during 1944-1945. Maj 
Horace S Carswell Jr was awarded the 
Medal of Honor for action on 26 Oct 1944 
when, in spite of intense antiaircraft fire, 
he attacked a Japanese convoy in the South 
China Sea; his plane was so badly damaged 
that when he reached land he ordered the 
crew to bail out; Carswell, however, re- 
mained with the plane to try to save one 
man who could not jump because his para- 
chute had been ripped by flak; before 
Carswell could attempt a crash landing, 
the plane struck a mountainside and 
burned. The group moved to India in 
Jun 1945. Ferried gasoline and supplies 
over the Hump. Sailed for the US in Dec 

1945. Inactivated on 6 Jan 1946. 
Redesignated 308th Reconnaissance 

Group (Weather). Activated on 17 Oct 

1946. Assigned to Air Weather Service 
and equipped with B-29's. Inactivated 
on 5 Jan 195 1. 

Redesignated 308th Bombardment 
Group (Medium). Activated on 10 Oct 
1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Com- 
mand and equipped with B-29 aircraft. 
Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952. 

Squadrons. 53^; 1946-1947. $gth: 
1946-1947. S73d: 1942-1945; 1951-1952. 
374th: 1942-1946; 1947-1950; 1951-1952. 
S7Sth: 1942-1946; 1951-1952. 42$th: 



1942-1946. ^i2th: 1947-1948, 1949. 
5/j/A; 1947-1948, 1949-1950. 

Stations. Gowen Field, Idaho, 15 Apr 
1942; Davis-Monthan Field, Ariz, 20 Jun 
1942; Wendover Field, Utah, i Oct-28 Nov 
1942; Kunming, China, 20 Mar 1943; 
Hsinching, China, 10 Feb 1945; Rupsi, 
India, 27 Jun-15 Oct 1945; Camp Kilmer, 
NJ, 5-6 Jan 1946. Morrison Field, Fla, 17 
Oct 1946; Fairfield-Suisun AAFld, Calif, 
I Jul 1947; Tinker AFB, Okla, 10 Nov 
1949-5 Jan 1951. Forbes AFB, Kan, 10 
Oct 1951; Hunter AFB, Ga, 11 Apr-i6 
Jun 1952. 

Commanders. Capt Harris K McCau- 
ley, II May 1942; Col Fay R Upthegrove, 
5 Jun 1942; Maj Leroy A Rainey, 15 Jul 
1942; Col Eugene H Beebe, 16 Sep 1942; 
Col William P Fisher, c. 3 Nov 1943; Col 
John G Armstrong, 19 Oct 1944; Col Wil- 
liam D Hopson, I Jul 1945-unkn. Col 
Richard E Ellsworth, 17 Oct 1946-unkn; 
Col Hervey H Whitfield, Apr 1949-unkn. 
Col George L Newton Jr, 5 Nov 1951; 
Col Maurice A Preston, 10 May-i6 Jun 
1952. 

Campaigns. India-Burma; China De- 
fensive; New Guinea; Western Pacific; 
China Offensive. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: China, 21 Aug 1943; ^^^^ ^'^^ South 
China Seas, Straits of Formosa, and Gulf 
of Tonkin, 24 May 1944-28 Apr 1945. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, between a pale 
argent thereon three pallets gules, on the 
dexter a star of twelve points white, 
charged with an annulet azure; on the 
sinister a thundercloud proper with three 



184 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



lightning flashes or; in chief per chevron, 
inverted and enhanced sable, three bombs 
points downward or, between a semee of 
fifteen stars argent. Motto: NON SIBI, 
SED ALUS— Not for Self, But for Others. 
(Approved 29 Aug 1952.) 

309th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 309th Bombardment 
Group (Medium) on 28 Jan 1942. Acti- 
vated on 15 Mar 1942. Assigned to Third 
AF. Trained medium bombardment 
groups and later trained replacement 
crews, using B-25 aircraft in both the 
operational and the replacement training 
programs. Disbanded on i May 1944. 

Reconstituted, redesignated 309th Troop 
Carrier Group (Medium), and allotted to 
the reserve, on 16 May 1949. Activated on 
26 Jun 1949. Inactivated on 20 Feb 1951. 

Redesignated 309th Troop Carrier 
Group (Assault, Fixed Wing). Activated 
on 8 Jul 1955. Assigned to Tactical Air 
Command. Using C-122 and C-123 air- 
craft, the group trained to airlift troc^s, 
equipment, and supplies for assault land- 
ings. 

Squadrons. J76M; 1942-1944; 1949-1951; 

I955-- 377ih: 1942-1944; i949-i95o; 
1955-. 378th: 1942-1944; 1955-. 426th: 
1942-1944. 

Stations. Davis-Monthan Field, Ariz, 
15 Mar 1942; Jackson AAB, Miss, 15 Mar 
1942; Key Field, Miss, c. 26 Apr 1942; 
Columbia AAB, SC, 16 May 1942-1 May 
1944. Smyrna AFB, Tenn, 26 Jun 1949- 



20 Feb 1951. Ardmore AFB, Okla, 8 Jul 

1955- 
CoMMANDERS. Maj Henry G Silleck, 

1942 ; Lt Col Flint Garrison Jr, 2 June 1942 ; 
Col William C Mills, 26 Jun 1942; Col 
John L Nedwed, 3 Aug 1942; Lt Col Mil- 
ton E Lipps, 2 Feb-c. i May 1944. Col 
William C Bentley, 8 Jul 1955-. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

310th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 310th Bombardment 
Group (Medium) on 28 Jan 1942. Acti- 
vated on 15 Mar 1942. Used B-25's in 
preparing for duty overseas. Moved to the 
Mediterranean theater, Oct-Dec 1942, and 
assigned to Twelfth AF. Engaged pri- 
marily in support and interdictory opera- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VNITS— GROUPS 



185 



tions in Tunisia, Sicily, Italy, Corsica, Sar- 
dinia, and southern France; also flew some 
missions to Austria and Yugoslavia. At- 
tacked harbors and shipping to help defeat 
Axis forces in North Africa, Dec 1942- 
May 1943. Bombed airdromes, landing 
grounds, and gun emplacements on Pan- 
telleria, Lampedusa, and Sicily, May-Jul 
1943. Supported the Allied landing at 
Salerno, Sep 1943. Assisted the drive to- 
ward Rome, Jan-Jun 1944. Supported the 
invasion of Southern France, Aug 1944. 
Struck German communications- 
bridges, rail lines, marshalling yards, via- 
ducts, tunnels, and road junctions — in 
Italy, Aug 1^3-Apr 1945. Also dropped 
propaganda leaflets behind enemy lines. 
Received a DUG for a mission to Italy on 
27 Aug 1943 when, in spite of persistent 
attacks by enemy interceptors and antiair- 
craft artillery, the group effectively 
bombed marshalling yards at Benevento 
and also destroyed a number of enemy 
planes. Received second DUG for another 
mission in Italy on 10 Mar 1945 when the 
group, maintaining a compact formation 
in the face of severe antiaircraft fire, 
bombed the railroad bridge at Ora, a vital 
link in the German supply line. Inacti- 
vated in Italy on 12 Sep 1945. 

Redesignated 310th Bombardment 
Group (Light). Allotted to the reserve. 
Activated in the US on 27 Dec 1946. Inac- 
tivated on 27 Jun 1949. 

Squadrons. 37gth: 1942-1945; 1947- 
1949. ^8oth: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 



^81 St: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 428th: 1942- 
1945. 

Stations. Davis-Monthan Field, Ariz, 
15 Mar 1942; Jackson AAB, Miss, 15 Mar 
1942; Key Field, Miss, Apr 1942; Columbia 
AAB, SC, 16 May 1942; Walterboro, SC, 

14 Aug 1942; Greenville AAB, SC, 18 Sep- 
17 Oct 1942; Mediouna, French Morocco, 
c. 18 Nov 1942; Telergma, Algeria, 21 Dec 
1942; Berteaux, Algeria, i Jan 1943; Dar 
el Koudia, Tunisia, c. 6 Jun 1943; Menzel 
Temime, Tunisia, c. 5 Aug 1943; Philippe- 
ville, Algeria, 10 Nov 1943; Corsica, c. 10 
Dec 1943; Fano, Italy, 7 Apr 1945; Pomig- 
liano, Italy, c. Aug-12 Sep 1945. Bedford 
AAFld, Mass, 27 Dec 1946-27 Jun 1949. 

Commanders. Lt Col William E Lee, 

15 Mar 1942; Lt Col Flint Garrison Jr, 21 
Apr 1942; Capt James A Plant, 19 May 
1942; Col Anthony G Hunter, c. 17 Jun 
1942; Col Peter H Remington, c. 7 Oct 
1944; Col William M Bower, Jul-c. Sep 
1945. 

Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME The- 
ater; Tunisia; Sicily; Naples-Foggia; 
Rome-Arno; Southern France; North 
Apennines; Central Europe; Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Italy, 27 Aug 1943; Ora, Italy, 10 
Mar 1945. 

Insigne. Shield: On a blue shield be- 
tween two yellow 45° triangles with the 
long sides facing each other and placed 
diagonally from upper right to lower left, 
three white stars; in the upper triangle a 
white mailed right hand grasping a red 
lightning flash and in the lower triangle a 



186 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



white dove in flight to base carrying a 
green and black olive branch in its beak, 
hand and dove outlined in black; in a row 
across the bottom of shield ten small white 
stars; the shield and triangles bordered 
with black, edged with white against the 
blue. (Approved 7 Jan 1954.) 

311th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as -311th Bombardment 
Group (Light) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated 
on 2 Mar 1942. Redesignated 311th Bom- 
bardment Group (Dive) in Jul 1942, 311th 
Fighter-Bomber Group in Sep 1943, and 
311th Fighter Group in May 1944. 
Trained with V-72 aircraft. Moved to 
India, via Australia, Jul-Sep 1943. As- 
signed to Tenth AF. Operating from 
India and using A-36's and P-51's, the 
group supported Allied ground forces in 
northern Burma; covered bombers that at- 
tacked Rangoon, Insein, and other targets; 
bombed enemy airfields at Myitkyina and 



Bhamo; and conducted patrol and recon- 
naissance missions to help protect transport 
planes that flew the Hump route between 
India and China. Moved to Burma in 
Jul 1944 and continued to support ground 
forces, including Merrill's Marauders; also 
flew numerous sweeps over enemy airfields 
in central and southern Burma. Moved to 
China in Aug 1944 and assigned to Four- 
teenth AF. Escorted bombers, flew inter- 
ception missions, struck the enemy's 
communications, and supported ground 
operations, serving in combat until the end 
of the war. Ferried P-51's from India for 
Chinese Air Force in Nov 1945. Returned 
to the US in Dec 1945. Inactivated on 6 
Jan 1946. 

Redesignated loist Fighter Group. Al- 
lotted to ANG (Maine) on 24 May 1946. 
Extended federal recognition on 4 Apr 
1947. Ordered to active service on i Feb 

1951. Assigned to Air Defense Com- 
mand. Redesignated loist Fighter-Inter- 
ceptor Group in Feb 1951. Inactivated on 
6 Feb 1952. Relieved from active service, 
returned to ANG (Maine), and activated, 
on I Nov 1952. ANG allotment changed 
in 1954 (withdrawn from Maine on 30 
Apr and allotted to Vt on i Jun). Ex- 
tended federal recognition on i Jun 1954. 

Squadrons. /56M: 1951-1952. ^8$th: 
1942-1943. $28th (formerly 382d, later 
i32d): 1942-1946; 1951-1952. 529/A (for- 
merly 383d, later 133d): 1942-1946; 1951- 

1952. $^oth (formerly 384th, later 134th) : 
1942-1946; 1951-1952. 

Stations. Will Rogers Field, Okla, 2 
Mar 1942; Hunter Field, Ga, 4 Jul 1942; 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



187 



Waycross, Ga, 22 Oct 1942-18 Jul 1943; 
Nawadih, India, 14 Sep 1943; Dinjan, 
India, 11 Oct 1943; Tingkawk Sakan, 
Burma, 6 Jul 1944; Pungchacheng, China, 
28 Aug 1944-14 Dec 1945; Ft Lawton, 
Wash, 5-6 Jan 1946. Dow AFB, Maine, i 
Feb 1951 ; Grenier AFB, NH, 23 Apr 1951 ; 
Larson AFB, Wash, 2 Aug 1951-6 Feb 
1952. 

Commanders. Lt Col Clinton U True, 
1942; Lt Col John R Kelly, 10 Aug 1942; 
Col Harry R Melton Jr, 26 Nov 1942; Col 
Charles G Chandler Jr, 25 Nov 1943; 
Col John S Chennault, 12 Feb 1945; Col 
Gabriel P Disosway, 24 May 1945; Col 
Allen R Springer, 5 Aug 1945-unkn. 
Col George J Labreche, 1951-1952. 

Campaigns. American Theater; India- 
Burma; China Defensive; China Offen- 
sive. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Or a tornado issuant 
from base throughout azure, a demi-In- 
dian issuant from chief proper, with war 
bonnet of the like and shooting from a bow 
sable a drop bomb gules. Motto: FUL- 
MINAT— It (He) Strikes as Lightning. 
(Approved 13 Nov 1942.) 

312th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 312th Bombardment 
Group (Light) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated 
on 15 Mar 1942. Redesignated 312th Bom- 
bardment Group (Dive) in Jul 1942. 
Trained with A-24, A-31, A-36, and P-40 
aircraft. Moved to the Southwest Pacific, 




Oct-Dec 1943, and assigned to Fifth AF. 
Redesignated 312th Bombardment Group 
(Light) in Dec 1943. Began operations 
in New Guinea, flying patrol and escort 
missions with P-40's. Completed conver- 
sion to A-2o's in Feb 1944. Until Nov 

1944, attacked airfields, troop concentra- 
tions, gun positions, bridges, and ware- 
houses on the northern and western coasts 
of New Guinea, and also supported amphi- 
bious operations on that island and in 
Palau. After moving to the Philippines 
in Nov 1944, provided support for ground 
troops and struck airfields and transpor- 
tation facilities. Received a DUG for com- 
pleting eight strikes against butanol plants 
on Formosa from 25 Mar to 4 Apr 1945. 
Began transition to B-32's, and made test 
flights over Luzon and Formosa in Jun 

1945. Redesignated 312th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) in Jul 1945. Moved to 
Okinawa in Aug 1945 and sailed for the 
US in Dec. Inactivated on 6 Jan 1946. 

Redesignated 312th Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the 



188 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Converted to F- 



1942-1945; 
1942-1946; 



1947- 
1947- 



reserve. Activated on 30 Jul 1947. /«- 
activated on 27 Jun 1949. 

Redesignated 312th Fighter-Bomber 
Group. Activated on i Oct 1954. As- 
signed to Tactical Air Command. 
Equipped with F-84's, 
86's in 1955. 

Squadrons. ^86th: 

1949; I954-- 387th: 

1949; 1954-. i88th: 1942-1946; 1947-1949; 

1954-. sSgth: 1942-1945; i947-i949- 

Stations. Bowman Field, Ky, 15 Mar 
1942; Will Rogers Field, Okla, Jun 1942; 
Hunter Field, Ga, Aug 1942; DeRiddcr 
AAB, La, 20 Feb 1943; Rice AAFld, Calif, 
13 Apr 1943; Salinas AAB, Calif, 15 Aug- 
24 Oct 1943; Gusap, New Guinea, c. i Jan 
1944; HoUandia, New Guinea, Jun 1944; 
Tanauan, Leyte, 19 Nov 1944; Mangaldan, 
Luzon, 10 Feb 1945; Floridablanca, Lu- 
zon, 19 Apr 1945; Okinawa, 13 Aug-13 
Dec 1945; Vancouver, Wash, 3-6 Jan 1946. 
Ellington Field, Tex, 30 Jul 1947-27 Jim 
1949. Clovis AFB, NM, i Oct 1954-. 

Commanders. Col Robert H Strauss, i 
Sep 1942; Lt Col Selmon W Wells, 10 Mar 
1945; Col Frank R Cook, c. 25 Aug 1945- 
unkn. Lt Col Charles A Appel, 1954; Lt 
Col John E Vogt, 2 Feb 1955; Col Emmett 
S Davis, 8 Jul 1955-. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Air 
Offensive, Japan; New Guinea; Western 
Pacific; Leyte; Luzon. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Formosa, 25 Mar-4 Apr 1945. Phil- 
ippine Presidential Unit Citation. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure an eagle volant 
or, carrying with his talons a futuramic 



bomb argent, fire exhaust proper, and a 
branch of olive vert. (Approved 30 Nov 
1956.) 

3 1 3th TROOP CARRIER GROUP 




Constituted as 313th Transport Group 
on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 2 Mar 1942. 
Redesignated 313th Troop Carrier Group 
in Jul 1942. Trained for overseas duty 
with C-47's and C-53's. Moved to North 
Africa, Apr-May 1943, and assigned to 
Twelfth AF. Trained for the invasion of 
Sicily and entered combat on the night of 
9 Jul 1943 by dropping paratroops near 
Gela. Although attacked by ground and 
naval forces while carrying reinforcements 
to Sicily on the night of 11 Jul, the group 
completed the mission and received a 
DUC for the performance. Transported 
supplies and evacuated wounded in the 
Mediterranean area until late in Aug when 
the group moved to Sicily for the invasion 
of Italy. Dropped paratroops of 82d Air- 
borne Division south of Salerno on the 
night of 13 Sep 1943 and flew a reinforce- 
ment mission the following night. Re- 
sumed transport activities in the theater 
until Feb 1944, and then joined Nmth AF 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



189 



in England. Prepared for the invasion of 
France and on D-Day 1944, released para- 
troops near Picauville; dropped reinforce- 
ments over the same area on 7 Jun, being 
awarded second DUG for its part in the 
invasion. Dropped paratroops near 
Arnheim and Nijmegen on 17 Sep during 
the airborne attack on Holland and re- 
leased gliders carrying reinforcements to 
that area on 18 and 23 Sep. Moved to 
France, Feb-Mar 1945, and received C- 
46's for the airborne assault across the 
Rhine; dropped paratroops of 17th Air- 
borne Division near Wesel on 24 Mar. 
When not engaged in airborne operations 
the group evacuated wounded personnel 
and ex-prisoners of war, and also trans- 
ported cargo such as ammunition, gasoline, 
medical supplies, and food until after V-E 
Day. Returned to the US, Aug-Sep 1945. 
Inactivated on 15 Nov 1945. 

Activated in Austria on 30 Sep 1946. 
Assigned to United States Air Forces in 
Europe and equipped with C-47 and C-54 
aircraft. Transferred, without personnel 
and equipment, to the US on 25 Jun 1947 
and assigned to Tactical Air Command. 
Trained with gliders and C-82's. Re- 
designated 313th Troop Carrier Group, 
(Heavy) in Jul 1948. Moved to Germany, 
Oct-Nov 1948, and joined United States 
Air Forces in Europe for participation in 
the Berlin airlift. Transported cargo such 
as coal, food, and medicine into West Ber- 
hn from Nov 1948 to Sep 1949. Redesig- 
nated 313th Troop Carrier Group (Spe- 
cial) in Feb 1949. Inactivated in Germany 
on 18 Sep 1949. 



Redesignated 313th Troop Carrier 
Group (Medium) . Activated mxh^iXiSovv 
I Feb 1953. Assigned to Tactical Air Com- 
mand. Trained with C-119's. Inactivated 
on 8 Jun 1955. 

Squadrons. 2gth: 1942-1945; 1946- 
1949; 1953-1955- 41th: 1942-1945; 194^ 
1949; 1953-1955- 4^th: 1942-1945; 1946- 
1949; 1953-1955. 49th: 1942-1945. 

Stations. Daniel Field, Ga, 2 Mar 1942 ; 
Bowman Field, Ky, 21 Jun 1942; Florence, 
SC, 4 Aug 1942; Maxton, NC, 13 Dec 
1942-24 Apr 1943; Oujda, French Moroc- 
co, 9 May 1943; Kairouan, Tunisia, 16 Jun 
1943; Sciacca, Sicily, 23 Aug 1943; 
Trapani/Milo Airfield, Sicily, 3 Oct 1943; 
Folkinghamj England, 4 Feb 1944; Achiet, 
France, 28 Feb-5 Aug 1945; Baer Field, 
Ind, 14 Sep-15 Nov 1945. Tulln AB, 
Austria, 30 Sep 1946-25 Jun 1947; Langley 
Field, Va, 25 Jun 1947; Bergstrom Field, 
Tex, 15 Jul 1947-22 Oct 1948; Fassberg, 
Germany, 9 Nov 1948-18 Sep 1949. 
Mitchel AFB, NY, i Feb 1953; Sewart 
AFB, Tenn, 2 Oct 1953-8 Jun 1955. 

Commanders. Capt Fred W Nelson, 7 
Mar 1942; Col James J Roberts Jr, 26 Jun 
1942; Lt Col William A Filer, 18 Mar 1945; 
Lt Col Paul W Stephens, 26 Mar 1945; Lt 
Col Carl W Campbell, c. Aug-15 Nov 
1945. Col Clinton W Davies, 30 Sep 1946; 
Lt Col Walter R Washburn Jr, 15 Aug 
1947; Col Frank P Bostrom, 3 Dec 1947; 
Lt Col Conway S Hall, unkn-Sep 1949. 
Col Benton R Baldwin, Feb 1953; Col 
Steward H Nichols, i Oct 1953-1955. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Sicily; 
Naples-Foggia; Rome-Arno; Normandy; 



190 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Northern France; Rhineland; Central 
Europe. 

Decx)rations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Sicily, II Jul 1943; France, [6-7] Jun 
1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Per bend azure and 
gules, the silhouette of a stylized winged 
aircraft or, charged with a mullet of the 
first between six mullets, three and three 
of the third. (Approved 3 Feb 1943.) 

3 14th TROOP CARRIER GROUP 




Constituted as 314th Transport Group 
on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 2 Mar 1942. 
Redesignated 314th Troop Carrier Group 
in Jul 1942. Used C-47's and C-53's in 
preparing for duty overseas. Moved to 
the Mediterranean theater in May 1943 
and assigned to Twelfth AF for partici- 
pation in two airborne operations. Flew 
two night missions during the invasion 
of Sicily in Jul 1943: released paratrocq)s 
of 82d Airborne Division near Gela on 9 
Jul; dropped reinforcements in the area 
on II Jul, receiving a DUC for carrying 
out this second mission in spite of bad 
weather and heavy attack by ground and 



naval forces. Took part in the invasion 
of Italy by dropping paratroops and sup- 
plies near Salerno on 14 and 15 Sep 1943. 
Moved to England in Feb 1944 for opera- 
tions with Ninth AF. Trained for the 
invasion of western Europe. Dropped 
paratroops in Normandy on 6 Jun 1944 
and flew a resupply and reinforcement 
mission the following day, receiving a 
DUC for these operations. Released para- 
troops over Holland during the airborne 
attack in Sep and flew follow-up missions 
to provide reinforcements and supplies. 
Moved to France, Feb-Mar 1945. Re- 
leased gliders carrying troops and equip- 
ment to the Wesel area on 24 Mar 1945 
when the Allies launched the airborne as- 
sault across the Rhine. Continually trans- 
ported freight in the Mediterranean and 
European theaters, when neither training 
for, nor participating in airborne opera- 
tions; hauled supplies such as food, cloth- 
ing, gasoline, aircraft parts, and ammuni- 
tion. Also carried wounded personnel to 
rear-zone hospitals. After V-E Day, evac- 
uated Allied prisoners from Germany, and 
later made scheduled flights to transport 
freight and personnel in Europe. Trans- 
ferred, without personnel and equipment, 
to the US in Feb 1946. 

Moved to the Canal Zone, Sep-Oct 1946, 
and assigned to Caribbean Air Command. 
Operated air terminals in the Panama and 
Antilles areas. Redesignated 314th Troop 
Carrier Group (Heavy) in Jun 1948. Re- 
turned to the US in Oct 1948 and assigned 
to Tactical Air Command. Redesignated 
314th Troop Carrier Group (Medium) in 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



191 



Nov 1948. Trained with C-47, C-82, and 
C-119 aircraft. 

Moved to Japan, Aug-Sep 1950, and 
attached to Far East Air Forces for duty 
in the Korean War. Operated primarily 
with C-II9 aircraft. Transported troops 
and supplies from Japan to Korea and 
evacuated wounded personnel. Partici- 
pated in two major airborne operations: 
dropped paratroops and equipment over 
Sunchon in Oct 1950 in support of the UN 
assault on Pyongyang; dropped para- 
troops over Munsan-ni during the airborne 
attack across the 38th Parallel in Mar 1951. 
Remained in Japan after the armistice to 
transport supplies to Korea and evacuate 
prisoners of war. 

Transferred, without personnel and 
equipment, to the US in Nov 1954. 
Manned, and equipped with C-119's. Re- 
ceived an AFOUA for an airborne exer- 
cise, Jan-Feb 1955, when the group trans- 
ported elements of a regimental combat 
team from Tennessee to Alaska, dropped 
paratroops over the exercise area, and 
completed the return airlift. 

Squadrons. 20th: 1946-1949. ^oth: 
1942. jist: 1942. 32^; 1942-1945. 
Soth: 1942-1946, 1949-. 6 1 St: 1943-1945, 
1949-. 62d: 1943-1946, 1949-. 301st: 1945- 
1946. 302d: 1945-1946. 321st: 1945-1946, 

1955- 323^: 1945-1946. 334^^: 1946- 
1949. 

Stations. Drew Field, Fla, 2 Mar 1942; 

Bowman Field, Ky, 24 Jun 1942; Knob- 

noster. Mo, 4 Nov 1942; Lawson Field, 

Ga, c. 20 Feb-4 May 1943; Berguent, 

French Morocco, May 1943; Kairouan, 



Tunisia, 26 Jun 1943; Castelvetrano, Sic- 
ily, 24 Aug 1943-13 Feb 1944; Saltby, 
England, Feb 1944; Poix, France, Feb 
1945; Villacoublay, France, 15 Oct 1945- 
15 Feb 1946; Boiling Field, DC, 15 Feb- 
Sep 1946; Albrook Field, CZ, i Oct 1946; 
Curundu Heights, CZ, 10 Mar-Oct 1948; 
Smyrna AFB, Tenn, 21 Oct 1948-Aug 
1950; Ashiya, Japan, Sep 1950-15 Nov 
1954; SeAvart AFB, Tenn, 15 Nov 1954-. 

Commanders. 2d Lt L C Lillie, 2 Mar 
1942; 2d Lt J W Blakeslee, 14 May 1942; 
Maj Leonard M Rohrbough, 26 Jun 1942; 
Col Clayton Stiles, 9 Apr 1943; Lt Col 
Halac G Wilson, 22 Aug 1945 ; Col Charles 
W Steinmetz, 29 Nov 1945-c. Feb 1946; 
Col Richard W Henderson, 8 Oct 1948; 
Col William H DeLacey, 27 Aug 1951; 
Col David E Daniel, 28 Sep 195 1; Lt Col 
Harold L Sommers, i May 1952; Col Wil- 
liam H DeLacey, Nov 1954- 

Campaigns. World War II: American 
Theater; Sicily; Naples-Foggia; Rome- 
Arno; Normandy; Northern France; 
Rhineland; Central Europe. Korean 
War: UN Defensive; UN Offensive; CCF 
Intervention; ist UN Counteroffensive; 
CCF Spring Offensive; UN Summer-Fall 
Offensive; Second Korean Winter; Korea 
Summer-Fall, 1952; Third Korean Win- 
ter; Korea Summer-Fall, 1953. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Sicily, II Jul 1943; France, [6-7] 
Jun 1944; Korea, 28 Nov-io Dec 1950. 
Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Cita- 
tion: I Jul 1951-27 Jul 1953. Air Force 
Outstanding Unit Award: 11 Jan-14 Feb 

1955. 



192 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Insigne. Shield: Or, on clouds in fcss, 
azure, two boots passant of the field, 
ornamented, gules. Motto: VIRI 
VENIENTE— Men Will Come. (Ap- 
proved 17 Aug 1942. This insigne was 
replaced 17 Jun 1954.) 

3 1 5th TROOP CARRIER GROUP 




Constituted as 315th Transport Group 
on 2 Feb 1942 and activated on 14 Feb. 
Redesignated 315th Troop Carrier Group 
in Jul 1942. Trained for combat opera- 
tions with C-47's and C-53's. Departed 
the US, Oct-Nov 1942, for assignment to 
Eighth AF in England. Encountering 
bad weather while flying the North At- 
lantic route, the air echelon was detained 
for about a month in Greenland, where 
it searched for missing aircraft along the 
east coast and dropped supplies to crews. 
After the air and ground echelons were 
united in England in Dec, the group be- 
gan ferrying cargo in the British Isles 
and training with airborne troops and 



gliders. A detachment was sent to Al- 
geria in May 1943, and although not par- 
ticipating in the airborne phase of the 
invasions of Sicily and Italy, it did sup- 
port those operations by transporting sup- 
plies in the theater. In Mar 1944 the de- 
tachment returned to England and re- 
joined the group, which had been assigned 
to Ninth AF in Oct 1943. Prepared for 
the invasion of the Continent, and dropped 
paratroops near Cherbourg early on I>- 
Day in Jun 1944, receiving a DUC for its 
action in the Normandy invasion. 
Dropped paratroops of 82d Airborne Divi- 
sion on 17 Sep 1944 when the Allies 
launched the air attack on Holland; flew 
reinforcement missions on succeeding 
days, landing at Grave on 26 Sep to unload 
paratroops and supplies. Released British 
paratroops near Wesel during the airborne 
assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Fol- 
lowing each airborne operation, the group 
resumed transport activities, hauling cargo 
such as medical supplies, signal equipment, 
rations, and gasoline, and evacuating 
wounded personnel. Moved to France in 
Apr 1945. Transported cargo and evacu- 
ated prisoners of war until after V-E Day. 
Moved to Trinidad in May 1945 and as- 
signed to Air Transport Command. Used 
C-47's to transport troops returning to the 
US. Inactivated in Trinidad on 31 Jul 
1945. 

Activated in the US on 19 May 1947. 
Apparently was not manned. Inactivated 
on 10 Sep 1948. 

Redesignated 315th Troop Carrier 
Group (Medium). Activated in Japan on 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



193 



10 Jun 1952. Assigned to Far East Air 
Forces for operations in the Korean War. 
Used C-46 aircraft to participate in the air- 
lift between Japan and Korea. Trans- 
ported cargo such as vegetables, clothing, 
ordnance supplies, and mail; evacuated 
patients and other personnel. Remained 
in the theater after the armistice and con- 
tinued to fly transport missions until 1955. 
Inactivated in Japan on 18 Jan 1955. 

Squadrons, igth: 1952-1955. 35^; 
1942. 34th: 1942-1945; 1947-1948; 1952- 
1955. 35th: 1942. 43d: 1942-1945; 1947- 
1948; 1952-1955. $4th: 1942. 3ogth: 
1944-1945. 310th: 1944-1945. 344th: 
1952-1955. 

Stations. Olmsted Field, Pa, 14 Feb 
1942; Bowman Field, Ky, 17 Jun 1942; 
Florence, SC, 3 Aug-ii Oct 1942; Alder- 
maston, England, c. i Dec 1942; Welford, 
England, 6 Nov 1943; Stanhoe, England, 
7 Feb 1944; Amiens, France, 6 Apr-May 
1945; Waller Field, Trinidad, May-31 Jul 
1945. Langley Field, Va, 19 May 1947- 
10 Sep 1948. Brady AB, Japan, 10 Jun 
1952-18 Jan 1955. 

Commanders. Capt Thomas J Scho- 
field, 14 Feb 1942; Col Hamish McLel- 
land, 17 Apr 1942; Col Howard B Lyon, 
27 Sep 1944; Lt Col Robert J Gibbons, 27 
Mar 1945-unkn. Unkn, May 1947-Sep 
1948. Lt Col Jack L Crawford, 10 Jun 
1952; Lt Col Gene I Martin, 5 Dec 1952; 
Col Kenneth L Glassburn, 11 Aug 1953; 
Lt Col Jacob P Sartz Jr, 9 Nov 1954-18 
Jan 1955. 

Campaigns. World War II: American 
Theater; Sicily; Naples-Foggia; Nor- 



mandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Central Europe. Korean War: Korea 
Summer-Fall, 1952; Third Korean Win- 
ter; Korea Summer-Fall, 1953. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: France, [6] Jun 1944. Republic of 
Korea Presidential Unit Citation: [10 Jun 
i952]-27 Jul 1953. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a winged pack- 
ing box bend sinistcrwisc or. Motto: 
ADVENIAM— I WUl Arrive. (Ap- 
proved 22 May 1942.) 

316th TROOP CARRIER GROUP 




Constituted as 316th Transport Group 
on 2 Feb 1942 and activated on 14 Feb. 
Redesignated 316th Troop Carrier Group 
in Jul 1942. Trained with C-47 and C-53 
aircraft. Moved to the Mediterranean 
theater, assigned to Ninth AF, and began 
operations, in Nov 1942. Transported 
supplies and evacuated casualties in sup- 
port of the Allied drive across North 
Africa. In May 1943 began training for 
the invasion of Sicily; dropped paratroops 



194 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



over the assault area on the night of 9 Jul. 
Carried reinforcements to Sicily on 11 Jul 
and received a DUG for carrying out that 
mission although severely attacked by 
ground and naval forces. Received an- 
other DUG for supporting aerial and 
ground operations in Egypt, Libya, Tu- 
nisia, and Sicily, 25 Nov 1942-25 Aug 1943, 
by transporting reinforcements and sup- 
plies. Assigned to Twelfth AF and moved 
to Sicily to take part in the invasion of 
Italy; dropped paratroops over the beach- 
head south of the Sele River on the night 
of 14 Sep 1943. Transported cargo in the 
theater until Feb 1944, then joined Ninth 
AF in England and prepared for the in- 
vasion of France. Dropped paratroops 
near Ste-Mere-EgHse on D-Day 1944 and 
flew a reinforcement mission on 7 Jun, re- 
ceiving a third DUG for these operations. 
During the air attack on Holland in Sep 
1944, dropped paratroops and released 
gliders carrying reinforcements. Dropped 
paratroops near Wesel on 24 Mar 1945 
when the Allies made the airborne as- 
sault across the Rhine. Also provided 
transport services in Europe while not en- 
gaged in airborne operations. Hauled 
supplies such as ammunition, gasoline, 
water, and rations; evacuated wounded 
personnel to rear-zone hospitals. 

Returned to the US in May 1945. 
Trained with G-82 and G-119 aircraft. 
Redesignated 316th Troop Garrier Group 
(Medium) in Jun 1948, 316th Troop Gar- 
rier Group (Heavy) in Oct 1949, and 
316th Troop Garrier Group (Medium) 
in Jan 1950. Transferred, without person- 



nel and equipment, to Japan on 15 Nov 
1954. Assigned to Far East Air Forces, 
manned, and equipped with G-119's. 

Squadrons. i6th: 1950-1954. 56/A; 
1942-. 3ph: 1942-. s8th: 1942. 44ih: 
1942-1945. 45th: 1942-1945- 75^^: 1945- 
i949j 1952-- 77^^: 1945-1946- 

Stations. Patterson Field, Ohio, 14 
Feb 1942; Bowman Field, Ky, 17 Jun 
1942; Lawson Field, Ga, 9 Aug 1942; Del 
Valle, Tex, 29 Sep-12 Nov 1942; Deversoir, 
Egypt, 23 Nov 1942; El Adem, Egypt, 10 
Dec 1942; Fayid, Egypt, Jan 1943; 
Nouvion, Algeria, 9 May 1943; Guercif, 
French Morocco, 29 May 1943; Enfida- 
ville, Tunisia, 21 Jun 1943 ; Mazzara, Sicily, 
3 Sep 1943; Borizzo, Sicily, 18 Oct 1943-12 
Feb 1944; Gottesmore, England, 15 Feb 
1944-May 1945; Pope Field, NG, 25 May 
1945; Greenville AAB, SG, 25 Aug 1947; 
Smyrna AFB, Tenn, 4 Nov 1949-15 Nov 
1954; Ashiya, Japan, 15 Nov 1954-. 

GoMMANDERs. Gol Jerome B McGauley, 
14 Feb 1942; Lt Gol Burton R Fleet, 12 
Aug 1943; Gol Harvey A Berger, c. 13 
May 1944; Lt Gol Walter R Washburn, 2 
Sep 1945; Lt Gol Leonard G Fletcher, 17 
Sep 1945; Gol Jerome B McGauley, 5 Oct 
1945; Gol Glarence J Galligan, 2 Feb 1946; 
Lt Gol Leroy M Stanton, 31 Sep 1946; Gol 
Glarence J Galligan, i Nov 1946; Gol John 
H Lackey Jr, c. Apr 1947; Gol Edgar W 
Hampton, 20 Sep 1947; Gol Norton H Van 
Sicklen III, i Aug 1950; Maj Dwight E 
Maul, 31 Aug 1950; Maj Gordon F Blood, 
6 Sep 1950; Gol Norton H Van Sicklen 
III, 28 Dec 1950; Gol William H DeLacey, 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



195 



I Jun 1952; Col Richard P Carr, Nov 1954; 
Col William C Lindley, 19 Mar 1955-. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Egypt- 
Libya; Tunisia; Sicily; Naples-Foggia ; 
Rome-Arno; Normandy; Northern 
France; Rhineland; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions : Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Sicily, 25 Nov 
1942-25 Aug 1943; Sicily, 11 Jul 1943; 
France, [6-7] Jun 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, nine parachutes 
argent, three, two, three, and one, all 
within a bordure per bend or and gules. 
Moito: VALOR WITHOUT ARMS. 
(Approved 17 Aug 1951.) 

317th TROOP CARRIER GROUP 




"^^^^BY HAr*3^ 



Constituted as 317th Transport Group 
on 2 Feb 1942 and activated on 22 Feb. 
Redesignated 317th Troop Carrier Group 
in Jul 1942. Trained with C-47's. 
Moved to Australia, Dec 1942-Jan 1943, 
and assigned to Fifth AF. Operated in 
New Guinea for a short time early in 1943. 
Received a DUC for making numerous 
flights in unarmed planes over the Owen 
Stanley Range, 30 Jan-i Feb 1943, to trans- 



port reinforcements and supplies to Wau, 
New Guinea, where enemy forces were 
threatening a valuable Allied airdrome. 
Exchanged its new C-47's for old C-39's, 
C-47's, C-49's, C-60's, B-17's, and LB-30's 
in New Guinea and began operating from 
Australia, where the group had main- 
tained its headquarters. Flew troops and 
equipment to New Guinea, estabHshed 
courier and passenger routes in Australia, 
and trained with airborne troops. 
Equipped with C-47's and moved to New 
Guinea in Sep 1943. Took part in the first 
airborne operation in the Southwest Pa- 
cific on 5 Sep, dropping paratroops at 
Nadzab, New Guinea, to cut supply lines 
and seize enemy bases. Until Nov 1944, 
transported men and cargo to Allied bases 
on New Guinea, New Britain, Guadal- 
canal, and in the Admiralty Islands. Also 
dropped reinforcements and supplies to 
US forces on Noemfoor, 3-4 Jul 1944. 
After moving to the Philippines in Nov 
1944, transported supplies to ground forces 
on Luzon, Leyte, and Mindoro, and sup- 
plied guerrillas on Mindanao, Cebu, and 
Panay. Participated in two airborne op- 
erations during Feb 1945: on 3 and 4 Feb 
dropped paratroops south of Manila to 
seize highway routes to the city, and on 
16 and 17 Feb dropped the 502d Regiment 
on Corregidor to open Manila Bay to US 
shipping; received a DUC for the latter 
operation, performed at low altitude over 
small drop zones in a heavily defended 
area. Completed two unusual missions 
on 12 and 15 Apr 1945 when this troop 
carrier organization bombed Carabao 



196 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Island with drums of napalm. Dropped 
part of 511th Regiment near Aparri on 23 
Jun 1945 to split Japanese forces in the 
Cagayen Valley and prevent a retreat to 
the hills in northern Luzon. Remained 
in the theater as part of Far East Air 
Forces after the war; used C-46 and C-47 
aircraft, the latter being replaced in 1947 
with C-54's. Flew courier and passenger 
routes to Japan, Guam, Korea, and the 
Philippines, and transported freight and 
personnel in the area. Redesignated 317th 
Troop Carrier Group (Heavy) in May 
1948. Moved, via the US, to Germany in 
Sep 1948 and became part of United States 
Air Forces in Europe for service in the 
Berlin airlift. Used C-54's to transport 
coal, food, and other supplies to the block- 
aded city. Inactivated in Germany on 14 
Sep 1949. 

Redesignated 317th Troop Carrier 
Group (Medium). Activated in Germany 
on 14 Jul 1952. Assigned to United States 
Air Forces in Europe and equipped with 
C-119's. 

Squadrons, ^gth: 1942-1949; 1952-. 
40th: 1942-1949; 1952-. 41st: 1942-1949; 
1952-. 46th: 1942-1949. 

Stations. Duncan Field, Tex, 22 Feb 
1942; Bowman Field, Ky, 19 Jun 1942; 
Lawson Field, Ga, 11 Oct 1942; Maxton, 
NC, 3-12 Dec 1942; Townsville, Australia, 
23 Jan 1943; Port Moresby, New Guinea, 
c. 30 Sep 1943; Finschhafen, New Guinea, 
Apr 1944; Hollandia, New Guinea, Jun 
1944; Leyte, 17 Nov 1944; Clark Field, 
Luzon, c. 17 Mar 1945; Okinawa, 24 Aug 



1945; Kimpo, Korea, 31 Oct 1945; Tachi- 
kawa, Japan, c. 15 Jan 1946-c. 21 Sep 1948; 
Wiesbaden AB, Germany, c. 30 Sep 1948; 
Celle RAF Station, Germany, 15 Dec 
1948-14 Sep 1949. Rhein-Main AB, Ger- 
many, 14 Jul 1952; Neubiberg AB, Ger- 
many, 21 Mar 1953-. 

Commanders. Col Samuel V Payne, 22 
Feb 1942; Col Robert L Olinger, 21 Jun 
1944; Col John H Lackey Jr, 2 Oct 1944; 
Lt Col Robert I Choate, 31 Aug 1945; Col 
Dwight B Schannep, Oct 1945-unkn; Col 
Marshall S Roth, Jan 1946; Col Othel R 
Deering, Jan 1947; Col Thomas K Hamp- 
ton, 19 May 1948; Lt Col James M John- 
son, 18 Aug 1948; Col Bertram C Harrison, 
Oct 1948; Lt Col James M Johnson, 24 
Nov 1948; Lt Col Walter E Chambers, 11 
Mar 1949; Lt Col Robert J DuVal, 13 
Jun 1949-unkn. Col Lucion N Powell, 
14 Jul 1952; Lt Col James E Bauley, i 
Mar 1954; Col Harry M Pike, May 1954- 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Japan; New 
Guinea; Northern Solomons; Bismarck 
Archipelago; Western Pacific; Leyte; 
Luzon. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: New Guinea, 30 Jan-i Feb 1943; 
Philippine Islands, 16-17 ^^^ I945- Philip- 
pine Presidential Unit Citation. 

Insigne. Shield: Or issuant from chief 
a dexter arm, fist clenched inflamed prop- 
er, in base a fire of seven tongues of the 
last, on a chief nebuly azure, three piles of 
the first. Motto: I GAIN BY HAZARD. 
(Approved 22 Dec 1942.) 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNIT^— GROUPS 



197 



318th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 318th Pursuit Group (In- 
terceptor) on 2 Feb 1942. Redesignated 
318th Fighter Group in May 1942. Acti- 
vated in Hawaii on 15 Oct 1942. Assigned 
to Seventh AF. Trained and flew patrols, 
using P-39, P-40, and P-47 aircraft. Moved 
to the Marianas in Jun 1944. Supported 
ground forces on Saipan, Tinian, and 
Guam; attacked enemy airfields; flew pro- 
tective patrols over US bases; and, using 
some P-38's acquired in Nov 1944, flew 
missions to the Volcano and Truk Islands 
to escort bombers and to attack Japanese 
bases. Moved to the Ryukyu Islands in 
Apr 1945. Used P-47's to bomb and strafe 
airfields, railroad bridges, and industrial 
plants in Japan, escort bombers to China, 
and provide air defense for US bases in the 
Ryukyus. Assigned to Eighth AF in Aug 
1945, shortly after V-J Day. Moved to the 



US, Dec 1945-Jan 1946. Inactivated on 12 
Jan 1946. 

Redesignated i02d Fighter Group, Al- 
lotted to ANG (Mass) on 24 May 1946. 
Extended federal recognition on 22 Oct 
1946. Redesignated loid Fighter-Inter- 
ceptor Group in Aug 1952. 

Squadrons, igt/i: 1943-1946. 44tA: 
1942-1943. 72^; 1942-1944. y^d: 1942- 

1946- iiJ^- 1943-1946. 

Stations. Hickam Field, TH, 15 Oct 
1942; Bellows Field, TH, 9 Feb 1943; 
Saipan, Jun 1944; le Shima, c. 30 Apr 1945; 
Okinawa, Nov-Dec 1945; Ft Lewis, Wash, 
11-12 Jan 1946. 

Commanders. Col Lorry N Tindal, 20 
Oct 1942; Lt Col Charles B Stewart, 3 Mar 
1943; Col Lewis M Sanders, 21 Aug 1943; 
Lt Col Harry C McAfee, 31 Jul 1945; Maj 
Glen H Kramer, 5 Oct 1945; Maj Burton 
M Woodward, 22 Oct 1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Japan; 
Eastern Mandates; Western Pacific; 
Ryukyus; China Offensive. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: The upper part blue, 
with one small aircraft gray with white 
trail; the center part a portion of the globe 
showing the Northeastern portion of the 
Western Hemisphere in green and light 
blue with the North Pole in white and 
across it the front part of a gray aircraft 
with white outline and cockpit, firing 
three black rockets, tail flashes red, trails 
white, all headed toward upper right; in 
lower part on a bank of white clouds two 
small black aircraft climbing vertically, all 



198 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



within a red border. Motto: OMNIS VIR 
TIGRIS — Every Man a Tiger. (Approved 
II Jan 1954.) 

319th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 319th Bombardment 
Group (Medium) on 19 Jun 1942 and_ 
activated on 26 Jun. Trained with B-26's. 
Moved via England to the Mediterranean 
theater, Aug-Nov 1942, with part of the 
group landing at Arzeu beach during the 
invasion of North Africa on 8 Nov. 
Operated with Twelfth AF until Jan 1945, 
except for a brief assignment to Fifteenth, 
Nov 1943-Jan 1944. Began combat in 
Nov 1942, attacking airdromes, harbors, 
rail facilities, and other targets in Tunisia 
until Feb 1943. Also struck enemy 
shipping to prevent supplies and reinforce- 
ments from reaching the enemy in North 
Africa. After a period of reorganization 
and training, Feb-Jun 1943, the group re- 
sumed combat and participated in the 
reduction of Pantelleria and the campaign 
for Sicily. Directed most of its attacks 
against targets in Italy after the fall of 
Sicily in Aug 1943. Hit bridges, air- 
dromes, marshalling yards, viaducts, gun 
sites, defense positions, and other objec- 
tives. Supported forces at Salerno in Sep 
1943 and at Anzio and Cassino during 
Jan-Mar 1944. Carried out interdictory 
operations in central Italy to aid the ad- 
vance to Rome, being awarded a DUG for 
a mission on 3 Mar 1944 when the group, 
carefully avoiding religious and cultural 
monuments, bombed rail facilities in the 



capital. Received another DUG for strik- 
ing marshalling yards in Florence on 11 
Mar 1944 to disrupt rail communications 
between that city and Rome. Received 
the French Croix de Guerre with Palm for 
action in preparation for and in support 
of the Allied offensive in Italy, Apr-Jun 
1944. From Jul to Dec 1944, bombed 
bridges in the Po Valley, supported the 
invasion of Southern France, hit targets 
in northern Italy, and flew some missions 
to Yugoslavia, converting in the mean- 
time, in Nov, to B-25 aircraft. Returned 
to the US in Jan 1945. Redesignated 
319th Bombardment Group (Light) in 
Feb. Trained with A-26 aircraft. Moved 
to Okinawa, Apr-Jul 1945, and assigned 
to Seventh AF. Flew missions to Japan 
and China, attacking airdromes, shipping, 
marshalling yards, industrial centers, and 
other objectives. Returned to the US, 
Nov-Dec 1945. Inactivated on 18 Dec 
1945. 

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 
27 Dec 1946. Inactivated on 2 Sep 1949. 

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 
10 Oct 1949. Ordered to active duty on 
10 Mar 1951. Inactivated on 22 Mar 1951. 

Redesignated 319th Fighter-Bomber 
Group. Allotted to the reserve. Activated 
on 18 May 1955. 

Squadrons. 46th: 1947-1949; 1949- 
1951; 1955- 50th: 1947-1949; 1949-1951. 
51st: 1947-1949; 1949-1951. sgth: 1947- 
1949; 1949-1951- 437th: 1942-1945. 
428th: 1942-1945. 42gth: 1942-1945. 
440th: 1942-1945. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



199 



Stations, Barksdalc Field, La, 26 Jun 
1942; Harding Field, La, 8-27 Aug 1942; 
Shipdham, England, 12 Sep 1942; Hors- 
ham St Faith, England, c. 4 Oct 1942; St- 
Leu, Algeria, c. 11 Nov 1942; Tafaraoui, 
Algeria, 18 Nov 1942; Maison Blanche, 
Algeria, 24 Nov 1942; Telergma, Algeria, 
c. 12 Dec 1942; Oujda, French Morocco, 
3 Mar 1943; Rabat Sale, French Morocco, 
25 Apr 1943; Sedrata, Algeria, i Jun 1943; 
Djedeida, Tunisia, 26 Jun 1943; Sardinia, 
c. I Nov 1943; Corsica, c. 21 Sep 1944-1 
Jan 1945; Bradley Field, Conn, 25 Jan 
1945; Columbia AAB, SC, c. 28 Feb-27 
Apr 1945; Kadena, Okinawa, c. 2 Jul 1945; 
Machinato, Okinawa, 21 Jul-21 Nov 1945; 
Ft Lewis, Wash, 17-18 Dec 1945. Mitchel 
Field, NY, 27 Dec 1946; Reading Mun 
Aprt, Pa, 27 Jun-2 Sep 1949. Birming- 
ham Mun Aprt, Ala, 10 Oct 1949-22 Mar 
1951. Memphis Mun Aprt, Tcnn, 18 May 

I955-- 

Commanders. Lt Col Alvord Ruther- 
ford, 26 Jun 1942; Lt Col Sam W Agee 
Jr, 27 Nov 1942; Maj Joseph A Cunning- 
ham, 5 Dec 1942; Lt Col Wilbur W Aring, 
c. II Jan 1943; Col Gordon H Austin, 6 
Jul 1943; Col Joseph R Holzapple, 13 Aug 
1943-1945. 

Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME Thea- 
ter; Algeria-French Morocco; Tunisia; Sic- 
ily; Naples-Foggia; Anzio; Rome-Arno; 
Southern France; North Apennines; Air 
Offensive, Japan; Ryukyus; China Offen- 



sive. 



Guerre with Palm: Apr, May, and Jim 
1944. 
Insigne. None. 

320th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Rome, Italy, 3 Mar 1944; Florence, 
Italy, II Mar 1944. French Croix de 



Constituted as 320th Bombardment 
Group (Medium) on 19 Jun 1942 and 
activated on 23 Jun. Trained with B-26 
aircraft. Most of the group moved to 
North Africa via England, Aug-Dec 1942; 
crews flew their planes over the South 
Atlantic route and arrived in North Afri- 
ca, Dec 1942-Jan 1943. Began combat 
with Twelfth AF in Apr 1943 and oper- 
ated from bases in Algeria, Tunisia, Sar- 
dinia, and Corsica until Nov 1944. During 
the period Apr-Jul 1943, flew missions 
against enemy shipping in the approaches 
to Tunisia, attacked installations in Sar- 
dinia, participated in the reduction of Pan- 
telleria, and supported the invasion of 
Sicily. Then bombed marshalling yards, 
bridges, airdromes, road junctions, via- 
ducts, harbors, fuel dumps, defense posi- 
tions, and other targets in Italy. Support- 
ed forces at Salerno and knocked out tar- 
gets to aid the seizure of Naples and the 



200 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



crossing of the Volturno River. Flew mis- 
sions to Anzio and Cassino and engaged 
in interdictory operations in central Italy 
in preparation for the advance toward 
Rome. Received the French Croix de 
Guerre with Palm for action in prepara- 
tion for and in support of Allied offensive 
operations in central Italy, Apr-Jun 1944. 
Received a DUG for a mission on 12 May 
1944 when, in the face of an intense anti- 
aircraft barrage, the group bombed enemy 
troop concentrations near Fondi in sup- 
port of Fifth Army's advance toward 
Rome. From Jun to Nov 1944 operations 
included interdictory missions in the Po 
Valley, support for the invasion of South- 
ern France, and attacks on enemy com- 
munications in northern Italy. Moved 
to France in Nov 1944 and bombed 
bridges, rail lines, gun positions, barracks, 
supply points, ammunition dumps, and 
other targets in France and Germany until 
V-E Day. Received a DUG for opera- 
tions on 15 Mar 1945 when the group 
bombed pillboxes, trenches, weapon pits, 
and roads within the Siegfried Line to 
enable a breakthrough by Seventh Army. 
Moved to Germany in Jun 1945 and par- 
ticipated in the disarmament program. 
Returned to the US, Nov-Dec. Inacti- 
vated on 4 Dec 1945. 

Redesignated 320th Bombardment 
Group (Light). Allotted to the reserve. 
Activated on 9 Jul 1947. Inactivated on 27 
Jun 1949. 

Squadrons. 441st: 1942-1945; 1947- 
1949. 442d: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 443d: 



1942-1945; 1947-1949. 444th: 1942-1945; 
1947-1949. 

Stations. MacDill Field, Fla, 23 Jun 
1942; Drane Field, Fla, 8-28 Aug 1942; 
Hethel, England, 12 Sep 1942; La Senia, 
Algeria, c. 2 Dec 1942; Tafaraoui, Algeria, 
28 Jan 1943; Montesquieu, Algeria, 9 Apr 
1943; Massicault, Tunisia, 29 Jun 1943; El 
Bathan, Tunisia, 28 Jul 1943; Sardinia, c. 
I Nov 1943; Corsica, c. 18 Sep 1944; 
Dijon/Longvic, France, 11 Nov 1944; 
Dole/Tavaux, France, i Apr 1945; Hcr- 
zogenaurach, Germany, 18 Jun 1945; 
Clastres, France, c. Oct-Nov 1945; Camp 
Myles Standish, Mass, 3-4 Dec 1945. 
Mitchel Field, NY, 9 Jul 1947-27 Jun 1949. 

Commanders. Maj John F Batjer, i Jul 
1942; Col John A Hilger, c. 5 Aug 1942; 
Col Flint Garrison Jr, 25 Oct 1942; Lt Col 
John Fordyce, 15 Feb 1943; Col Karl E 
Baumeister, 25 May 1943; Lt Col Stanford 
Gregory, 25 Sep 1943; Col Eugene B 
Fletcher, 25 Oct 1943; Col Ashley E Wool- 
ridge, 2 Nov 1944; Lt Col Blaine B 
Campbell, 28 May 1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME 
Theater; Tunisia; Sicily; Naples-Foggia; 
Anzio; Rome-Arno; Southern France; 
North Apennines; Rhineland; Central 
Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Italy, 12 May 1944; ETO, 15 Mar 
1945. French Croix de Guerre with Palm: 
Apr, May, and Jun 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, an alligator 
volant in bend or, winged and armed 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UmTS— GROUPS 



201 



gules, speed lines sinisterward of the sec- 
ond. Mono: FOREVER BATTLING. 
(Approved 3 Mar 1943. This insigne was 
replaced 22 Jan 1953.) 

321st BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 321st Bombardment 
Group (Medium) on 19 Jun 1942 and 
activated on 26 Jun. Prepared for over- 
seas duty with B-25's. Moved to the 
Mediterranean theater, Jan-Mar 1943, and 
assigned to Twelfth AF, Engaged pri- 
marily in support and interdictory opera- 
tions, bombing marshalling yards, rail 
lines, highways, bridges, viaducts, troop 
concentrations, gun emplacements, ship- 
ping, harbors, and other objectives in 
North Africa, France, Sicily, Italy, Bul- 
garia, Yugoslavia, and Greece. Sometimes 
dropped propaganda leaflets behind 
enemy lines. Took part in the Allied 
operations against Axis forces in North 
Africa during Mar-May 1943, the reduc- 
tion of Pantelleria and Lampedusa in Jun, 
the invasion of Sicily in Jul, the landing at 
Salerno in Sep, the Allied advance toward 



Rome during Jan-Jun 1944, the invasion 
of Southern France in Aug 1944, and the 
Allied operations in northern Italy from 
Sep 1944 to Apr 1945. Received two 
DUC's: for completing a raid on an air- 
drome near Athens, 8 Oct 1943, in spite 
of intense flak and attacks by numerous 
enemy interceptors; and for bombing a 
battleship, a cruiser, and a submarine in 
Toulon harbor on 18 Aug 1944 to assist 
the Allied invasion of Southern France. 
Inactivated in Italy on 12 Sep 1945. 

Redesignated 321st Bombardment 
Group (Light). Allotted to the reserve. 
Activated in the US on 29 Jun 1947. Inac- 
tivated on 27 Jun 1949. 

Squadrons. 44^th: 1942-1945; 1947- 
1949. 446th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 
44'jth: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 448th: 
1942-1945; 1947-1949- 

Stations. Barksdale Field, La, 26 Jun 
1942; Columbia AAB, SC, c. i Aug 1942; 
Walterboro, SC, Sep 1942; DeRidder 
AAB, La, c. i Dec 1942-21 Jan 1943; Ain 
M'lila, Algeria, 12 Mar 1943; Souk-el- 
Arba, Tunisia, c. i Jun 1943; Soliman, 
Tunisia, 8 Aug 1943; Grottaglie, Italy, 3 
Oct 1943; Amendola, Italy, c. 20 Nov 1943; 
Vincenzo Airfield, Italy, 14 Jan 1944; 
Gaudo Airfield, Italy, Feb 1944; Corsica, 
23 Apr 1944; Falconara, Italy, c. i Apr 
1945; Pomigliano, Italy, c. Sep-12 Sep 
1945. Mansfield, Ohio, 29 Jun 1947-27 Jun 
1949. 

Commanders. Unkn, Jun-Aug 1942; 
Col William C Mills, 3 Aug 1942; Col 
Robert D Knapp, Sep 1942; Lt Col Charles 



202 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



T Olmsted, 5 Dec 1943; Lt Col Peter H 
Remington, 18 Mar 1944; Col Richard H 
Smith, 26 Mar 1944; Lt Col Charles F 
Cassidy Jr, 28 Jan 1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME 
Theater; Tunisia; Sicily; Naples-Foggia; 
Rome-Arno; Southern France; North 
Apennines; Central Europe; Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Athens, Greece, 8 Oct 1943; France, 
18 Aug 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, six drop bombs, 
three, two, and one or. Motto: PERSE- 
VERANCE, VISION, AND DUTY. 
(Approved 7 Nov 1942. This insigne was 
replaced 30 Aug 1954.) 

322d BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 322d Bombardment 
Group (Medium) on 19 Jun 1942. Acti- 
vated on 17 Jul 1942. Trained with B-26 
aircraft. Part of the group moved over- 
seas, Nov-Dec 1942; planes and crews fol- 
lowed, Mar-Apr 1943. Operated with 
Eighth AF until assignment to Ninth in 
Oct 1943. Served in combat. May 1943- 
Apr 1945, operating from England, 



France, and Belgium. Began combat on 
14 May when it dispatched 12 planes for 
a minimum-level attack on a power plant 
in Holland. Sent 11 planes on a similar 
mission three days later: one returned 
early; the others, with 60 crewmen, were 
lost to flak and interceptors. Trained for 
medium-altitude operations for several 
weeks and resumed combat on 17 Jul 1943. 
Received a DUC for the period 14 May 
1943-24 Jul 1944, during which its combat 
performance helped to prove the effective- 
ness of the medium bombers. Enemy air- 
fields in France, Belgium, and Holland 
provided the principal targets from Jul 
1943 through Feb 1944, but the group also 
attacked power stations, shipyards, con- 
struction works, marshalling yards, and 
other targets. Beginning in Mar the 322d 
bombed railroad and highway bridges, oil 
tanks, and missile sites in preparation for 
the invasion of Normandy; on 6 Jun 1944 
it hit coastal defenses and gun batteries; 
afterward, during the Normandy cam- 
paign, it pounded fuel and ammunition 
dumps, bridges, and road junctions. Sup- 
ported the Allied offensive at Caen and 
the breakthrough at St Lo in Jul. Aided 
the drive of Third Army across France in 
Aug and Sep. Bombed bridges, road junc- 
tions, defended villages, and ordnance 
depots in the assault on the Siegfried Line, 
Oct-Dec 1944. Flew a number of missions 
against railroad bridges during the Battle 
of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Then 
concentrated on communications, mar- 
shalling yards, bridges, and fuel dumps 
until its last mission on 24 Apr 1945. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



203 



Moved to Germany in Jun 1945. Engaged 
in inventorying and disassembling Ger- 
man Air Force equipment and facilities. 
Returned to the US, Nov-Dec 1945. In- 
activated on 15 Dec 1945. 

Redesignated 322d Bombardment 
Group (Light). Allotted to the reserve. 
Activated on 9 Aug 1947. Inactivated on 
27 Jun 1949. 

Redesignated 322d Fighter-Day Group. 
Activated on i Jul 1954. Assigned to Tac- 
tical Air Command. Equipped first with 
F-86 and later with F-ioo aircraft. 

Squadrons. ^S^h: 1947-1949. 44gth: 
1942-1945; 1947-1949. 4Soth: 1942-1945; 
1947-1949; 1954-. 4Sist: 1942-1945; 1947- 
1949; 1954-. 4S2d: 1942-1945; 1947-1949; 
1954-. 

Stations. MacDill Field, Fla, 17 Jul 
1942; Drane Field, Fla, 22 Sep-Nov 1942; 
Rougham, England, c. i Dec 1942; Great 
Saling, England, Jan 1943; Beauvais/Tille, 
France, Sep 1944; Le Culot, Belgium, Mar 
1945; Fritzlar, Germany, Jun-Sep 1945; 
Camp Kilmer, NJ, c. 14-15 Dec 1945. 
Reading AAFld, Pa, 9 Aug 1947-27 Jun 
1949. Foster AFB, Tex, i Jul 1954-. 

CoMMANDERS. Lt Col Jacob J Brogger, 
c. 8 Aug 1942; Col Robert R Selway Jr, 
c. 21 Oct 1942; Lt Col John F Batjer, c. 
22 Feb 1943; Lt Col Robert M Stillman, c. 
17 Mar 1943; Col Glenn C Nye, c. 19 May 
1943; Col John S Samuel, Jul 1944; Maj 
John L Egan, c. 12 Jul 1945-unkn. Col 
Carlos M Talbott, i Jul 1954-. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes- Alsace; Central Europe. 



Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: ETO, 14 May 1943-24 Jul 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Tierce per fess azure 
and or, five piles, three conjoined between 
two transposed counterchanged. Motto: 
RECTO FACIENDO NEMINEM 
TIMEO— I Fear None in Doing Right. 
(Approved 9 Jan 1943.) 

323d BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 323d Bombardment 
Group (Medium) on 19 Jun 1942. Acti- 
vated on 4 Aug 1942. Trained with B-26's. 
Moved to England, Apr-Jun 1943. As- 
signed first to Eighth AF and, in Oct 
1943, to Ninth AF. Began operations in 
Jul 1943, attacking marshalling yards, air- 
dromes, industrial plants, military instal- 
lations, and other targets in France, 
Belgium^ and Holland. Then carried out 
numerous attacks on V-weapon sites along 
the coast of France. Attacked airfields at 
Leeuwarden and Venlo in conjunction 
with the Allied campaign against the Ger- 
man Air Force and aircraft industry dur- 



204 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



ing Big Week, 20-25 F^b 1944. Helped 
to prepare for the invasion of Normandy 
by bombing coastal defenses, marshalling 
yards, and airfields in France; struck roads 
and coastal batteries on 6 Jun 1944. Par- 
ticipated in the aerial barrage that assisted 
the breakthrough at St Lo in Jul. Flew 
its first night mission after moving to the 
Continent in Aug, striking enemy batteries 
in the region of St Malo. Carried out other 
night missions during the month to hit 
fuel and ammunition dumps. Eliminated 
strong points at Brest early in Sep and 
then shifted operations to eastern France 
to support advances against the Siegfried 
Line. Received a DUC for actions (24-27 
Dec 1944) during the Battle of the Bulge 
when the group effectively hit transporta- 
tion installations used by the enemy to 
bring reinforcements to the Ardennes. 
Flew interdictory missions into the Ruhr 
and supported the drive into Germany by 
attacking enemy communications. Ended 
combat in Apr 1945 and moved to Ger- 
many in May to participate in the dis- 
armament program. Returned to the US 
in Dec. Inactivated on 12 Dec 1945. 

Redesignated 323d Bombardment Group 
(Light). Allotted to the reserve. Acti- 
vated on 9 Sep 1947. Ordered to active 
duty on 10 Mar 1951. Inactivated on 17 
Mar 1951. 

Redesignated 323d Fighter-Bomber 
Group. Activated on 8 Aug 1955. As- 
signed to Tactical Air Command. 

Squadrons. 4S3d'- 1942-1945; 1949- 
1951; I955-- 454th: 1942-1945; 1949-1951; 



I955-- 455th: 1942-1945; 1949-1951; 
1955-. 4s6th: 1942-1945; 1947-1951- 

Stations. Columbia AAB, SC, 4 Aug 
1942; MacDill Field, Fla, 21 Aug 1942; 
Myrtle Beach Bombing Range, SC, 2 Nov 
1942-25 Apr 1943; Horham, England, 12 
May 1943; Earls Colne, England, 14 Jun 
1943; Beaulieu, England, 21 Jul 1944; 
Lessay, France, 26 Aug 1944; Chartres, 
France, 21 Sep 1944; Laon/Athies, France, 
13 Oct 1944; Denain/Prouvy, France, 9 
Feb 1945; Gablingen, Germany, 15 May 
1945; Landsberg, Germany, 16 Jul 1945; 
Clastres, France, Oct-Dec 1945; Camp 
Myles Standish, Mass, 11-12 Dec 1945. 
Tinker Field, Okla, 9 Sep 1947-17 Mar 
1951. Bunker Hill AFB, Ind, 8 Aug 

I955-- 

Commanders. Col Herbert B Thatcher, 
Sep 1942; Col Wilson R Wood, c. 13 Nov 
1943; Col RoUin M Winingham, 14 Feb 
1945; Lt Col George O Commenator, 
Aug 1945-unkn. Col John C Haygood, 

I955-- 
Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 

Normandy; Northern France; Rhine- 
land; Ardennes- Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Belgium and Germany, 24-27 Dec 
1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Per bend gules and 
azure, a bend between a mailed dexter 
gauntlet grasping a dagger and the winged 
hat of Mercury argent. Motto: VINCA- 
MUS SINE TIMORIS— Without Fear 
We Conquer. (Approved 16 Feb 1943. 
This insigne was replaced 21 Jun 1957.) 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 

324th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 324th Fighter Group on 
24 Jun 1942. Activated on 6 Jul 1942. 
Moved to the Middle East, Oct-Dec 1942, 
for operations with Ninth AF. Trained 
for several weeks with P-40 aircraft. 
While headquarters remained in Egypt, 
squadrons of the group began operating 
with other organizations against the 
enemy in Tunisia. Reunited in Jun 1943, 
the 324th group engaged primarily in es- 
cort and patrol missions between Tunisia 
and Sicily until Jul 1943. Received a DUG 
for action against the enemy from Mar 
1943 to the invasion of Sicily. Trained 
during Jul-Oct 1943 for operations with 
Twelfth AF. Resumed combat on 30 Oct 
1943 and directed most of its attacks 
against roads, bridges, motor transports, 
supply areas, rolling stock, gun positions, 
troop concentrations, and rail facilities in 
Italy until Aug 1944. Patrolled the beach 



205 

and protected convoys during the assault 
on Anzio in Jan 1944. Aided the Allied 
offensive in Italy during May 1944, receiv- 
ing another DUG for action from 12 to 14 
May when the group bombed an enemy 
position on Monastery Hill (Gassino), at- 
tacked troops massing on the hill for a 
counterattack, and hit a nearby stronghold 
to force the surrender of an enemy garri- 
son. Continued to give close support to 
ground force's until the fall of Rome in Jun 
1944. Converted to P-47's in Jul and sup- 
ported the assault on southern France in 
Aug by dive-bombing gun positions, 
bridges, and radar facilities, and by patrol- 
ling the combat zone. Attacked such 
targets as motor transports, rolling stock, 
rail lines, troops, bridges, gun emplace- 
ments, and supply depots after the inva- 
sion, giving tactical support to AlUed 
forces advancing through France. Aided 
the reduction of the Golmar bridgehead, 
Jan-Feb 1945, and supported Seventh 
Army's drive through the Siegfried de- 
fenses in Mar. Received the French Croix 
de Guerre with Palm for supporting 
French forces during the campaigns for 
Italy and France, 1944-1945. Moved to 
the US, Oct-Nov 1945. Inactivated on 7 
Nov 1945. 

Redesignated 103d Fighter Group. Al- 
lotted to ANG (Conn) on 24 May 1946. 
Extended federal recognition on 7 Aug 
1946. Ordered to active duty on i Mar 
195 1. Assigned to Air Defense Com- 
mand. Redesignated 103d Fighter-Inter- 
ceptor Group in Mar 195 1. Used F-47 



206 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



aircraft. Inactivated on 6 Feb 1952. Re- 
turned to the control of ANG (Conn) on 
I Dec 1952. 

Squadrons. 118th: 1951-1952. ^i^th: 
1942- 1945. 5/5M; 1942-1945. ^i6th: 
1942-1945. 

Stations. Mitchel Field, NY, 6 Jul 
1942; Baltimore Mun Aprt, Md, 6 Jul-28 
Oct 1942; El Amiriya, Egypt, Dec 1942; 
El Kabrit, Egypt, 2 Feb 1943; Kairouan, 
Tunisia, 2 Jun 1943; El Haouaria, Tunisia, 
c. 18 Jun 1943; Menzel Heurr, Tunisia, 3 
Oct 1943; Cercola, Italy, 25 Oct 1943; 
Pignataro Maggiore, Italy, 6 May 1944; 
Le Banca Airfield, Italy, 6 Jun 1944; 
Montalto Di Castro, Italy, 14 Jun 1944; 
Corsica, 19 Jul 1944; Le Luc, France, 25 
Aug 1944; Istres, France, 2 Sep 1944; 
Amberieu, France, 6 Sep 1944; Tavaux, 
France, 20 Sep 1944; Luneville, France, 
4 Jan 1945; Stuttgart, Germany, 8 May- 
20 Oct 1945; Camp Shanks, NY, 6-7 Nov 
1945. Bradley Field, Conn, i Mar 195 1; 
Suffolk County Aprt, NY, i Jun 1951-6 
Feb 1952. 

Commanders. Col William K Mc- 
Nown, c. Jul 1942; Col Leonard C Lydon, 
25 Dec 1943; Lt Col Franklin W Horton, 
23 May-Nov 1945. Col Glenn T Eagles- 
ton, 1951-C. Feb 1952. 

Campaigns. Tunisia; Sicily; Naples- 
Foggia; Anzio; Rome-Arno; Northern 
France; Southern France; Rhineland; 
Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: North Africa and Sicily, Mar- [Jul] 
1943; Cassino, 12-14 May 1944. French 
Croix de Guerre with Palm. 



Insigne. Shield: Or, a representation of 
a Connecticut colonial secretary running 
with the Colony's Charter in his left hand 
proper (hat, coat, and breeches — blue; 
hair, vest, tie, shoes, and stockings — ^black; 
face, hands, shirt collar, shoe buckles, and 
charter — white) ; all within a diminished 
bordure tri-parted black, white, and black, 
the white part separated to chief to form in 
code the letters FEA. (Approved i May 

I953-) 

325th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 325th Fighter Group on 
24 Jun 1942. Activated on 3 Aug 1942. 
Trained with P-40's. Moved to North 
Africa during Jan-Feb 1943. Assigned to 
Twelfth AF. Entered combat on 17 Apr, 
Escorted medium bombers, flew strafing 
missions, and made sea sweeps from bases 
in Algeria and Tunisia. Participated in 
the defeat of Axis forces in Tunisia, the 
reduction of Pantelleria, and the conquest 
of Sicily. Received a DUC for action over 
Sardinia on 30 Jul 1943 when the group. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



207 



using diversionary tactics, forced a su- 
perior number of enemy planes into the 
air and destroyed more than half of them. 
Flew no combat missions from the end of 
Sep to mid-Dec 1943, a period in which 
the group changed aircraft and moved to 
Italy. Began operations with Fifteenth 
AF on 14 Dec, and afterward engaged 
primarily in escort operations, using P-47's 
until they were replaced by P-51's in May 
1944. Escorted heavy bombers during 
long-range missions to attack the Messer- 
schmitt factory at Regensburg, the Daim- 
ler-Benz tank factory at Berlin, oil re- 
fineries at Vienna, and other targets, such 
as airfields, marshalling yards, and com- 
munications in Italy, France, Germany, 
Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Ru- 
mania, and Yugoslavia. Also covered op- 
erations of reconnaissance aircraft and 
strafed such targets as trains, vehicles, and 
airfields. Received second DUG for a 
mission on 30 Jan 1944 when the group 
flew more than 300 miles at very low 
altitude to surprise the enemy fighters that 
were defending German airdromes near 
Villaorba; by severely damaging the 
enemy's force, the 325th group enabled 
heavy bombers to strike vital targets in the 
area without encountering serious opposi- 
tion. Continued combat operations until 
May 1945. Returned to the US in Oct. 
Inactivated on 28 Oct 1945. 

Activated on 21 May 1947. Organized 
as an all-weather fighter group. Redesig- 
nated 325th Fighter Group (All Weather) 
in May 1498, and 325th Fighter-Interceptor 
Group in May 1951. Equipped with P- 



6i's in 1947, F-82's in 1948, and F-94's 
in 1950. Inactivated on 6 Feb 1952. 

Redesignated 325th Fighter Group (Air 
Defense). Activated on 18 Aug 1955. 
Assigned to Air Defense Command and 
equipped with F-86 aircraft. 

Squadrons. ^lyth: 1942-1945; 1947- 
1952; 1955-. 318th: 1942-1945; 1947- 
1952; 1955-. sigth: 1942-1945; 1947-1952. 

Stations. Mitchel Field, NY, 3 Aug 
1942; Hillsgrove, RI, c. 31 Aug 1942-23 
Jan 1943; Tafaraoui, Algeria, 28 Feb 1943; 
Montesquieu, Algeria, 5 Apr 1943; Souk- 
el-Khemis, Tunisia, 3 Jun 1943; Mateur, 
Tunisia, 19 Jun 1943; Soliman, Tunisia, 
4 Nov 1943; Foggia, Italy, 11 Dec 1943; 
Lesina, Italy, 29 Mar 1944; Rimini, Italy, 
c. 5 Mar 1945; Mondolfo, Italy, Apr 1945; 
Vincenzo Airfield, Italy, Jul-9 Oct 1945; 
Camp Kilmer, NJ, 26-28 Oct 1945. Mit- 
chel Field, NY, 21 May 1947; Hamilton 
Field, Calif, 2 Dec 1947; Moses Lake AFB, 
Wash, 26 Nov 1948; McChord AFB, 
Wash, 23 Apr 1950-6 Feb 1952. McChord 
AFB, Wash, 18 Aug 1955-, 

Commanders. Maj Leonard C Lydon, 
3 Aug 1942; Lt Col Gordon H Austin, 10 
Dec 1942; Lt Col Robert L Baseler, 5 Jul 
1943; Col Chester L Sluder, i Apr 1944; 
Lt Col Ernest H Beverly, 11 Sep 1944; Col 
Felix L Vidal, 2 Mar 1945; Lt Col Wyatt 
P Exum, 6 Jun 1945; Lt Col Wilhelm C 
Freudenthal, c. 30 Aug 1945-unkn. Unkn, 
May-Dec 1947; Lt Col Gordon D Tim- 
mons, 2 Dec 1947; Col Harold E Kofahl, 
c. Jan 1948; Lt Col Walter C Hearne, 
1948; Lt Col Kermit A Tyler, 6 Mar 1950; 



208 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Col George W Prentice, 27 Mar 1950- 
unkn; Col Raymond K Gallagher, 195 1- 
c. Feb 1952. Unkn, 1955- 

Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME Thea- 
ter; Air Offensive, Europe; Tunisia; Sic- 
ily; Naples-Foggia; Anzio; Rome-Arno; 
Normandy; Northern France; Southern 
France; North Apennines; Rhineland; 
Central Europe; Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Sardinia, 30 Jul 1943; Italy, 30 Jan 
1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Per fess, sable and 
azure, a fess arched, argent, upper line 
nebuly, over all a lightning flash or, issu- 
ing from dexter chief. Motto: LOCARE 
ET LIQUIDARE— Locate and Liquidate. 
(Approved i Oct 1951.) 

326th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 326th Fighter Group on 
24 Jun 1942. Activated on 19 Aug 1942. 
Assigned to First AF. Became part of the 
air defense force and also served as an 
operational training unit. Later became 
a replacement training unit, preparing 



pilots for combat duty in P-47's. Dis- 
banded on 10 Apr 1944. 

Reconstituted and redesignated 326th 
Fighter Group (Air Defense), on 20 Jun 
1955. Activated on 18 Aug 1955. As- 
signed to Air Defense Command. 
Equipped with F-86's. 

Squadrons. 320th: 1942-1943. 321st: 
1942-1944; 1955-. 522^: 1942-1944. 442d: 
1943. 538th: 1943-1944- 539^^: 1943- 
1944. 

Stations. Mitchel Field, NY, 19 Aug 
1942; Bradley Field, Conn, i Sep 1942; 
Westover Field, Mass, i Nov 1942; Sey- 
mour Johnson Field, NC, 13 Oct 1943-10 
Apr 1944. Paine AFB, Wash, 18 Aug 

I955-- 

Commanders. Lt Col Gilbert L Meyers, 
c. 24 Aug 1942; Lt Col William S Steele, 
c. 14 Jun 1943-10 Apr 1944. Col Ira F 
Wintermute, 1955-. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a cockatrice 
volant or crested and beaked gules. 
Motto: FORTITER ET SINCERE— 
Boldly and Sincerely. (Approved 31 Dec 
1942.) 

327th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 327th Fighter Group on 
24 Jun 1942. Activated on 25 Aug 1942. 
Assigned to First AF. Became part of the 
air defense force and also served as an 
operational training unit, using P-40's 
until Feb 1943 when they were replaced 



JR FORCE COMBAT VNirS— GROUPS 



209 




328th FIGHTER GROUP 



by P-47's. In 1944 began training replace- 
ment pilots for combat duty. Disbanded 
on 10 Apr 1944. 

Reconstituted and redesignated 327th 
Fighter Group (Air Defense), on 20 Jun 
1955. Activated on 18 Aug 1955. As- 
signed to Air Defense Command and 
equipped with F-86's. 

Squadrons. 323d: 1942-1944; 1955-. 
32^h: 1942-1944. 32^th: 1942-1944; 

1955- 443d-- 1943-1944- 
Stations. Mitchel Field, NY, 25 Aug 

1942; Philadelphia Mun Aprt, Pa, 27 Aug 
1942; Richmond AAB, Va, c. 22 Sept 
1942-10 Apr 1944. Truax Field, Wis, 18 
Aug 1955-. 

Commanders. Col Nelson P Jackson, 
unkn; Lt Col Frederick J Nelander, unkn. 
Col Oris B Johnson, 1955-. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Or, the head of the 
mythical Gorgon Medusa afifronte azure, 
armed gules. Motto: NE DEFICIT 
ANIMUS— Courage Does Not Fail Me. 
(Approved 27 Feb 1943. This insigne was 
replaced 16 May 1958.) 




Constituted as 328th Fighter Group on 
24 Jun 1942. Activated on 10 Jul 1942. 
Assigned to Fourth AF. Served as part 
of the air defense force and also trained 
replacement pilots in P-39 aircraft. Dis- 
banded on 31 Mar 1944. 

Reconstituted and redesignated 328th 
Fighter Group (Air Defense), on 20 Jun 
1955. Activated on 18 Aug 1955. As- 
signed to Air Defense Command. 
Equipped with F-86's. 

Squadrons. 326th: 1942- 1944; 1955-. 
32yth: 1942-1944. 32gth: 1942-1944. 
444th: 1943-1944. 

Stations, Hamilton Field, Calif, 10 
Jul 1942-31 Mar 1944. Grandview AFB, 
Mo, 18 Aug 1955-. 

Commanders. Maj Frederick D 
Granbo, 10 Jul 1942; Lt Col Harry N Ren- 
shaw, ir Jan 1943; Lt Col Milton B 
Adams, 7 Jul 1943; Lt Col Kyle L Riddle, 
13 Nov 1943; Col J C Crosthwaite, 4 Jan 
1944; Col John W Weltman, 31 Jan-31 
Mar 1944. Col Richard F Weltzin, 1955-. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 



210 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a natural pan- 
ther rampant affronte or, incensed proper. 
Motto: FAST AND FURIOUS. (Ap- 
proved 23 Feb 1943. This insigne was re- 
placed 24 Nov 1958.) 

329th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 329th Fighter Group on 
24 Jun 1942. Activated on 10 Jul 1942. As- 
signed to Fourth AF. Used P-38's to train 
replacement pilots. Also provided cadres 
for fighter groups. Disbanded on 31 Mar 
1944. 

Reconstituted and redesignated 329th 
Fighter Group (Air Defense), on 20 Jun 
1955, Activated on 18 Aug 1955. As- 
signed to Air Defense Command and 
equipped with It-86's. 

Squadrons, ^^^th: 1942-1944; 1955-. 
331st: 1942-1944; 1955-. 332d: 1942-1944. 
337th: 1942-1944. 

Stations. Hamilton Field, Calif, 10 Jul 
1942; Paine Field, Wash, 14 Jul 1942; Glen- 



dale, Calif, II Sep 1942; Ontario AAFld, 
Calif, 27 Feb-31 Mar 1944. Stewart AFB, 
NY, 18 Aug 1955-. 

Commanders. Maj Ernest W Keating, 
12 Jul 1942; Maj Harold E Kofahl, 8 Nov 
1942; Maj Leo F Dusard, 18 Dec 1942; Lt 
Col Paul W Blanchard, c. 14 Feb 1943; Lt 
Col Leo F Dusard, 11 May 1943; Lt Col 
John P Randolph, 26 Oct 1943-31 Mar 
1944. Col Emil L Sluga, 1955-. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: On a background of 
the sky proper, a sinister arm embowed, 
fessways, issuing from sinister, habited 
azure, with leather falconer's glove proper, 
a falcon or, perched for flight on the gloved 
hand. (Approved 25 Jul 1957.) 

330th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 330th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on i Jul 1942 and acti- 
vated on 6 Jul. Assigned to Second AF. 
Functioned as an operational training and 
later as a replacement training unit, using 
B-24 aircraft. Inactivated on i Apr 1944. 

Redesignated 330th Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy). Activated on i 
Apr 1944. Prepared for combat with B- 
29's. Moved to Guam, Jan-Apr 1945, and 
assigned to Twentieth AF. Entered com- 
bat on 12 Apr 1945 with an attack on the 
Hodogaya chemical plant at Koriyama, 
Japan. From Apr to May 1945, struck 
airfields from which the Japanese were 
launching suicide planes against the in- 
vasion force at Okinawa. After that. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



211 



operations were principally concerned 
with incendiary attacks against urban-in- 
dustrial areas of Japan. Received a DUG 
for incendiary raids on the industrial sec- 
tions of Tokushima and Gifu and for a 
strike against the hydro-electric power cen- 
ter at Kofu, Japan, in Jul 1945. Received 
another DUG for attacking the Nakajima- 
Musashino aircraft engine plant near 
Tokyo in Aug 1945. Dropped food and 
supplies to Allied prisoners and partici- 
pated in several show-of-force missions 
over Japan after the war. Returned to the 
US, Nov-Dec 1945. Inactivated on 3 Jan 
1946. 

Redesignated 330th Bombardment 
Group (Medium). Allotted to the re- 
serve. Activated on 27 Jun 1949. Ordered 
to active duty on i May 1951. Inactivated 
on 16 Jun 1951. 

Redesignated 330th Troop Garrier 
Group (Medium) and allotted to the re- 
serve. Activated on 14 Jun 1952. Inac- 
tivated on 14 Jul 1952. 

Squadrons. 457ih: 1942-1944; 1944- 
1945; 1949-1951; 1952. 4s8th: 1942-1944; 
1944-1945; 1952. 439th: 1942-1944; 1944- 
1945; 1952. 460th: 1942-1944; 1944. 

Stations. Salt Lake Gity AAB, Utah, 
6 Jul 1942; Alamogordo, NM, i Aug 1942; 
Biggs Field, Tex, 5 Apr 1943-1 Apr 1944. 
Walker AAFld, Kan, i Apr 1944-7 Jan 
1945; North Field, Guam, 18 Feb-15 Nov 
1945; Gamp Stoneman, Calif, unkn-3 Jan 
1946. March AFB, Galif, 27 Jun 1949-16 
Jun 195 1. Greater Pittsburgh Aprt, Pa, 14 
Jun-14 Jul 1952. 



Commanders. Maj Leroy A Rainey, i 
Aug 1942; Lt Col John R Sutherland, 15 
Sep 1942; Lt Col John A Way, i Dec 1942; 
Lt Col Samuel C Mitchell, 6 Mar 1943; 
Lt Col Frank P Bostrom, 15 May 1943; Lt 
Col Troy W Crawford, 27 Jul 1943; Col 
Frank P Bostrum, 11 Nov 1943; Lt Col 
Troy W Crawford, 27 Nov 1943-1 Apr 
1944. ist Lt James J Shaflner, 29 Apr 
1944; Maj John G Reiber, 3 May 1944; Lt 
Col Estley R Farley, 26 May 1944; Col 
Elbert D Reynolds, 23 Jun 1944; Col 
Douglas C Polhamus, 12 Aug 1944-unkn. 
Unkn, I May-i6 Jun 1951. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Air Of- 
fensive, Japan; Western Pacific. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Japan, 3-9 Jul 1945; Tokyo, Japan, 
8 Aug 1945. 

Insigne. None. 

331st BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 331st Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on i Jul 1942 and activated 
on 6 Jul. Assigned to Second AF. 
Equipped with B-17's and B-24's for duty 



212 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



as a replacement training unit. Inacti- 
vated on I Apr 1944. 

Redesignated 331st Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy). Activated on 12 
Jul 1944. Assigned to Second AF. 
Trained for combat with B-29's. Moved 
to Guam, Apr-Jun 1945, and assigned to 
Twentieth AF. Bombed Japanese-held 
Truk late in Jun 1945. Flew first mission 
against the Japanese home islands on 9 Jul 
1945 and afterward operated principally 
against the enemy's petroleum industry on 
Honshu. Despite the hazards of bad 
weather, fighter attacks, and heavy flak, 
the 331st bombed the coal liquefaction 
plant at Ube, the Mitsubishi-Hayama pe- 
troleum complex at Kawasaki, and the oil 
refinery and storage facilities at Shimotsu, 
in Jul 1945, and received a DUG for the 
missions. After the war the group 
dropped food and supplies to Allied 
prisoners of war in Japan. Inactivated on 
Guam on 15 Apr 1946. 

Squadrons. SSSth: 1944-1946. 2^6th: 
1944-1946. 3S7th: 1944-1946. 461st: 
1942-1944. 462d: 1942-1944. ^65^; 
1942-1944. ^4th: 1942-1944. 

Stations. Salt Lake City AAB, Utah, 
6 Jul 1942; Casper AAFld, Wyo, 15 Sep 
1942-1 Apr 1944. Dalhart AAFld, Tex, 
12 Jul 1944; McCook AAFld, Neb, 14 Nov 
1944-6 Apr 1945; Northwest Field, Guam, 
12 May 1945-15 Apr 1946. 

Commanders. Unkn, Jul-Sep 1942; 2d 
Lt William B Moeser, 17 Sep 1942; Lt Col 
Frank P Hunter Jr, 29 Sep 1942; Lt Col 
William Lewis Jr, 5 Mar 1943; Lt Col Mar- 
cus A Mullen, i Feb-i Apr 1944. Maj 



Willard W Wilson, 26 Jul 1944; Lt Col 
Hadley V Saehlenou, 30 Jul 1944; Col 
Hoyt L Prindle, 19 Aug 1944; Col James 
N Peyton, 24 Jan 1945; Lt Col Roland J 
Barnick, Oct 1945-15 Apr 1946. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Air 
Oflfensive, Japan; Eastern Mandates; 
Western Pacific. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Japan, 22-29 J"l i945- 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, three sea gulls 
volant or, on a chief of the last a thunder- 
bolt gules, irradiated of the field. Motto: 
IMPARIDO PECTORE— With Un- 
daunted Heart. (Approved 22 Dec 1942.) 

332d FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 332d Fighter Group on 4 
Jul 1942. Activated on 13 Oct 1942. 
Trained with P-39 and P-40 aircraft. 
Moved to Italy, arriving early in Feb 1944. 
Began operations with Twelfth AF on 5 
Feb. Used P-39's to escort convoys, pro- 
tect harbors, and fly armed reconnaissance 
missions. Converted to P-47's during 
Apr-May and changed to P-51's in Jun. 
Operated with Fifteenth AF from May 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— Gi?0f/P5 



213 



1944 to Apr 1945, being engaged primarily 
in protecting bombers that struck such ob- 
jectives as oil refineries, factories, airfields, 
and marshalling yards in Italy, France, 
Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Aus- 
tria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Rumania, 
Bulgaria, and Greece. Also made strafing 
attacks on airdromes, railroads, highways, 
bridges, river traffic, troop concentrations, 
radar facilities, power stations, and other 
targets. Received a DUG for a mission on 
24 Mar 1945 when the group escorted 
B-17's during a raid on a tank factory at 
Berlin, fought the interceptors that at- 
tacked the formation, and strafed trans- 
portation facilities while flying back to the 
base in Italy. Returned to the US in Oct 
1945. Inactivated on 19 Oct 1945. 

Activated on i Jul 1947. Equipped with 
P-47's. Inactivated on i Jul 1949. 

Squadrons, ggth: 1944-1945; 1947- 
1949. looth: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. ^01 St: 
1942-1945; 1947-1949. 302d: 1942-1945. 

Stations. Tuskegee, Ala, 13 Oct 1942; 
Selfridge Field, Mich, 29 Mar 1943; 
Oscoda, Mich, 12 Apr 1943; Selfridge 
Field, Mich, 9 Jul-22 Dec 1943; Monte- 
corvino, Italy, 3 Feb 1944; Capodichino, 
Italy, 15 Apr 1944; Ramitelli Airfield, 
Italy, 28 May 1944; Cattolica, Italy, c. 4 
May 1945; Lucera, Italy, c. 18 Jul-Sep 
1945; Camp Kilmer, NJ, 17-19 Oct 1945. 
Lockbourne AAB, Ohio, i Jul 1947^1 Jul 
1949. 

Commanders. Lt Col Sam W West- 
brook Jr, 19 Oct 1942; Col Robert R Sel- 
way Jr, 16 May 1943; Col Benjamin O 
Davis Jr, 8 Oct 1943; Maj George S Rob- 



erts, 3 Nov 1944; Col Benjamin O Davis 
Jr, 24 Dec 1944; Maj George S Roberts, 
9 Jun 1945-unkn. Unkn, i Jul-28 Aug 
1947; Maj William A Campbell, 28 Aug 
1947-1 Jul 1949. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Air 
Combat, EAME Theater; Rome-Arno; 
Normandy; Northern France; Southern 
France; North Apennines; Rhineland; 
Central Europe; Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Germany, 24 Mar 1945. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure on a fess nebule 
or, a panther passant sable armed and 
incensed gules. Motto: SPIT FIRE. (Ap- 
proved 15 Jan 1943.) 

333d BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 333d Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 9 Jul 1942 and activated 
on 15 Jul. Assigned to Second AF and 
equipped with B-17's. Served first as an 
operational training and later as a re- 
placement training unit. Inactivated on i 
Apr 1944. 

Redesignated 333d Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy) . Activated on 7 Jul 
1944. Assigned to Second AF. Trained 
for combat with B-29 aircraft. Moved to 
the Pacific theater, Jun-Aug 1945, and as- 
signed to Eighth AF. AAF operations 
against Japan terminated before the group 
could enter combat. For a time after the 
war the group ferried Allied prisoners of 
war from Japan to the Philippine Islands. 
Inactivated on Okinawa on 28 May 1946. 



214 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Squadrons. 435th: 1944-1946. 460th: 
1944-1946. 466th: 1942-1944. 46yth: 
1942-1944. 468th: 1942-1944. 46gth: 
1942-1944. ^oyth: 1944-1946. 

Stations. Topeka, Kan, 15 Jul 1942; 
Dalhart AAFld, Tex, 22 Feb 1943-1 Apr 
1944. Dalhart AAFld, Tex, 7 Jul 1944; 
Great Bend AAFld, Kan, 13 Jan-i8 Jun 
1945; Kadena, Okinawa, 5 Aug 1945-28 
May 1946. 

Commanders. Unkn, Jul-Aug 1942; 
Col Leo W De Rosier, c. 25 Aug 1942; Lt 
Col Ted Faulkner, 1943; Lt Col Donald 
W Saunders, Sep 1943; Maj Walter D 
Atkins, 3 Jan 1944-unkn. Capt Harry J 
Whelchel, 26 Jul 1944; Col Milton F Sum- 
merfelt, 11 Aug 1944; Lt Col Ray H Mar- 
tin, 15 Aug 1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Asi- 
atic-Pacific Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

334th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 



m 



MM 



\j 



Constituted as 334th Bombardment 
Group (Medium) on 9 Jul 1942 knd acti- 
vated on 16 Jul. Assigned to Third AF. 



Equipped with B-25's. Trained replace- 
ment crews for combat. Disbanded on i 
May 1944. 

Squadrons. 4Joth: 1942-1944. 4'jist: 
1942-1944. 4j2d: 1942-1944. 473d: 
1942-1944. 

Stations. Greeiiville AAB, SC, 16 Jul 
1942-1 May 1944. 

Commanders, ist Lt Francis M Whit- 
lock Jr, 18 Jul 1942; Col A J Bird Jr, 5 
Aug 1942-Apr 1944. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, on a fess or be- 
tween in chief three drop-bombs and in 
base four of the like of the second, three 
similar bombs of the first. Motto: AUX- 
ILIAM AB ALTO— Aid from Above. 
(Approved 18 Feb 1943.) 

335th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 335th Bombardment 
Group (Medium) on 9 Jul 1942 and acti- 
vated on 17 Jul. Assigned to Third AF. 
Equipped with B-26's. Served as a re- 
placement training unit. Disbanded on 
I May 1944. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VNITS— GROUPS 



215 



Squadrons. 474^/1: 1942-1944. 475^^' 
1942-1944. 476th: 1942-1944. 477^^' 
1942-1944. 

Stations. Barksdale Field, La, 17 Jul 
1942-1 May 1944. 

Commanders. Col Millard Lewis, 17 
July 1942; Col Roland O S Akre, 10 Feb 
1943; Lt Col Joe R Brabson, 12 May 1943; 
Col Joe W Kelly, 26 Jun 1943; Lt Col 
George R Anderson, 6 Nov 1943-1 May 
1944. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, from a fess 
nebuly a demi lion rampant issuant or. 
Motto: FIDUS ET FORTIS— Faithful 
and Brave. (Approved 19 Nov 1942.) 

336th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 336th Bombardment 
Group (Medium) on 9 Jul 1942 and ac- 
tivated on 15 Jul. Assigned to Third AF. 
Served as a replacement training unit for 
B-26 crews. Disbanded on i May 1944. 

Squadrons. 478th: 1942-1944. 47gth: 
1942-1944. .480th: 1942-1944. 481st: 
1942-1944. 

Stations. MacDill Field, Fla, 15 Jul 
1942; Ft Myers, Fla, 10 Aug 1942; Avon 
Park, Fla, 13 Dec 1942; MacDill Field, 
Fla, 13 Oct 1943; Lake Charles AAFld, 
La, 6 Nov 1943-1 May 1944. 

Commanders. Lt Col Joshua T Win- 
stead, 8 Aug 1942; Col Guy L McNeil, 
3 Sep 1942; Lt Col Joshua T Winstead, 7 
Oct 1942; Lt Col Hugh B Manson, 10 Dec 
1943-1 May 1944. 



Campaigns. American Theater. 
Decorations. None. 
iNsicNE. None. 

337th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 337th Fighter Group on 
16 Jul 1942 and activated on 23 Jul. As- 
signed to Third AF. Equipped with a 
variety of aircraft, primarily P-40's (1942- 
1943) and P-51's (1944). Trained re- 
placement crews for duty overseas. Dis- 
banded on I May 1944. 

Reconstituted and redesignated 337th 
Fighter Group (Air Defense), on 20 Jun 
1955. Activated on 18 Aug 1955. As- 
signed to Air Defense Command. 
Equipped with F-86's. 

Squadrons. g8th: 1942-1944. 303d: 
1942-1944. 304th: 1942-1944. 440th: 
1943-1944. 460th: 1955-. 

Stations. Morris Field, NC, 23 Jul 
1942; Drew Field, Fla, 7 Aug 1942; Sara- 
sota, Fla, c. 3 Jan 1943-1 May 1944. Port- 
land Intl Aprt, Ore, 18 Aug 1955-. 



216 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



CbMMANDERS. Lt Col Jamcs Ferguson, 
27 Jul 1942; Col Charles Kegelman, 12 
Nov 1943-1 May 1944. Col George F 
Ceuleers, 1955-. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Per fess abaisse embat- 
tled, and per pale, in the first quarter two 
stylized delta wing aircraft flying in close 
formation, noses to dexter chief, a contrail 
from the two aircraft, bendwise across the 
shield to the embattlement; four stars 
arched over the sinister chief, all colors 
counterchanged, or and sable. (Approved 
26 Jun 1957.) 

338th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 338th Fighter Group on 
16 Jul 1942 and activated on 22 Jul. As- 
signed to Third AF. Trained replacement 
crews, using a variety of aircraft (P-39's, 
P-40's, P-47's, and P-51's) during the first 
year and P-47's after Sep 1943. Dis- 
banded on I May 1944. 

Reconstituted, redesignated 338th Bom- 
bardment Group (Very Heavy), and al- 
lotted to the reserve, on 5 May 1947. 



Activated on 12 Jun 1947, 
27 Jun 1949. 

Squadrons. 42d: 
1942-1944. ^o6th: 
1942-1944. 441st: 
1947-1949. 561st: 



Inactivated on 



1947-1949. 305th: 

1942-1944. 312th: 

1943-1944. 560th: 

1947-1949. 562d: 



1947-1949. 563d: 1947-1949- 

Stations. Dale Mabry Field, Fla, 22 Jul 
1942-1 May 1944. Orchard Place Aprt, 
111, 12 Jun 1947-27 Jun 1949. 

Commanders. 2d Lt Alfred T Bishop, 
23 Jul 1942; Maj Robert B Richard, 7 Sep 
1942; Col Lee Q Wasser, 18 Sep 1942; Lt 
Col Robert B Richard, 5 May 1943; Lt Col 
Oswald W Lunde, 10 Aug 1943; Lt Col 
Dale D Brannon,ii Jan-i May 1944. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, issuing from a 
fess nebuly debased, a winged lion rampant 
or. Motto: AD METAM— To the Goal. 
(Approved 14 Nov 1942.) 

339th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 339th Bombardment 
Group (Dive) on 3 Aug 1942 and activated 
on 10 Aug. Equipped with A-24's and 
A-25's; converted to P-39's in Jul 1943. 
Redesignated 339th Fighter-Bomber 
Group in Aug 1943. Trained and partici- 
pated in maneuvers. Moved to England, 
Mar-Apr 1944. Assigned to Eighth AF 
and equipped with P-51's. Began opera- 
tions with a fighter sweep on 30 Apr, Re- 
designated 339th Fighter Group in May 
1944. Engaged primarily in escort duties 
during its first five weeks of operations, 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



217 




and afterwards flew many escort missions 
to cover the operations of medium and 
heavy bombers that struck strategic objec- 
tives, interdicted the enemy's communica- 
tions, or supported operations on the 
ground. Frequently strafed airdromes 
and other targets of opportunity while on 
escort missions. Received a DUG for 
operations on lo and ii Sep 1944. On the 
first of those days, when it escorted bomb- 
ers to a target in Germany and then at- 
tacked an airdrome near Erding, the group 
destroyed or damaged many enemy planes 
despite the intense fire it encountered from 
antiaircraft guns and small arms. The fol- 
lowing day the bomber formation being 
escorted to Munich was attacked by enemy 
fighters, but members of the 339th group 
destroyed a number of the interceptors and 
drove off the others ; at the same time, other 
members of the 339th were attacking an 
airdrome near Karlsruhe, where they en- 



countered heavy fire but were able to de- 
stroy or damage many of the aircraft 
parked on the field. The group provided 
fighter cover over the Channel and the 
coast of Normandy during the invasion of 
France in Jun 1944. Strafed and dive- 
bombed vehicles, locomotives^ marshalling 
yards, antiaircraft batteries, and troops 
while Allied forces fought to break out 
of the beachhead in France. Attacked 
transportation targets as Allied armies 
drove across France after the breakthrough 
at St Lo in Jul. Flew area patrols duririg 
the airborne attack on Holland in Sep. 
Escorted bombers to, and flew patrols over 
the battle area during the German counter- 
attack in the Ardeimes (Battle of the 
Bulge), Dec 1944- Jan 1945. Provided 
area patrols during the assault across the 
Rhine in Mar 1945. Among all these 
varied activities, the outstanding feature of 
this group's combat record is the large 
number of enemy aircraft it destroyed in 
the air or on the ground during its one year 
of operations. Returned to the US in Oct. 
Inactivated on 18 Oct 1945. 

Redesignated 107th Fighter Group. Al- 
lotted to ANG (NY) on 24 May 1946. 
Extended federal recognition on 8 Dec 
1948. Redesignated 107th Fighter-Inter- 
ceptor Group in Sep 1952. 

Squadrons. 485th: 1942-1943. p^d 
(formerly 482d) : 1942-1945. p4th (for- 
merly 483d) : 1942-1945. p^th (former- 
ly 484th) : 1942-1945. 

Stations. Hunter Field, Ga, 10 Aug 
1942; Drew Field, Fla, Feb 1943; Walter- 
boro AAFld, SC, Jul 1943; Rice AAFld, 



218 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Calif, Sep 1943-Mar 1944; Fowlmere, Eng- 
land, 4 Apr 1944-Oct 1945; Camp Kilmer, 
NJ, c. 16-18 Oct 1945. 

Commanders. 2d Lt Harold Garret, c. 
18 Aug 1942-unkn; Lt Col Marvin S Zipp, 
Feb 1943; Maj Harry L Galusha, 19 Feb 
1943; Col John B Henry Jr, Aug 1943; 
Lt Col Harold W Scruggs, c. i Oct 1944; 
Lt Col Carl T Goldenberg, 24 Dec 1944; 
Col John B Henry Jr, 29 Dec 1944; Lt Col 
William C Clark, 14 Apr 1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Air 
Offensive, Europe; Normandy; Northern 
France; Rhineland; Ardennes-Alsace; 
Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Germany, lo-ii Sep 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Per fess enhanced em- 
battled light blue and azure (dark blue) 
fimbriated argent in sinister base a mailed 
fist proper grasping a lance bendwise or, 
enfihng a cockatrice proper (light green) 
armed, combed, wattled, and scaled or, all 
between two clouds of the third. Crest: 
A dexter hand proper, grasping a winged 
torch or, flamed proper, above a wreath 
of the colors, argent and arzure. Motto: 
STRENGTH THROUGH ALERT- 
NESS. (Approved 30 Jul 1954.) 

340th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 340th Bombardment 
Group (Medium) on 10 Aug 1942 and 
activated on 20 Aug. Trained with B- 
25's for duty overseas. Arrived in the 
Mediterranean theater in Mar 1943. As- 
signed first to Ninth AF and later (in 




'^^' 



Aug 1943) to Twelfth. Served in combat 
from Apr 1943 to Apr 1945. Engaged 
chiefly in support and interdictory mis- 
sions, but sometimes bombed strategic ob- 
jectives. Targets included airfields, rail- 
roads, bridges, road junctions, supply de- 
pots, gun emplacements, troop concen- 
trations, marshalling yards, and factories 
in Tunisia, Sicily, Italy, France, Austria, 
Bulgaria, Albania, Yugoslavia, and Greece. 
Also dropped propaganda leaflets behind 
enemy lines. Participated in the reduction 
of Pantelleria and Lampedusa in Jun 1943, 
the bombing of German evacuation 
beaches near Messina in Jul, the establish- 
ment of the Salerno beachhead in Sep, 
the drive for Rome during Jan-Jun 1944, 
the invasion of Southern France in Aug, 
and attacks on the Brenner Pass and other 
German lines of communication in north- 
ern Italy from Sep 1944 to Apr 1945. Re- 
ceived a DUC for the period Apr-Aug 
1943 when, although handicapped by dif- 
ficult living conditions and unfavorable 
weather, the group supported British 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VNIT^— GROUPS 



219 



Eighth Army in Tunisia and Allied forces 
in Sicily. Received second DUG for the 
destruction of a cruiser in the heavily 
defended harbor of La Spezia on 23 Sep 
1944 before the ship could be used by the 
enemy to block the harbor's entrance. Re- 
turned to the US, Jul-Aug 1945. Inac- 
tivated on 7 Nov 1945. 

Redesignated 340th Bombardment 
Group (Light). Allotted to the reserve. 
Activated on 31 Oct 1947. Inactivated on 
19 Aug 1949. 

Squadrons. 486th: 1942-1945; 1947- 
1949. 487th: 1942-1945; 1947^1949- 
488th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 48gth: 1942- 

1945; 1947-1949- 

Stations. Columbia AAB, SC, 20 Aug 
1942; Walterboro, SC, 30 Nov 1942-30 Jan 
1943; El Kabrit, Egypt, Mar 1943; Me- 
denine, Tunisia, Mar 1943; Sfax, Tunisia, 
Apr 1943; Hergia, Tunisia, 2 Jun 1943; 
Comiso, Sicily, c. 2 Aug 1943; Catania, 
Sicily, 27 Aug 1943; San Pancrazio, Italy, 
c. 15 Oct 1943; Foggia, Italy, 19 Nov 1943; 
Pompeii, Italy, c. 2 Jan 1944; Paestum, 
Italy, 23 Mar 1944; Corsica, c. 14 Apr 1944; 
Rimini, Italy, c. 2 Apr-27 Jul 1945; Sey- 
mour Johnson Field, NC, 9 Aug 1945; Co- 
lumbia AAB, SC, 2 Oct-7 Nov 1945. 
Tulsa Mun Aprt, Okla, 31 Oct 1947^19 
Aug 1949. 

Commanders. Lt Col Adolph E Tokaz, 
3 Sep 1942; Col William C Mills, 21 Sep 
1942 ; Lt Col Adolph E Tokaz, 7 May 1943 ; 
Col Charles D Jones, 8 Jan 1944; Col Willis 
F Chapman, 16 Mar 1944-7 Nov 1945. 

Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME Thea- 
ter; Tunisia; Sicily; Naples-Foggia; An- 



zio; Rome-Arno; Southern France; North 
Apennines; Central Europe; Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: North Africa and Sicily, [Apr]-i7 
Aug 1943; Italy, 23 Sep 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Per fess nebuly, azure 
and argent, in chief two cloud formations 
proper, one issuing from the dexter and 
one issuing from the sinister, in base three 
stars of five points, of the first, two and 
one, all surmounted in fess, with an ear 
of wheat proper and a lightning flash, 
gules in saltire, an edge around the shield 
sable. Motto: ANYWHERE— ANY- 
TIME. (Approved 12 Sep 1955.) 

341st BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 341st Bombardment 
Group (Medium) on 14 Aug 1942. Acti- 
vated in India on 15 Sep 1942. Equipped 
with B-25's. Entered combat early in 
1943 and operated chiefly against enemy 
transportation in central Burma until 1944. 
Bombed bridges, locomotives, railroad 



220 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



yards, and other targets to delay move- 
ment of supplies to the Japanese troops 
fighting in northern Burma. Moved to 
China in Jan 1944. Engaged primarily in 
sea sweeps and attacks against inland 
shipping. Also bombed and strafed such 
targets as trains, harbors, and railroads 
in French Indochina and the Canton- 
Hong Kong area of China. Received a 
DUC for developing and using a special 
(glip) bombing technique against enemy 
bridges in French Indochina. Moved to 
the US in Oct 1945. Inactivated on 2 Nov 
1945. 

Redesignated 341st Bombardment 
Group (Light). Allotted to the reserve. 
Activated on 27 Dec 1946. Inactivated on 
27 Jun 1949. 

Squadrons. loth: 1947-1949. nth: 
1942-1945. 12th: 1947-1949. 22^; 1942- 
1945. 4goth: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 
4gist: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 

Stations. Karachi, India, 15 Sep 1942; 
Chakulia, India, 30 Dec 1942; Kurmitola, 
India, Jun 1943; Kunming, China, 7 Jan 
1944; Yangkai, China, 13 Dec 1944-unkn; 
Camp Kilmer, NJ, 1-2 Nov 1945. West- 
over Field, Mass, 27 Dec 1946-27 Jun 1949. 

Commanders. Col Torgils G Wold, 15 
Sep 1942; Col James A Philpott, 21 Sep 
1943; Col Torgils G Wold, 2 Nov 1943; 
Col Morris F Taber, 23 Nov 1943; Col 
Joseph B Wells, 11 Apr 1944; Col Donald 
L Clark, c. i Dec 1944; Col James W Nev/- 
some, 16 Apr 1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. India-Burma; China De- 
fensive; China Offensive. 



Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: French Indochina, 11 Dec 1944-12 
Mar 1945. 

Insigne. Shield: Per fess nebuly azure 
and argent a semee of stars in chief of the 
last, over all in pale a sheathed sword 
proper (white, silver gray shading and 
deep gray outlines), the rim of the sheath 
and winged hilt and pommel or (outlines 
and detail deep gray) ; the blade entwined 
with a girdle of the last; the sword point 
downward between two bolts of lightning 
radiating upward gules; over all, in base 
a branch of olive vert, detail vein lines 
or. Motto: PAX ORBIS PER ARMA 
AERIA— World Peace through Air 
Strength. (Approved 5 Jun 1957.) 

342d COMPOSITE GROUP 

Constituted as 342d Composite Group 
on 29 Aug 1942. Activated on 11 Sep 1942 
in Iceland. Equipped with P-38's, P-39's, 
P-40's, and a B-18, the group served as 
part of the island's defense force, intercept- 
ing and destroying some of the German 
planes that on occasion attempted to attack 
Iceland or that appeared in that area on 
reconnaissance missions. Also conducted 
antisubmarine patrols in the North Atlan- 
tic and provided cover for convoys on the 
run to Murmansk. Disbanded on 18 Mar 
1944. 

Reconstituted and redesignated 342d 
Fighter-Day Group, on 7 May 1956. Ac- 
tivated on 25 Jul 1956. Assigned to Tacti- 
cal Air Command. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



221 



Squadrons. 33d Fighter: 1942-1944; 
1956-. sof^ Fighter: 1942-1944. 337th 
Fighter: 1942. 572^: 1956-. 573d: 1956-. 

Stations. Iceland, 11 Sep 1942-18 Mar 
1944. Myrtle Beach AFB, SC, 25 Jul 1956-. 

Commanders. Lt Col J S Holtoner, 11 
Sep 1942; Lt Col W W Korges, 2 Jun 1943; 
Lt Col Cy Wilson, 10 Aug 1943-unkn. 
Maj Charles S Boster, Jul 1956-. 

Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME 
Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

343d FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 343d Fighter Group on 
3 Sep 1942 and activated in Alaska on 11 
Sep. Assigned to Eleventh AF. Began 
operations immediately. Provided air de- 
fense for the Aleutians; bombed and 
strafed Japanese camps, antiaircraft em- 
placements, hangars, and radio stations 



on Kiska; escorted bombers that struck 
enemy airfields, harbor facilities, and 
shipping. Flew^ its last combat mission 
in Oct 1943, but carried out patrol and 
reconnaissance assignments in the area un- 
til the end of the war. Later trained, car- 
ried mail, and served as part of the defense 
force for Alaska. Used P-38's and P-40's, 
and later (1946) P-5i*s. Inactivated in 
Alaska on 15 Aug 1946. 

Redesignated 343d Fighter Group (Air 
Defense) on 20 Jun 1955. Activated in 
the US on 18 Aug 1955. Assigned to Air 
Defense Command and equipped with F- 
89's. 

Squadrons, nth: 1942-1946; 1955-. 
i8th: 1942-1946. 5^A; 1942-1946. 344th: 
1942-1946. / 

Stations. Elmendorf Field, Alaska, 11 
Sep 1942; Ft Glenn, Alaska, Sep 1942; 
Elmendorf Field, Alaska, 3 Dec 1942; 
Adak, 7 Mar 1943; Amchitka, 25 Jul 1943; 
Alexai Point, Alaska, 22 Jan 1944; Shemya, 
5 Oct 1945-15 Aug 1946. Duluth Mun 
Aprt, Minn, 18 Aug 1955-. 

Commanders. Lt Col John S Chen- 
nault, II Sep 1942; Lt Col Edgar A Boad- 
way, 16 Nov 1942; Maj Edgar A Romberg, 
10 Dec 1942; Lt Col Anthony V Grossetta, 
19 Mar 1943; Lt Col James R Watt, 19 
Apr 1943; Maj Edgar A Romberg, 25 May 
1943; Lt Col William E Elder, 3 Jun 1943; 
Col Robert H Jones, 17 Oct 1943; Lt Col 
Dean Davenport, 18 Oct 1945; Maj Ben- 
jamin H King, 19 Jul-15 Aug 1946. Col 
George L Hicks III, 18 Aug 1955-. 

Campaigns. Aleutian Islands. 



222 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Decorations, None. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, fimbriated ar- 
gent, within a diminutive border gules, an 
Indian arrow issuing from base, in pale, 
the shaft or, the arrowhead proper, mark- 
ings and outline black, the thong fasten- 
ing of the third, superimposed over the 
arrowhead a missile, in bend sinister, the 
power stream swirling upward to dexter 
chief all of the second, a sound barrier 
symbol in sinister chief sable. (Approved 
3 Feb 1956.) 

344th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 344th Bombardment 
Group (Medium) on 31 Aug 1942. Ac- 
tivated on 8 Sep 1942. Equipped with B- 
26's and served as a replacement training 
unit. Moved to England, Jan-Feb 1944. 
Began operations with Ninth AF in Mar, 
attacking airfields, missile sites, marshal- 
ling yards, submarine shelters, coastal de- 
fenses, and other targets in France, Bel- 
gium, and Holland. Beginning in May, 
helped prepare for the Normandy in- 
vasion by striking vital bridges in France. 
On D-Day 1944 attacked coastal batteries 



at Cherbourg; during the remainder of 
Jun, supported the drive that resulted in 
the seizure of the Cotentin Peninsula. 
Bombed defended positions to assist Brit- 
ish forces in the area of Caen. Received a 
DUC for three-day action against the en- 
emy, 24-26 Jul 1944, when the group 
struck troop concentrations, supply dumps, 
a bridge, and a railroad viaduct to assist 
advancing ground forces at St Lo. 
Knocked out bridges to hinder the en- 
emy's withdrawal through the Falaise gap, 
and bombed vessels and strong points at 
Brest, Aug-Sep 1944. Attacked bridges, 
rail lines, fortified areas, supply dumps, 
and ordnance depots in Germany, Oct- 
Nov 1944. Supported AUied forces during 
the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 
1945, and continued to strike such targets 
as supply points, communications centers, 
bridges, marshalling yards, roads, and oil 
storage tanks until Apr 1945. Made train- 
ing flights and participated in air demon- 
strations after the war. Moved to Ger- 
many in Sep 1945 and, as part of United 
States Air Forces in Europe, served with 
the army of occupation. Began training 
in A-26 but continued to use B-26 air- 
craft. Redesignated 344th Bombardment 
Group (Light) in Dec 1945. Transferred, 
without personnel and equipment, to the 
US on 15 Feb 1946. Inactivated on 31 
Mar 1946. 

Redesignated 126th Bombardment 
Group (Light). Allotted to ANG (111) 
on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recog- 
nition on 29 Jun 1947. Redesignated 126th 
Composite Group in Nov 1950, and 126th 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



223 



Bombardment Group (Light) in Feb 
1951. Ordered to active service on i Apr 
1951 and assigned to Tactical Air Com- 
mand. Moved to France, Nov-Dec 195 1, 
and assigned to United States Air Forces 
in Europe. Used B-26's for training and 
maneuvers. Relieved from active duty 
and transferred, without personnel and 
equipment, to the control of ANG (111), 
on I Jan 1953. Redesignated 126th 
Fighter-Bomber Group. 

Squadrons, io8th: 1951-1953. iiph: 
1951. i68th: 1951-1953. i8oth: 1951-1953. 
494th: 1942-1946. 4g5th: 1942-1946. 
4g6(h: 1942-1946. 497ih: 1942-1945. 

Stations. MacDill Field, Fla, 8 Sep 
1942; Drane Field, Fla, 28 Dec 1942; 
Hunter Field, Ga, 19 Dec 1943-26 Jan 
1944; Stansted, England, 9 Feb 1944; Cor- 
meilles-cn-Vcxin, France, 30 Sep 1944; 
Florennes/Juzaine, Belgium, 5 Apr 1945; 
Schleissheim, Germany, c. 15 Sep 1945-15 
Feb 1946; Boiling Field, DC, 15 Feb-31 
Mar 1946. O'Hare Intl Aprt, 111, i Apr 
1951; Langley AFB, Va, 25 Jul-19 Nov 
1951; Bordeaux AB, France, 7 Dec 1951; 
Laon AB, France, c. 25 May 1952-1 Jan 

1953- 

Commanders. Lt Col Jacob J Brogger, 
10 Oct 1942; Col Guy L McNeil, 2 Nov 
1942; Col John A Hilger, 7 Nov 1942; Lt 
Col Vernon L Stintzi, 20 Jul 1943; Maj 
Robert W Witty, c. 6 Aug 1943; Col Regi- 
nald F C Vance, 19 Sep 1943; Col Robert 
W Witty, 7 Nov 1944; Lt Col Lucius D 
Clay Jr, 18 Aug 1945-15 Feb 1946. Col 
Russell B Daniels, i Apr 1951 ; Lt Col Carl 



R Norton, 25 Jun 1951; Lt Col Max H 
Mortensen, 21 Jul 1952; Col Glen W Clark, 
5 Aug 1952; Lt Col Max H Mortensen, 18 
Nov 1952-c. I Jan 1953. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Air 
Offensive, Europe; Normandy; Northern 
France; Rhineland; Ardennes-Alsace; 
Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: France, 24-26 Jul 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a bend nebule 
or, between four spears, points to base, two 
and two of the last, inflamed proper. 
Motto: WE WIN OR DIE. (Approved 
9 Jan 1943.) 

345th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 



Constituted as 345th Bombardment 
Group (Medium) on 3 Sep 1942 and acti- 
vated on 8 Sep. Trained for overseas duty 
with B-25's. Moved to New Guinea, via 
Australia, Apr-Jun 1943, and assigned to 
Fifth AF. Entered combat on 30 Jun 
1943. Operations until Jul 1944 included 
bombing and strafing Japanese airfields 



224 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



and installations in New Guinea and the 
Bismarck Archipelago; attacking shipping 
in the McCluer Gulf, Ceram Sea, and 
Bismarck Sea; supporting ground forces 
in the Admiralties; dropping supplies to 
ground troops; and flying courier and re- 
connaissance missions in the area. Re- 
ceived a DUG for a series of attacks against 
flak positions, shore installations, and bar- 
racks at Rabaul, New Britain, on 2 Nov 
1943. Operated from Biak, Jul-Nov 1944, 
striking airfields and shipping in the 
southern Philippines and the Celebes. In 
Nov 1944 moved to the Philippines where 
targets included Japanese airfields and 
communications on Luzon, industries and 
communications on Formosa, and ship- 
ping along the China coast. After moving 
to le Shima in Jul 1945, flew some missions 
over Kyushu and the Sea of Japan. Re- 
turned to the US in Dec 1945. Inactivated 
on 29 Dec 1945. 

Redesignated 345th Bombardment 
Group (Tactical). Activated on 19 Jul 
1954. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. 
Equipped with B-26's and later with B- 
57's. 

Squadrons. 4g8th: 1942-1945; 1954-. 
4ggth: 1942-1945; 1954-. $ooth: 1942- 
1945; 1954-- 501st: 1942-1945. 

Stations. Columbia AAB, SC, 8 Sep 
1942; Walterboro AAFld, SC, 6 Mar-i6 
Apr 1943; Port Moresby, New Guinea, 5 
Jun 1943; Dobodura, New Guinea, 18 Jan 
1944; Nadzab, New Guinea, c. 16 Feb 
1944; Biak, Jul 1944; Leyte, 12 Nov 1944; 
Dulag, Leyte, Dec 1944; Tacloban, Leyte, 



c. I Jan 1945; San Marcelino, Luzon, 13 
Feb 1945; Clark Field, Luzon, 12 May 
1945; le Shima, 25 Jul-io Dec 1945; Camp 
Stoneman, Calif, 27-29 Dec 1945. Langley 
AFB, Va, 19 Jul 1954- 

CoMMANDERs. Col Jarred V Crabb, 11 
Nov 1942; Col Clinton U True, 19 Sep 
1943; Col Chester A Coltharp, 24 Jun 
1944; Col Glenn A Doolittle, 28 Jun 1945- 
unkn. Col John G Napier, 19 Jul 1954^. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Japan; 
China Defensive; New Guinea; Bismarck 
Archipelago; Western Pacific; Leyte; 
Luzon; Southern Philippines; China Of- 
fensive. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Rabaul, New Britain, 2 Nov 1943. 
Philippine Presidential Unit Citation. 

Insigne. On a disc azure, an orle argent, 
surmounting all the head, in profile, of an 
Apache, proper, wearing a feathered head- 
dress of the second, with markings gules, 
and a string of animal's teeth of the second. 
Motto: AIR APACHES. (Approved 21 
May 1954.) 

346th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 346th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 3 Sep 1942 and acti- 
vated on 7 Sep. Assigned to Second AF. 
Equipped with B-17's and B-24's. Served 
first as an operational training and later 
as a replacement training unit. Inactivated 
on I Apr 1944. 

Redesignated 346th Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy). Activated on 18 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VNirS— GROUPS 



225 



Aug 1944. Assigned to Second AF. Pre- 
pared for combat with B-29's. Moved to 
the Pacific theater, Jun-Aug 1945, and as- 
signed to Eighth AF. The war ended 
before the group could begin combat op- 
erations. After the war the group par- 
ticipated in several show-of-force missions 
over Japan and for a time ferried Allied 
prisoners of war from Okinawa to the 
Philippine Islands. Inactivated on Oki- 
nawa on 30 Jun 1946. 

Squadrons. 461st: 1944-1946. 462d: 
1944-1946. 46^d: 1944-1946. 502^.' 1942- 
1944. ^o^d: 1942-1944. ^04th: 1942- 
1944. ^o$th: 1942-1944. 

Stations. Salt Lake City AAB, Utah, 
7 Sep 1942; Smoky Hill AB, Kan, 3 Oct 
1942; Dyersburg AAFld, Tenn, 26 Feb 
1943-1 Apr 1944. Dalhart AAFld, Tex, 
18 Aug 1944; Pratt AAFld, Kan, 18 Jan- 
29 Jun 1945; Kadena, Okinawa, 7 Aug 
1945-30 Jun 1946. 

Commanders. Col Budd J Peaslee, 6 
Oct 1942; Lt Col Samuel C Mitchell, 20 
Dec 1942-1943; Lt Col John D Moorman, 
Mar 1943; Col Samuel C Gurney Jr, Oct 
1943-1 Apr 1944. Maj James A Gibb Jr, 
21 Aug 1944; Lt Col Charles E Dewey, 23 
Aug 1944; Col William M Canterbury, 13 
Sep 1944; Col Ben I Funk, 3 Jan 1945; 
Col Joseph F Carroll, 30 Nov 1945-30 Jun 
1946. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Asi- 
atic-Pacific Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 



347th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 347th Fighter Group on 
29 Sep 1942. Activated in New Caledonia 
on 3 Oct 1942. Detachments of the group, 
which was assigned to Thirteenth AF in 
Jan 1943, were sent to Guadacanal, where 
they used P-39 and P-400 aircraft to fly 
protective patrols, support ground forces, 
and attack Japanese shipping. When the 
Allied campaign to recover the central and 
northern Solomons began in Feb 1943, the 
detachments, still operating from Guadal- 
canal and using P-38 and P-39 aircraft, 
escorted bombers and attacked enemy 
bases on New Georgia, the Russell Islands, 
and Bougainville. Headquarters moved 
up from New Caledonia at the end of 1943, 
and the following month the group moved 
from Guadalcanal to Stirling Island to 
support ground forces on Bougainville, 
assist in neutralizing enemy bases at Ra- 
baul, and fly patrol and search missions in 
the northern Solomons. Moved to New 
Guinea in Aug 1944. Equipped com- 
pletely with P-38's. Escorted bombers to 
oil refineries on Borneo; bombed and 
strafed airfields and installations on 
Ceram, Amboina, Boeroe, Celebes, and 
Halmahera. Received a DUC for a series 
of long-range bombing and strafing raids, 
conducted through intense flak and fighter 
defense, on the airfield and shipping at 
Makassar, Celebes, in Nov 1944. Moved to 
the Philippines in Feb 1945. Supported 
landings on Mindanao in Mar 1945, 
bombed and strafed enemy installations 



226 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



and supported Australian forces on Bor- 
neo, attacked Japanese positions in north- 
ern Luzon, and flew escort missions to the 
Asiatic mainland. Moved to the US in 
Dec 1945. Inactivated on i Jan 1946. 

Redesignated 347th Fighter Group (All 
Weather). Activated in Japan on 20 Feb 
1947. Assigned to Far East Air Forces." 
Equipped with F-6i's and later with 
F-82's. Inactivated on 24 Jun 1950. 

Squadrons. 4th: 1947-1950. 6jth: 
1942-1945. 68th: 1942-1945; 1947-1950. 
yoth: 1942-1943, 1945. ss^h: 1942-1946; 
1947-1950. 

Stations. New Caledonia, 3 Oct 1942; 
Guadalcanal, 29 Dec 1943; Stirling, Treas- 
ury Islands, 15 Jan 1944; Sansapor, New 
Guinea, 15 Aug 1944; Middleburg, New 
Guinea, 19 Sep 1944; San Jose, Mindoro, 
22 Feb 1945; Puerto Princesa, Palawan, 6 
Mar-Dec 1945; Camp Stoneman, Calif, 30 
Dec 1945-1 Jan 1946. Nagoya, Japan, 20 
Feb 1947; Itazuke, Japan, 25 Sep 1947; 
Bofu, Japan, 15 Oct 1948; Ashiya, Japan, 
6 May 1949; Nagoya, Japan, i Apr-24 Jun 
1950. 

Commanders. Lt Col George M Mc- 
Neese, 3 Oct 1942; Col Leo F Dusard Jr, 
Jan 1944; Lt Col Leonard Shapiro, 25 Jun 
1945-unkn. Unkn, Feb 1947-Aug 1948; 
Maj Elmer G DaRosa, Aug 1948; Maj Al- 
den E West, Sep 1948; Lt Col John L Mc- 
Ginn, Oct 1948-unkn; Lt Col Clyde A 
Thompson, unkn-Jun 1950. 

Campaigns. China Defensive; Guadal- 
canal; New Guinea; Northern Solomons; 
Bismarck Archipelago; Western Pacific; 



Leyte; Luzon; Southern Philippines; 
China Offensive. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Netherlands East Indies, 7, 20, and 
22 Nov 1944. Philippine Presidential Unit 
Citation. 

Insigne. None. 

348th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 348th Fighter Group on 
24 Sep 1942 and activated on 30 Sep. Pre- 
pared for combat with P-47's. Moved to 
the Southwest Pacific, May-Jun 1943, and 
assigned to Fifth AF. Operated from New 
Guinea and Noemfoor until Nov 1944. 
Flew patrol and reconnaissance missions 
and escorted bombers to targets in New 
Guinea and New Britain. Col Neel E 
Kearby was awarded the Medal of Honor 
for action over New Guinea on 11 Oct 
1943: after leading a flight of four fighters 
to reconnoiter the enemy base at Wewak, 
Col Kearby sighted a Japanese bomber 
formation escorted by more than 30 fight- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



227 



ers; despite the heavy odds and a low fuel 
supply, and although his mission had been 
accomplished, Kearby ordered an attack, 
personally destroying six of the enemy 
planes. For covering Allied landings and 
supporting ground forces on New Britain, 
16-31 Dec 1943, the group was awarded 
a DUG. In 1944 began to attack airfields, 
installations, and shipping in western New 
Guinea, Ceram, and Halmahera to aid in 
neutralizing those areas preparatory to the 
US invasion of the Philippines. After 
moving to the Philippines in Nov 1944, 
provided cover for convoys, flew patrols, 
escorted bombers, attacked enemy air- 
fields, and supported ground forces. Re- 
ceived a DUG for withstanding assaults by 
enemy fighters to cover bombers raiding 
Glark Field on 24 Dec 1944. Also attacked 
shipping along the Ghina coast and es- 
corted bombers to Formosa and the Asiatic 
mainland. Moved to the Ryukyus in Jul 
1945 and completed some escort and attack 
missions to Kyushu before the war ended. 
Moved to Japan in Oct 1945 as part of 
Far East Air Forces. Inactivated on 10 
May 1946. 

Redesignated io8th Fighter Group. Al- 
lotted to ANG (NJ) on 24 May 1946. Ex- 
tended federal recognition on 16 Oct 1946. 
Galled to active duty on i Mar 1951. Re- 
designated io8th Fighter-Bomber Group. 
Assigned first to Strategic Air Gommand 
and later to Tactical Air Gommand. 
Equipped with F-47's. Relieved from ac- 
tive service on i Dec 1952 and returned to 
the control of ANG (NJ). 



Squadrons. i4^th: 1951-1952. issd: 
1951-1952. 24.0th: 1942-1946. 241st (later 
141st) : 1942-1946; 1951-1952. 242d: 1942- 
1946. 460th: 1944-1946. 

Stations. Mitchel Field, NY, 30 Sep 
1942; Bradley Field, Gonn, 4 Oct 1942; 
Westover Field, Mass, 29 Oct 1942; Prov- 
idence, RI, c. 3 Jan 1943; Westover Field, 
Mass, 28 Apr-9 May 1943; Port Moresby, 
New Guinea, 23 Jun 1943; Finschhafen, 
New Guinea, 16 Dec 1943; Saidor, New 
Guinea, 29 ^(lar 1944; Wakde, 22 May 
1944; Noemfoor, 26 Aug 1944; Leyte, 16 
Nov 1944; San Marcelino, Luzon, 4 Feb 
1945; Floridablanca, Luzon, 15 May 1945; 
le Shima, 9 Jul 1945; Itami, Japan, Oct 
1945-10 May 1946. Newark Mun Aprt, 
NJ, I Mar 1951; Turner AFB, Ga, 14 
Mar 1951: Godman AFB, Ky, 9 Dec 1951- 
I Dec 1952. 

Commanders. Gol Neel E Kearby, Oct 
1942; Gol Robert R Rowland, 17 Nov 1943; 
Lt Gol William M Banks, 8 Jun 1945; Maj 
Walter G Benz, 26 Nov 1945-unkn. Maj 
J D Zink, Mar 1951; Gol Alvan G Gillem 
II, Jun 1951; Gol Garl W Stapleton, c. 
Nov 195 1 ; Gol Donald J Strait, 14 Jan 
1952; Gol George Laven Jr, 4 Aug-i Dec 
1952. 

Gampaigns. Air Offensive, Japan; 
Ghina Defensive; New Guinea; Bismarck 
Archipelago; Western Pacific; Leyte; 
Luzon; Ghina Offensive. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Gita- 
tions: New Britain, 16-31 Dec 1943; Phil- 
ippine Islands, 24 Dec 1944. Philippine 
Presidential Unit Gitation. 



228 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Insigne. Shield: Azure, within a bor- 
dure dimidiated, gules, hand gauntleted 
in armour proper, encircled with wreath 
of laurel, vert, grasping a torch argent, 
flamant proper. Motto: PER CAELUM 
VICTORIAE— Through the Skies to Vic- 
tory. (Approved 15 Aug 1951.) 

349th TROOP CARRIER GROUP 




Constituted as • 349th Troop Carrier 
Group on 23 Oct 1943. Activated on i 
Nov 1943. Equipped successively with 
C-53, C-47, and C-46 aircraft. Trained 
and participated in various maneuvers. 
Moved to the European theater, Mar-Apr 
1945, and assigned to IX Troop Carrier 
Command. Used C-46's to transport ve- 
hicles, gasoline, and other supplies in 
western Europe and to evacuate patients 
and prisoners of war. Ceased operations 
on 15 Jun 1945. Returned to the US, Jul- 
Aug 1945. Trained Chinese crews to 



operate C-46 aircraft. Inactivated on 7 
Sep 1946. 

Redesignated 349th Troop Carrier 
Group (Medium). Allotted to the re- 
serve. Activated on 27 Jun 1949. Ordered 
to active duty on i Apr 195 1. Inactivated 
on 2 Apr 1951. 

Redesignated 349th Fighter-Bomber 
Group. Allotted to the reserve. Acti- 
vated on 13 Jun 1952. 

Squadrons. 2^d: 1944-1946, 311th: 
1943-1944; 1949-1951. 312th: 1943-1946; 
1949-1951; 1952-. 313th: 1943-1946; 
1949-1951; 1952-. 314th: 1943-1946; 
1949-1951; 1952-. 

Stations. Sedalia AAFld, Mo, i 
Nov 1943; Alliance AAFld, Neb, 19 Jan 
1944; P°Pc Field, NC, 8 Mar 1944; Baer 
Field, Ind, 4-15 Mar 1945; Barkston, Eng- 
land, 30 Mar 1945; Roye/Amy Airfield, 
France, 18 Apr-13 Jul 1945; Bergstrom 
Field, Tex, 17 Sep 1945-7 Sep 1946. Ham- 
ilton AFB, Calif, 27 Jun 1949-2 Apr 1951. 
Hamilton AFB, Calif, 13 Jun 1952-. 

CoMMANDERS. Maj Elmcr F Estrumse, 
I Nov 1943; Col Leonard J Barrow Jr, 26 
Nov 1943; Lt Col Benjamin M Tarver Jr, 
29 Aug-7 Sep 1946. 

Campaigns. American Theater ; EAME 
Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Per bend sky blue and 
azure; in bend a lightning bolt gules, 
fimbriated argent, between three aircraft 
in flight, and a representation of the golden 
gate bridge or; the shield edged of the 
last. Motto: FACTA, NON VERBA— 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



229 



Deeds, Not Words. (Approved 26 Jul 
1956.) 

350th FIGHTER GROUP 




Activated in England on i Oct 1942 by 
special authority granted to Eighth AF 
prior to constitution as 350th Fighter 
Group on 2 Oct 1942. The air echelon 
moved from England to North Africa, 
Jan-Feb 1943; the ground echelon, w^hich 
had been formed in the US, arrived in 
North Africa about the same time. The 
group operated with Twelfth AF from 
Jan 1943 until the end of the war, flying 
patrol and interception missions, protect- 
ing convoys, escorting aircraft, flying 
reconnaissance missions, engaging in in- 
terdictory operations, and providing close 
support for ground forces. Used P-39's, 
P-400's, and a few P-38's before convert- 
ing to P-47's during Aug-Sep 1944. Oper- 
ated against targets in Tunisia until the 
end of that campaign. Defended the coast 



of Algeria during the summer and fall of 
1943. Afterward, operated primarily in 
support of Allied forces in Italy until the 
end of the war, bombing and strafing rail 
facilities, shipping docks, radar and trans- 
former stations, power lines, bridges, 
motor transports, and military installa- 
tions. Received a DUG for action in west- 
ern Italy on 6 Apr 1944 when, despite 
intense flak and attacks by numerous 
enemy interceptors, the group flew ten 
missions, hitting troops, bridges, vehicles, 
barracks, and air warning installations. 
Also covered Allied landings on Elba in 
Jun 1944 and supported the invasion of 
Southern France in Aug. ist Lt Raymond 
L Knight was awarded the Medal of 
Honor for missions on 24 and 25 Apr 
1945: voluntarily leading attacks, through 
intense antiaircraft fire, against enemy air- 
dromes in northern Italy, Lt Knight was 
responsible for eliminating more than 20 
German planes intended for assaults on 
Allied forces; attempting to return his 
shattered plane to base after an attack on 
25 Apr, Lt Knight crashed in the Apen- 
nines. The group moved to the US, Jul- 
Aug 1945. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945. 

Redesignated 112th Fighter Group. Al- 
lotted to ANG (Pa) on 24 May 1946. Ex- 
tended federal recognition on 22 Apr 1949. 
Redesignated 112th Fighter-Interceptor 
Group in Oct 1952, and 112th Fighter- 
Bomber Group in Dec 1952. 

Squadrons. 345th: 1942-1945. 346th: 
1942-1945. 34yth: 1942-1945. 

Stations. Bushey Hall, England, i Oct 
1942; Duxford, England, Oct 1942; Oujda, 



230 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



French Morocco, 6 Jan 1943; Oran, Al- 
geria, 14 Feb 1943; Maison Blanche, Al- 
geria, May 1943; Rerhaia, Algeria, c. 17 
Jul 1943; Sardinia, 5 Nov 1943; Corsica, 6 
Feb 1944; Tarquinia, Italy, 8 Sep 1944; 
Pisa, Italy, 2 Dec 1944-14 Jul 1945; Sey- 
mour Johnson Field, NC, 25 Aug-7 Nov 
1945. 

Commanders. Lt Col Richard P Klocko, 
14 Oct 1942; Maj Ariel W Nielsen, 24 Feb 
1943; Lt Col Marvin L McNickle, i Mar 
1943; Lt Col Ariel W Nielsen, c. Sep 1943; 
Lt Col John C Robertson, 22 Oct 1944; 
Col Ariel W Nielsen, c. Feb 1945; Col John 
C Robertson, 20 Jun 1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Combat, FAME 
Theater; Tunisia; Sicily; Naples-Foggia; 
Rome-Arno; Southern France; North 
Apennines; Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion : Italy, 6 Apr 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Per bend azure and or, 
on a bend sable between a Pegasus salient 
argent and a keystone charged with a 
ruffed grouse proper, a group of four vols 
with upper edges of wings parallel to the 
edge of the ordinary, each vol overlapping 
the next from dexter to sinister alternating 
of the fourth and second, a diminished 
border of the third. MoUo: IN COM- 
MON CAUSE. (Approved 10 Sep 1954.) 

351st BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 351st Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 25 Sep 1942. Acti- 
vated on I Oct 1942. Trained for duty 
overseas with B-17's. Moved to England, 



Apr-May 1943. Served in combat with 
Eighth AF from May 1943 to Apr 1945. 
Operated primarily against strategic ob- 
jectives in Germany, striking such targets 
as ball-bearing plants at Schweinfurt, com- 
munications at Mayen, marshalling yards 
at Koblenz, a locomotive and tank factory 
at Hannover, industries at Berlin, bridges 
at Cologne, an armaments factory at 
Mannheim, and oil refineries at Hamburg. 
Also struck harbor facilities, submarine in- 
stallations, airfields, V-weapon sites, and 
power plants in France, Belgium, Holland, 
and Norway. Received a DUC for per- 
formance of 9 Oct 1943 when an aircraft 
factory in Germany was accurately 
bombed in spite of heavy flak and pressing 
enemy interceptors. Received another 
DUC for its part in the successful attack 
of II Jan 1944 on aircraft factories in cen- 
tral Germany. Participated in the inten- 
sive air campaign against the German air- 
craft industry during Big Week, 20-25 
Feb 1944. 2d Lt Walter E Truemper, 
navigator, and Sgt Archibald Mathies, en- 
gineer, were each awarded the Medal of 
Honor for action on 20 Feb 1944: when 
their aircraft received a direct hit that 
killed the co-pilot and wounded the pilot, 
Truemper and Mathies managed to fly the 
plane until other crew members could 
bail out; on the third attempt to land the 
plane in an effort to save the pilot, the 
B-17 crashed and the men were killed. 
In addition to its strategic missions, the 
group often operated in support of ground 
forces and attacked interdictory targets. 
Bombed in support of the Normandy in- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



231 



vasion in Jun 1944 and the St Lo break- 
through in Jul. Hit enemy positions to 
cover the airborne attack on Holland in 
Sep 1944. Struck front-line positions, 
communications, and airfields to help stop 
the German counteroffensive in the Battle 
of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Flew 
missions in support of the airborne assault 
across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Returned to 
the US soon after V-E Day. Inactivated 
on 28 Aug 1945. 

Redesignated 351st Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the re- 
serve. Activated on 9 Apr 1947. Inacti- 
vated on 27 Jun 1949. 

Squadrons. ^o8th: 1942-1945; 1947- 

1949. ^ogth: 1942-1945; 1947-1948. 

^loth: 1942-1945; 1947-1948. 5///A; 

ig^-1945; 1947-1949. 434th: 1948-1949. 

Stations. Salt Lake City AAB, Utah, 
I Oct 1942; Geiger Field, Wash, Nov 1942; 
Biggs Field, Tex, Dec 1942; Pueblo AAB, 
Colo, c. I Mar-<. 12 Apr 1943; Polebrook, 
England, c. i May 1943- Jun 1945; Sioux 
Falls AAFld, SD, Jul-28 Aug 1945. Scott 
Field, 111, 9 Apr 1947-27 Jun 1949. 

Commanders. Col William A Hatcher 
Jr, Nov 1942; Col Eugene A Romig, c. 
I Jan 1944; Col Robert W Burns, Oct 1944; 
Col Merlin I Carter, 30 Mar 1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Germany, 9 Oct 1943; Germany, 11 
Jan 1944. 

Insigne. None. 



3 5 2d FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 352d Fighter Group on 
29 Sep 1942. Activated on i Oct 1942. 
Served as part of the air defense force for 
the US while training with P-47's for 
duty overseas. Moved to England, Jun- 
Jul 1943. Assigned to Eighth AF. Op- 
erated against the enemy in ak combat 
over Europe from Sep 1943 to May 1945, 
using P-47's before converting to P-51's 
in Apr 1944. Flew numerous escort mis- 
sions to cover the operations of bombers 
that attacked factories, V-weapon sites, 
submarine pens, and other targets on the 
Continent. Escorted bombers that struck 
German aircraft factories during Big 
Week, 20-25 ^^^ ^944- Received a DUC 
for performance in Germany on 8 May 
1944: while escorting bombers to targets 
in Brunswick, the group routed an at- 
tack by a numerically superior force of 
German interceptors and then continued 
the battle against the enemy planes until 
lack of ammunition and shortage of fuel 



232 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



forced the group to withdraw and return 
to its base. Also flew counter-air patrols, 
and on many occasions strafed and 
dive-bombed airfields, locomotives, ve- 
hicles, troops, gun positions, and var- 
ious other targets. Supported the invasion 
of Normandy in Jun 1944 by strafing and 
dive-bombing enemy communications, as- 
sisted the Allies in breaking through the 
German line at St Lo in Jul, and partici- 
pated in the airborne attack on Holland 
in Sep. After the Germans launched a 
counteroffensive in the Ardennes in Dec 
1944, the group's planes and pilots were 
sent to Belgium and placed under the con- 
trol of Ninth AF for operations in the 
Battle of the Bulge (Dec 1944- Jan 1945). 
During that battle, on i Jan 1945, action 
by the detachment earned for the group 
the French Croix de Guerre with Palm: 
just as 12 of the detachment's planes were 
taking off for an area patrol, the airdrome 
was attacked by about 50 German fighters; 
in the aerial battle that followed, the 352d 
shot down almost half the enemy planes 
without losing any of its own. In Feb 
1945 the remainder of the group joined the 
detachment in Belgium for operations 
under the control of Eighth AF. While 
based on the Continent, the group par- 
ticipated in the airborne assault across the 
Rhine (Mar 1945). Returned to England 
in Apr and continued operations until a 
few days before V-E Day. Returned to 
the US in Nov. Inactivated on 10 Nov 
1945. 

Redesignated 113th Fighter Group. Al- 
lotted to ANG (DC) on 24 May 1946. 



Extended federal recognition on 2 Nov 
1946, Ordered to active duty on i Feb 
195 1. Assigned to Air Defense Command. 
Redesignated 113th Fighter-Interceptor 
Group. Used F-84's during 1951; con- 
verted to F-94 aircraft in 1952. Inactivated 
on 6 Feb 1952. Relieved from active duty, 
returned to control of ANG (DC), and ac- 
tivated, on I Nov 1952. Redesignated 
113th Fighter-Bomber Group in Dec 1952. 

Squadrons. 121st'. 1951-1952. i42d: 
1951-1952. 148th'. 1951-1952. jzSth: 
1942-1945. 486th (formerly 21st) : 1942- 
1945. 48'jth (formerly 34th) : 1942-1945. 

Stations. Mitchel Field, NY, i Oct 
1942; Bradley Field, Conn, Oct 1942; 
Westover Field, Mass, Nov 1942; Trum- 
bull Field, Conn, c. 15 Jan 1943; Republic 
Field, NY, c. 9 Mar-Jun 1943; Bodney, 
England, 7 Jul 1943; Chievres, Belgium, c. 
27 Jan 1945; Bodney, England, c. 14 Apr- 
3 Nov 1945; Camp Kilmer, NJ, c. 9-10 
Nov 1945. Andrews AFB, Md, i Feb 195 1 ; 
New Castle County Aprt, Del, 16 Feb 
1951-6 Feb 1952. 

Commanders. Lt Col Edwin M Ram- 
age, c. Oct 1942; Col Joe L Mason, 17 May 
1943; Col James D Mayden, 17 Nov 1944- 
unkn. Col Joseph Myers, 1951-unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes- Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Brunswick, Germany, 8 May 1944. 
French Croix de Guerre with Palm: i Jan 
1945. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a stylized air- 
craft bendwise above and between two 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GJ?Oi7P5 

clouds issuing from dexter and sinister 
base all argent, the dexter cloud pierced by 
two lightning flashes saltirewise or; in 
chief two mullets gules, fimbriated of the 
second and in base three of the like. 
Motto: CUSTODES PRO DEFEN- 
SIONE— Guardians for Defense. (Ap- 
proved 9 Mar 1954.) 

353d FIGHTER GROUP 




\V>NC£T AMOR PATRfAE 



Constituted as 353d Fighter Group on 
29 Sep 1942. Activated on i Oct 1942. 
Trained for duty overseas and at the same 
time served as an air defense organization. 
Moved to England, May-Jun 1943. As- 
signed to Eighth AF. Operated against 
the enemy in combat over Europe from 
Aug 1943 to Apr 1945, using P-47's until 
conversion to P-51's in Oct 1944. Regu- 
larly escorted bombers that attacked in- 
dustrial establishments, marshalling yards, 
submarine installations, V-weapon sites, 
and other targets; frequently strafed and 



233 

dive-bombed buildings, troops, flak bat- 
teries, barges and tug boats, locomotives 
and rail lines, vehicles, bridges, and air- 
fields; also flew numerous counter-air mis- 
sions. From Aug 1943 to Feb 1944, pro- 
vided escort for bombers that attacked 
targets in western Europe, made counter- 
air sweeps over France and the Low Coun- 
tries, and dive-bombed targets in France. 
Participated in the intensive campaign 
against the German Air Force and aircraft 
industry during Big Week, 20-25 F^b I944- 
Increased its fighter-bomber activities, 
Mar-May 1944. Provided cover over the 
beachhead and close support for the Nor- 
mandy invasion in Jun 1944. Supported 
the breakthrough at St Lo in Jul. Re- 
ceived a DUG for supporting the airborne 
attack on Holland, when the group con- 
tributed to the operation by protecting 
bombers and troop carriers and by strafing 
and dive-bombing ground targets during 
the period 17-23 Sep 1944. Continued its 
fighter-bomber, escort, and counter-air ac- 
tivities, participating in the Battle of the 
Bulge (Dec 1944-Jan 1945) and the air- 
borne attack acrosi^the Rhine (Mar 1945). 
Remained in the theater until Oct. Inac- 
tivated in the US on 18 Oct 1945. 

Redesignated ii6di Fighter Group. Al- 
lotted to ANG (Ga) on 24 May 1946. 
Extended federal recognition on 9 Sep 
1946. Ordered to active duty on 10 Oct 

1950. Redesignated ii6th Fighter-Bomber 
Group in Nov 1950. Assigned to Tactical 
Air Command. Trained with F-8o's and 
converted to F-84 aircraft in the spring of 

1951. Moved to Japan in Jul 1951 and at- 



234 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



tached to Far East Air Forces for opera- 
tions in the Korean War. Flew interdic- 
tory and close-support missions, strafing 
and dive-bombing power plants, buildings, 
mine entrances, gun positions, bunkers, 
troops, rail lines, trains, bridges, and vehi- 
cles. During the same period, also pro- 
vided air defense for Japan. Relieved 
from active duty, returned to control of 
ANG (Ga) without personnel and equip- 
ment, and redesignated ii6th Fighter-In- 
terceptor Group, on lo Jul 1952. Redesig- 
nated ii6th Fighter-Bomber Group in 
Dec 1952. 

Squadrons. ig6th: 1950-1952. ^^oth: 
1942-1945. ^$ist (later 158th) : 1942-1945; 
1950-1952. 352^ (later 159th) : 1942-1945; 
1950-1952. 

Stations. Mitchel Field, NY, i Oct 
1942; Richmond AAB, Va, c. 7 Oct 1942; 
Baltimore, Md, c. 26 Oct 1942-c. 27 May 
1943; Goxhill, England, Jun 1943; Met- 
field, England, 3 Aug 1943; Raydon, Eng- 
land, Apr 1944-Oct 1945; Camp Kilmer, 
NJ, c. 16-18 Oct 1945. Dobbins AFB, Ga, 
10 Oct 1950; George AFB, Calif, c. 25 Oct 
1950-Jul 1951; Misawa, Japan, c. 25 Jul 
1951-10 Jul 1952. 

Commanders. Lt Col Joseph A Morris, 
c. 15 Oct 1942; Lt Col Loren G McCollom, 
18 Aug 1943; Col Glenn E Duncan, 25 
Nov 1943; Col Ben Rimerman, 7 Jul 1944; 
Col Glenn E Duncan, 22 Apr 1945; Lt Col 
William B Bailey, 9 Sep 1945; Lt Col 
Robert A Elder, 24 Sep 1945-unkn. Col 
Charles M Ford Jr, 10 Oct-i Nov 1950; 
Lt Col Howard L Galbreath, 11 Nov 1950; 
Lt Col Ralph G Kuhn, 8 May 1951-unkn; 



Lt Col Daniel F Sharp, c. 31 Jan 1952- 
unkn. 

Campaigns. World War II: Air Offen- 
sive, Europe; Normandy; Northern 
France; Rhineland; Ardennes-Alsace; 
Central Europe. Korean War: UN Sum- 
mer-Fall Offensive; Second Korean Win- 
ter; Korea Summer-Fall, 1952. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Holland, 17-23 Sep 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Per fess embattled de- 
based azure and argent, three chevronels 
reversed of the second, the base chevronel 
fimbriated, forming a frazure at its apex 
over the embattlement azure; in chief four 
darts of the second in formation chevron- 
wise points downward, one in fess point, 
two in sinister, all within a diminutive 
border argent. Motto: VINCET AMOR 
PATRIAE— Love of Country Shall Con- 
quer. (Approved 6 Jun 1952.) 

354th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 354th Fighter Group on 
12 Nov 1942 and activated on 15 Nov. 
Trained with P-39's and served as part 
of the air defense force. Moved to Eng- 
land, Oct-Nov 1943. Assigned to Ninth 
AF and engaged in combat from Dec 1943 
to May 1945, using P-51's except for the 
period from Nov 1944 to Feb 1945 when 
the group operated with P-47's. Received 
a DUC for its activities up to mid-May 
1944, a period in which the 354th was in- 
strumental in the development and execu- 
tion of long-range missions to escort heavy 
bombers on raids deep into enemy terri- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 




tory. During that same period Maj James 
H Howard won the Medal of Honor for 
his single-handed efforts to defend a 
bomber formation that was attacked by 
a large force of enemy planes while on a 
mission over Germany on ii Jan 1944. 
In addition to its escort work, the group 
began fighter-bomber operations, strafing 
and dive-bombing enemy airfields, gun 
positions, marshalling yards, and vehicles 
in France, Belgium, and Holland. Sup- 
porting the Normandy invasion in Jun 
1944 by escorting gliders on D-Day and 
by dive-bombing and strafing bridges and 
railways near the front lines for the next 
few days. Moved to the Continent in Jun 
and assisted the Allied drive across France 
by flying close-support, armed-reconnais- 
sance, fighter-sweep, dive-bombing, straf- 
ing, and escort missions. Received second 
DUG for a series of fighter sweeps in 
which the group destroyed a large number 
of enemy aircraft in the air and on the 
ground on 25 Aug 1944. Flew missions 



235 

to support the airborne attack on Holland 
in Sep 1944. Attacked and destroyed 
many enemy barges, locomotives, vehicles, 
buildings, and troops to assist the Allied 
assault on the Siegfried Line. Participated 
in the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 
1945, by supporting ground forces and by 
conducting armed reconnaissance opera- 
tions to destroy enemy troops, tanks, 
artillery, and rail lines. Assisted ground 
forces in their advance to and across the 
Rhine, Feb-May 1945. After V-E Day, 
served with the army of occupation, being 
assigned to United States Air Forces in 
Europe. Transferred, without personnel 
and equipment, to the US in Feb 1946. 
Inactivated on 31 Mar 1946. 

(Note: The 354th Fighter Group was 
redesignated 117th Fighter Group and al- 
lotted to ANG (Ala), on 24 May 1946. 
The redesignation and the allotment were, 
however, revoked and nullified on 26 Sep 
1956; at the same time the 117th group was 
constituted and allotted to ANG, effective 
24 May 1946. Thus the 117th group is 
not related in any way to the 354th group.) 

Redesignated 354th Fighter-Day Group. 
Activated on 19 Nov 1956. Assigned to 
Tactical Air Command. 

Squadrons, sssd: 1942-1946; 1956-. 
35$th: 1942-1946; 1956-. 3$6th: 1942- 
1946; 1956-. 

Stations. Hamilton Field, Calif, 15 
Nov 1942; Tonopah, Nev, c. 18 Jan 1943; 
Santa Rosa AAFld, Calif, c. i Mar 1943; 
Portland AAB, Ore, c. 2 Jun-Oct 1943; 
Greenham Common, England, c. 4 Nov 
1943; Boxted, England, c. 13 Nov 1943; 



236 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Lashendcn, England, Apr 1944; Crique- 
ville, France, Jun 1944; Gael, France, Aug 
1944; Orconte, France, Sep 1944; Meurthe- 
et-Moselle, France, c. i Dec 1944; Ober 
01m, Germany, c. 8 Apr 1945; Ansbach, 
Germany, c. 30 Apr 1945; Herzogenau- 
rach, Germany, May 1945-15 Feb 1946; 
Boiling Field, DC, 15 Feb-31 Mar 1946. 
Myrtle Beach AFB, SC, 19 Nov 1956-. 

Commanders. Col Kenneth R Martin, 
c. 26 Nov 1942; Col James H Howard, 12 
Feb 1944; Col George R Bickell, Apr 1944; 
Lt Col Jack T Bradley, May 1945; Maj 
Robert A Ackerly, Nov 1945; Lt Col 
David L Lewis, Dec 1945-1946. Col 
James F Hackler Jr, 19 Nov 1956-. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: ETO, [Dec] 1943-15 May 1944; 
France, 25 Aug 1944. French Croix de 
Guerre with Palm: i Dec 1943-31 Dec 
1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Argent, four bendlets 
light blue, azure, gules and vert between 
a demi-horse rampant of the fourth and 
two swords saltirewise proper grip and 
guard of the third fimbriated or. Motto: 
VALOR IN COMBAT. (Approved 18 
Oct 1957.) 

355th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 355th Fighter Group on 
12 Nov 1942 and activated the same day. 
Prepared for combat with P-47's. Moved 




to England in Jul 1943 and assigned to 
Eighth AF. Flew its first combat mis- 
sion, a fighter sweep over Belgium, on 14 
Sep 1943 and afterward served primarily 
as escort for bombers that attacked indus- 
trial areas of Berlin, marshalling yards at 
Karlsruhe, an airfield at Neuberg, oil re- 
fineries at Misburg, synthetic oil plants at 
Gelsenkirchen, locks at Minden, and other 
objectives. Also flew fighter sweeps, area 
patrols, and bombing missions, striking 
such targets as air parks, locomotives, 
bridges, radio stations, and armored cars. 
On 5 Apr 1944, shortly after converting 
from P-47's to P-51's, the group success- 
fully bombed and strafed German air- 
dromes during a snow squall, a mission 
for which the group was awarded a DUC. 
Provided fighter cover for Allied forces 
landing in Normandy on 6 Jun 1944, and 
afterward hit transportation facilities to 
cut enemy supply lines. Hit fuel dumps, 
locomotives, and other targets in support 
of ground forces during the breakthrough 
at St Lo in Jul. Continued operations un- 
til 25 Apr 1945 and remained in the the- 
ater after the war for duty with United 
States Air Forces in Europe. Moved to 
Germany in Jul 1945 as part of the army of 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— Gi?0t/P5 



237 



occupation. Transferred, without person- 
nel and equipment, to the US on i Aug 
1946. Inactivated on 20 Nov 1946. 

Redesignated 355th Fighter Group (Air 
Defense). Activated on 18 Aug 1955. 
Assigned to Air Defense Command and 
equipped with F-86 aircraft. 

Squadrons. 3S4th: 1942-1946; 1955-. 
35Jth: 1942-1946. 3^8th (later 56th): 
1942-1946. ifSgth: 1955- 

Stations. Orlando AB, Fla, 12 Nov 
1942; Richmond AAB, Va, 17 Feb 1943; 
Philadelphia Mun Aprt, Pa, 4 Mar-i6 Jun 
1943; Steeple Morden, England, 9 Jul 
1943; Gablingen, Germany, 3 Jul 1945; 
Schweinfurt, Germany, 15 Apr 1946; 
Mitchel Field, NY, i Aug-20 Nov 1946. 
McGhee-Tyson Aprt, Tenn, 18 Aug 1955- 

CoMMANDERS. Col William J Cum- 
mings Jr, 12 Nov 1942; Lt Col Everett W 
Stewart, 4 Nov 1944; Lt Col Claiborne H 
Kinnard Jr, 21 Feb 1945; Lt Col William 
D Gilchrist, 7 Jun 1945; Lt Col John L 
Elder, Oct 1945; Col Carroll W McColpin, 
14 Mar 1946-unkn. Col William A Lan- 
ford, 18 Aug 1955- 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Germany, 5 Apr 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure on a pile issu- 
ant from sinister throughout or, flames of 
fire proper charged with a dagger fesswise 
point to dexter of the second. Motto: 
OUR MIGHT ALWAYS. (Approved 
16 Mar 1943.) 



356th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 356th Fighter Group on 
8 Dec 1942 and activated on 12 Dec. 
Moved to England, Aug-Sep 1943, and 
assigned to Eighth AF. Served in com- 
bat froni Oct 1943 to May 1945, partici- 
pating in operations that prepared for the 
invasion of the Continent, and supporting 
the landings in Normandy and the sub- 
sequent Allied drive across France and 
Germany. Used P-47's until they were 
replaced by P-51's in Nov 1944. From Oct 
1943 until Jan 1944, operated as escort for 
bombers that attacked such objectives as 
industrial areas, missile sites, airfields, and 
communications. Engaged primarily in 
bombing and strafing missions after 23 
Jan 1944, with its targets including U-boat 
installations, barges, shipyards, airdromes, 
hangars, marshalling yards, locomotives, 
trucks, oil facilities, flak towers, and radar 
stations. Bombed and strafed in the 



238 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Arnheim area on 17, 18, and 23 Sep 1944 to 
neutralize enemy gun emplacements; re- 
ceived a DUG for this contribution to the 
airborne attack on Holland. Flew its last 
combat mission, escorting B-17's dropping 
propaganda leaflets, on 7 May 1945. Re- 
turned to the US in Nov. Inactivated on 
10 Nov 1945. 

Redesignated ii8th Fighter Group. 
Allotted to ANG (Tenn) on 24 May 1946. 
Extended federal recognition on 2 Oct 
1947. Redesignated iiSth Composite 
Group in Nov 1950, and iiSth Tactical 
Reconnaissance Group in Feb 1951. 
Ordered to active duty on i Apr 195 1 and 
assigned to Tactical Air Command. 
Used RF-47, RF-51, RF-80, and RB-26 
aircraft for training and maneuvers. Re- 
lieved from active service and returned, 
without personnel and equipment, to con- 
trol of ANG (Tenn) on i Jan 1953. 

Squadrons. io6th: 1951-1953, i8$th: 
1951-1953. S59th (later 155th): 1942- 
1945; 1951-1953. ^6oth: 1942-1945. 
^ist: 1942-1945. 

Stations. Westover Field, Mass, 12 
Dec 1942; Groton AAFId, Conn, 12 Mar 
1943; Mitchel Field, NY, 30 May 1943; 
Grenier Field, NH, 4 Jul-15 Aug 1943; 
Goxhill, England, 27 Aug 1943; Martle- 
sham, England, 5 Oct 1943-4 Nov 1945; 
Camp Kilmer, NJ, 9-10 Nov 1945. Berry 
Field, Tenn, i Apr 1951; Memphis Mun 
Aprt, Tenn, 12 Apr 195 1; Shaw AFB, SC, 
15 Jan 1952-1 Jan 1953. 

Commanders. 2d Lt Joseph Moris Jr, 
28 Dec 1942; Capt Harold J Lister, 29 Dec 
1942; Lt Col Harold J Rau, 9 Feb 1943; 



Col Einar A Malmstrom, 28 Nov 1943; Lt 
Col Philip E Tukey Jr, 24 Apr 1944; Lt Col 
Donald A Baccus, 3 Nov 1944; Col Philip 
E Tukey Jr, 11 Jan 1945-unkn. Lt Col 
Enoch B Stephenson, 1 Apr 1951; Lt Col 
William J Johnson Jr, May 1951; Lt Col 
Ralph F Newman, 16 Aug 1951 ; Col James 
L Rose, Jan 1952; Lt Col Stanley W Irons, 
2 Jun 1952; Col Robert R Smith, Nov 
1952-unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Oflfensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Holland, 17, 18, and 23 Sep 1944. 

Insigne. On a blue oval with a yellow 
border an aerial camera supporting 
binoculars and a torch, the whole group 
winged, all yellow with flame proper and 
lenses blue and white, above the torch and 
between the tips of the wings three white 
stars. (Approved 5 Jan 1954.) 

357th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 357th Fighter Group on 
I Dec 1942 and activated the same day. 
Used P-39's in preparing for duty overseas. 
Moved to England in Nov 1943 and be- 
came part of Eighth AF. Trained with 
P-51's and began operations on 11 Feb 
1944 by making a fighter sweep over 
Rouen. Served primarily as an escort or- 
ganization, providing penetration, target, 
and withdrawal support for bombers that 
attacked strategic objectives on the Con- 
tinent. Participated in the assault against 
the German Air Force and aircraft indus- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VNirS— GROUPS 



239 




try during Big Week, 20-25 F^^ 1944. 
Received a DUG for two escort missions 
in which heavy opposition was encoun- 
tered from enemy fighters: on 6 Mar 1944 
provided target and withdrawal support 
during the first attack that heavy bombers 
of Eighth AF made on Berlin; on 29 Jun 
1944 protected bombers that struck tar- 
gets at Leipzig. Received second DUG 
for operations on 14 Jan 1945 when the 
group, covering bombers on a raid to Der- 
ben, broke up an attack by a large force 
of interceptors and in the ensuing aerial 
battle destroyed a number of the enemy 
planes. In addition to escort the group 
conducted counter-air patrols, made 
fighter sweeps, and flew strafing and dive- 
bombing missions in which it attacked air- 
dromes, marshalling yards, locomotives, 
bridges, barges, tugboats, highways, ve- 
hicles, fuel dumps, and other targets. 
Participated in the invasion of Normandy 
in Jun 1944; the breakthrough at St Lo 
in Jul; the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944- 



Jan 1945; and the airborne assault across 
the Rhine in Mar 1945. Flew its last mis- 
sion, an escort operation, on 25 Apr 1945. 
Moved to Germany in Jul and assigned to 
United States Air Forces in Europe for 
duty with the army of occupation. Inac- 
tivated in Germany on 20 Aug 1946. 

Redesignated 121st Fighter Group. Al- 
lottee! to ANG (Ohio) on 21 Aug 1946. 
Extended federal recognition on 26 Jun 
1948. Redesignated 121st Fighter-Bomber 
Group on 16 Oct 1952. 

Squadrons. 562^; 1942-1946. 363d: 
1942-1946. s64th (later i66th): 1942- 
1946. 

Stations. Hamilton Field, Calif, i Dec 
1942; Tonopah AAFld, Nev, 4 Mar 1943; 
Santa Rosa AAFld, Calif, 3 Jun 1943; Oro- 
ville AAFld, Calif, 18 Aug 1943; Casper 
AAFld, Wyo, 7 Oct-9 Nov 1943; Raydon, 
England, 30 Nov 1943 ; Leiston, England, 
31 Jan 1944-8 Jul 1945; Neubiberg, Ger- 
many, 21 Jul 1945-20 Aug 1946. 

Commanders. Lt Col Loring F Stetson 
Jr, I Dec 1942; Lt Col Edwin S Chickering, 
7 Jul 1943; Col Henry R Spicer, 17 Feb 
1944; Col Donald W Graham, 7 Mar 1944; 
Lt Col John D Landers, 11 Oct 1944; Col 
Irwin H Dregne, 2 Dec 1944; Lt Col An- 
drew J Evans Jr, 21 Jul 1945; Lt Col Wayne 
E Rhynard, c. 20 Nov 1945; Col Barton M 
Russell, Apr 1946-unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Germany, 6 Mar and 29 Jun 1944; 
Derben, Germany, 14 Jan 1945. French 



240 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Croix de Guerre with Palm: ii Feb 1944- 
15 Jan 1945. 

Insigne. Shield: Per fess nebuly azure 
and or, in chief a chaplet azure and argent 
winged or, in base a cubit arm in armor 
brandishing a sword proper hiked bronze. 
Motto: SEMPER OMNIA— All Things 
at AH Times. (Approved 27 May 1953.) 

358th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 358th Fighter Group on 
20 Dec 1942. Activated on i Jan 1943. 
Trained with P-47's. Moved to England 
during Sep-Oct 1943. Began operations 
on 20 Dec 1943 and served in combat with 
Eighth and, later, Ninth AF until V-E 
Day. Engaged in escort work until Apr 
1944 to cover the operations of bombers 
that the AAF sent against targets on the 
Continent. Dive-bombed marshalling 
yards and airfields during Apr to help pre- 
pare for the invasion of Normandy. Con- 
tinued attacks on enemy communications 
and flew escort missions during May. 
Escorted troop carriers over the Cotentin 



Peninsula on 6 and 7 Jun, and attacked 
bridges, rail lines and trains, vehicles, and 
troop concentrations during the remainder 
of the month. Moved to the Continent in 
Jul and took part in operations that re- 
sulted in the Allied breakthrough at St 
Lo. Continued to fly escort, interdictory, 
and close-support missions during the 
Allied drive across France and into Ger- 
many, earning four citations before the 
end of the war. Received first DUC for 
operations from 24 Dec 1944 to 2 Jan 1945 
when the group not only supported 
Seventh Army by attacking rail lines and 
rolling stock, vehicles, buildings, and 
artillery, but also destroyed numerous 
fighter planes during a major assault by 
the German Air Force against Allied air- 
fields. Received second DUC for 19-20 
Mar 1945, a period in which the 358th 
destroyed and damaged large numbers of 
motor transports and thus hampered the 
evacuation of German forces that were 
withdrawing from the area west of the 
Rhine. Received third DUC for perform- 
ance between 8 and 25 Apr 1945 when 
the group attacked enemy airfields in the 
region of Munich and Ingolstadt, engaged 
the enemy in aerial combat, and supported 
advancing ground forces by attacking such 
targets as motor transports, tanks, loco- 
motives, guns, and buildings. Received 
fourth citation, the French Croix de 
Guerre with Palm, for assisting in the 
liberation of France. Returned to the US 
in Jul 1945. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945. 
Redesignated i22d Fighter Group, Al- 
lotted to ANG (Ind) on 24 May 1946. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



241 



Extended federal recognition on 9 Dec 
1946. Ordered into active service on i Feb 
195 1. Assigned to Air Defense Com- 
mand. Redesignated i22d Fighter-Inter- 
ceptor Group. Trained with F-51 and 
F-84 aircraft. Inactivated on 7 Feb 1952. 
Relieved from active service, returned to 
ANG (Ind), redesignated i22d Fighter- 
Bomber Group, and activated, on i Nov 
1952. 

Squadrons, iiph: 1951-1952. 166th: 
1951-1952. 2^$th (later 163d) : 1943-1945; 
1951-1952. 366th: 1943-1945. 36'jth: 
1943-1945. 

Stations. Richmond AAB, Va, i Jan 
1943; Baltimore, Md, 28 Apr 1943; Camp 
Springs AAFld, Md, 28 May 1943; Phila- 
delphia Mun Aprt, Pa, 16 Jun 1943; Rich- 
mond AAB, Va, 13 Aug-25 Sep~i943; 
Goxhill, England, 20 Oct 1943; Leiston, 
England, 29 Nov 1943; Raydon, England, 
31 Jan 1944; High Halden, England, 13 
Apr 1944; Cretteville, France, 3 Jul 1944; 
Pontorson, France, 14 Aug 1944; Vitry-le- 
Francois, France, 14 Sep 1944; Mourmelon, 
France, 16 Oct 1944; To\il, France, 9 Nov 
1944; Sandhofen, Germany, 2 Apr 1945; 
Reims, France, c. 23 Jun- Jul 1945; La 
Junta AAFld, Colo, 3 Aug-7 Nov 1945. 
Stout Field, Ind, i Feb 1951; Baer Field, 
Ind, 10 Mar 1951-7 Feb 1952. 

Commanders. Col Cecil L Wells, i Jan 
1943; Col James B Tipton, 20 Sep 1944- 
unkn; Lt Col John MThacker, 1945. Col 
John A Carey, 195 i-c. Feb 1952. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Air 
Offensive, Europe; Normandy; Northern 



France; Rhineland; Ardennes-Alsace; 
Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Ardennes, 24 Dec 1944-2 Jan 1945; 
ETO, 19-20 Mar 1945; Germany, 8-25 
Apr 1945. French Croix de Guerre vs^ith 
Palm. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure (light blue) a 
bordure or (Air Force yellow), overall and 
saltirewise an escutcheon in prospect, (per 
bend or and sable, in chief four mullets of 
the last) and a jet type aircraft with ex- 
haust fire all proper. Motto: CONQUER 
ABOVE. (Approved 28 Jul 1954.) 

359th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 359th Fighter Group on 
20 Dec 1942. Activated on 15 Jan 1943. 
Apparently not manned until Mar 1943. 
Moved to England in Oct 1943 and became 
part of Eighth AF. Entered combat in 
mid-Dec, after some of the pilots had al- 
ready flown combat missions with another 



242 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



fighter group. Began operations with 
P-47's; converted to P-51's in Apr 1944. 
In combat, Dec 1943-May 1945, flew 
escort, patrol, strafing, dive-bombing, and 
weather-reconnaissance missions. At first, 
engaged primarily in escort activities to 
cover bombers that attacked airfields in 
France. Expanded area of operations in 
May 1944 to provide escort for bombers 
that struck rail centers in Germany and 
oil targets in Poland. Supported the in- 
vasion of Normandy (Jun 1944), patrol- 
ling the English Channel, escorting bom- 
bardment formations to the French coast, 
and dive-bombing and strafing bridges, 
locomotives, and rail lines near the battle 
area. During the period Jul 1944-Feb 
1945, engaged chiefly in escorting bombers 
to oil refineries, marshalling yards, and 
other targets in such cities as Ludwig- 
shafen, Stuttgart, Frankfurt, Berlin, 
Merseburg, and Brux. Received a DUG 
for operations over Germany on 11 Sep 
1944 when the group protected a forma- 
tion of heavy bombers against large num- 
bers of enemy fighters. In addition to its 
escort duties, the group supported cam- 
paigns in France during Jul and Aug 1944, 
bombed enemy positions to support the 
airborne invasion of Holland in Sep, and 
participated in the Battle of the Bulge (Dec 
1944-Jan 1945). Flew missions to support 
the assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945, 
and escorted medium bombers that at- 
tacked various communications targets, 
Feb-Apr 1945. Returned to the US in 
Nov 1945. Inactivated on 10 Nov 1945. 



Redesignated 123d Fighter Group. Al- 
lotted to ANG (Ky) on 24 May 1946. Ex- 
tended federal recognition on 20 Sep 1947. 
Ordered into active service on 10 Oct 1950. 
Redesignated 123d Fighter-Bomber 
Group. Assigned to Tactical Air Com- 
mand. Trained with F-51's until late in 
1951. Converted to F-84's in Nov and 
moved to England to become part of 
United States Air Forces in Europe. 
Transferred to the US without personnel 
and equipment, relieved from active duty, 
returned to control of ANG (Ky), and re- 
designated 123d Fighter-Interceptor 
Group, on 10 Jul 1952. Redesignated 123d 
Fighter-Bomber Group in Jan 1953. 

Squadrons. i$6th: 1950-1952. j68^A 
(later 165th): 1943-1945; 1950-1952. 
^Sgth (later 167th): 1943-1945; 1950-1952. 
370th: 1943-1945- 

Stations. Westover Field, Mass, 15 Jan 
1943; Grenier Field, NH, 7 Apr 1943; Re- 
public Field, NY, 11 Jul 1943; Westover 
Field, Mass, 23 Aug-2 Oct 1943; East 
Wretham, England, Oct 1943-Nov 1945; 
Camp Kilmer, NJ, 9-10 Nov 1945. Standi- 
ford Mun Aprt, Ky, 10 Oct 1950; Godman 
AFB, Ky, c. 20 Oct 1950-15 Nov 1951; 
Manston RAF Station, England, 10 Dec 
1951-10 Jul 1952. 

Commanders. Col Avelin P Tacon Jr, 
Jan 1943; Col John P Randolph, 12 Nov 
1944; Lt Col Donald A Baccus, 8 Apr 1945; 
Lt Col Daniel D McKee, c. 16 Sep 1945- 
unkn. Col Philip P Ardery, 10 Oct 1950; 
Lt Col William J Payne, 26 Oct 1950; Lt 
Col Chesley G Peterson, 20 Apr 195 1; Lt 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VmTS— GROUPS 



243 



Col Delynn E Anderson, 4 Aug 1951-Jul 
1952. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes- Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Germany, 11 Sep 1944. 

Insigne. Shield : Per chevron, azure and 
or; in base a star argent over a hurt, be- 
tween a bar voided per roundle azure; 
three rays issuing from the hurt to three 
winged plates argent, over three billets or, 
in chief; over all a chevron, per chevron, 
of the last and gules; the shield edged in 
chief or. Motto: FORTES FORTUNA 
JUVAT— Fortune Assists the Brave. (Ap- 
proved 20 Dec 1951.) 

360th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 360th Fighter Group on 
20 Dec 1942. Activated on 15 Jan 1943. 
Assigned to Fourth AF. Used P-38's to 
train replacement crews for combat. Dis- 
banded on 31 Mar 1944. 

Squadrons. 371st: 1943-1944. 372^/; 

1943-1944- 373d- 1943-1944- 446th' 
1943-1944- 

Stations. Glendale, Calif, 15 Jan 1943; 
Muroc AAB, Calif, 14 Apr 1943; Salinas 
AAB, Calif, 22 Sep 1943; Santa Maria 
AAFld, Calif, 11 Jan-31 Mar 1944. 

Commanders. Maj Frederick C 
Grambo, 19 Jan 1943; Lt Col John S 
Chennault, May 1943-31 Mar 1944. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 



361st FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 361st Fighter Group on 
28 Jan 1943. Activated on 10 Feb 1943. 
Joined Eighth AF in England in Nov 
1943. Entered combat with P-47 aircraft 
on 21 Jan 1944 and converted to P-51's 
in May 1944. Operated from England 
during 1944 but sent a detachment to 
France for operations in the Battle of the 
Bulge (Dec 1944-Jan 1945), moved to 
Belgium in Feb 1945, and returned to 
England in Apr 1945. Served primarily 
as an escort organization, covering the 
penetration, attack, and withdrawal of 
bomber formations that the AAF sent 
against targets on the Continent. Also 
engaged in counter-air patrols, fighter 
sweeps, and strafing and dive-bombing 
missions. Attacked such targets as air- 
dromes, marshalling yards, missile sites, 
industrial areas, ordnance depots, oil re- 
fineries, trains, and highways. During its 
operations, participated in the assault 
against the German Air Force and aircraft 
industry during Big Week, 20-25 F^b 
1944; the Normandy invasion, Jun 1944; 



244 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



the St Lo breakthrough, Jul 1944; the air- 
borne attack on Holland, Sep 1944; and 
the airborne assault across the Rhine, Mar 
1945. Flew last combat mission on 20 Apr 

1945. Returned to the US in Nov. Inacti- 
vated on 10 Nov 1945. 

Redesignated 127th Fighter Group. Al- 
lotted to ANG (Mich) on 24 May 1946. 
Extended federal recognition on 29 Sep 

1946. Ordered into active service on i Feb 
1951. Assigned to Air Training Com- 
mand. Redesignated 127th Pilot Training 
Group in Mar 1951. Used F-51, F-80, 
and F-84 aircraft while serving as a train- 
ing organization. Relieved from active 
duty and returned to ANG (Mich), on i 
Nov 1952. Redesignated 127th Fighter- 
Bomber Group. 

Squadrons. loph: 1951-1952. igph: 
1951-1952. 374th (later 171st): 1943- 

1945; 1951-1952. 375th: 1943-1945- 
376th: 1943-1945. 

Stations. Richmond AAB, Va, 10 Feb 
1943; Langley Field, Va, 26 May 1943; 
Millville AAFld, NJ, 20 Jul 1943; Camp 
Springs AAFld, Md, 28 Aug 1943; Rich- 
mond AAB, Va, 20 Sep-ii Nov 1943; Bot- 
tisham, England, 30 Nov 1943; Little 
Walden, England, 26 Sep 1944; Chievres, 
Belgium, i Feb-Apr 1945; Little Walden, 
England, 9 Apr-3 Nov 1945; Camp Kil- 
mer, NJ, 9-10 Nov 1945. Detroit- Wayne 
Major Aprt, Mich, i Feb 1951 ; Luke AFB, 
Ariz, 23 Feb 1951-1 Nov 1952. 

Commanders. Col Thomas J J Chris- 
tian Jr, 10 Feb 1943; Col Ronald F Fallows, 
14 Aug 1944; Lt Col Roy B Caviness, 31 
Aug 1944; Lt Col Joseph J Kruzel, 20 Sep 



1944; Lt Col Roy B Caviness, 3 Nov 1944; 
Col Junius W Dennison Jr, 2 Dec 1944; 
Lt Col Roy B Caviness, 15 Apr 1945; Col 
John D Landers, 29 Jun 1945-unkn. Col 
David T McKnight, 1951 ; Col Maurice L 
Martin, 6 Aug 1951-unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Gules (scarlet) a bend- 
let divided per bend into five equal parts, 
the center azure, and the outer two or, and 
of the first (dark red), between in chief 
three fleur-de-lis in pale, of the third, and 
in base a giant (Saguaro) cactus footed to 
the sinister by an apple blossom stemmed 
both proper. Motto: PARATI STA- 
MUS— We Stand Ready. (Approved 30 
Jul 1954.) 

362d FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 362d Fighter Group on 
II Feb 1943. Activated on i Mar 1943. 
Trained for combat with P-47's. Moved 
to England in Nov 1943. Assigned to 
Ninth AF. Flew first mission, escorting 
B-24's that attacked V-weapon launching 
sites near Pas de Calais, on 8 Feb 1944. 
Until Apr 1944, engaged chiefly in escort- 
ing bombers that struck factories, rail- 
roads, airfields, and other targets on the 
Continent. Repeatedly attacked com- 
munications in northern France and in 
Belgium during Apr and May, in prepa- 
ration for the invasion of Normandy. 
Escorted C-47's that dropped paratroops 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



245 



X 




over Normandy on 6 and 7 Jun. After- 
ward, engaged primarily in interdictory 
and close-support activities, flying strafing 
and dive-bombing missions designed to 
assist the operations of ground forces. 
Moved to the Continent early in Jul 1944 
and bombed enemy troops to aid the Al- 
lied breakthrough at St Lo later that 
month. Supported the subsequent ad- 
vance of ground forces toward the Rhine 
by attacking railroads, trucks, bridges, 
power stations, fuel dumps, and other fa- 
cilities. Received a DUG for a mission 
against the harbor at Brest on 25 Aug 1944 
when, in spite of heavy overcast and in- 
tense enemy fire, the group attacked at 
low altitude, hitting naval installations, 
cruisers, troop transports, merchant ves- 
sels, and other objectives. Bombed and 
strafed such targets as flak positions, ar- 
mored vehicles, and troop concentrations 
during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944- 
Jan 1945. Received second DUG for ac- 
tion over the Moselle-Rhine River triangle : 



despite the intense antiaircraft fire encoun- 
tered while flying armed reconnaissance 
in close cooperation with infantry forces 
in that area on 16 Mar 1945, the group hit 
enemy forces, equipment, and facihties, 
its targets including motor transports, ar- 
mored vehicles, railroads, railway cars, and 
gun emplacements. Continued operations 
until I May 1945. Returned to the US, 
Aug-Sep 1945. Trained with P-51's. In- 
activated on i Aug 1946. 

Redesignated 128th Fighter Group. Al- 
lotted to ANG (Wis) on 2 Aug 1946. 
Extended federal recognition on 29 Jun 
1948. Ordered to active duty on i Feb 

1951. Assigned to Air Defense Com- 
mand. Redesignated 128th Fighter-In- 
terceptor Group. Inactivated on 6 Feb 

1952. Relieved from active duty, returned 
to ANG (Wis), and activated, on i Nov 
1952. 

Squadrons. 126th: 1951-1952. ij2d: 
1951-1952. iy6i>h: 1951-1952. 377th: 
1943-1946- 37^ih: 1943-1946. 379th: 
1943-1946. 

Stations. Westover Field, Mass, i Mar 
1943; Bradley Field, Conn, 22 Jun 1943; 
Groton Field, Conn, 2 Aug 1943; Mitchel 
Field, NY, 19 Oct-12 Nov 1943; Worm- 
ingford, England, 30 Nov 1943; Head- 
corn, England, 13 Apr 1944; LigneroUes, 
France, 2 Jul 1944 ; Rennes, France, 10 Aug 
1944; Prosnes, France, 19 Sep 1944; 
Rouvres, France, 5 Nov 1944; Frankfurt, 
Germany, 8 Apr 1945; Furth, Germany, 30 
Apr 1945; Illesheim, Germany, 3 May 
1945; Straubing, Germany, 12 May-Aug 
1945; Seymour Johnson Field, NC, 5 Sep 



246 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



1945; Biggs Field, Tex, 3 Dec 1945-1 Aug 
1946. General Billy Mitchell Field, Wis, i 
Feb 1951; Truax Field, Wis, 16 Feb 1951-6 
Feb 1952. 
Commanders. Col Morton D Magoffin, 

I Mar 1943; Col Joseph L Laughlin, 10 
Aug 1944-1 Aug 1946. Col Paul Fojtik, 
1951-Feb 1952. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Air 
Offensive, Europe; Normandy; Northern 
France; Rhineland; Ardennes-Alsace; 
Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Brest, France, 25 Aug 1944; Mo- 
selle-Rhine River Triangle, 16 Mar 1945. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a bend or be- 
tween in chief, two barbs (triple pronged) 
of the last and a cumulo nimbus cloud 
proper issuing from base. Over all from 
dexter base, two parallel piles point to sin- 
ister chief, gules, points, sable. Motto: 
SURSUM PRORSUSQUE— Upward and 
Onward. (Approved 21 Apr 1954.) 

363d RECONNAISSANCE 
GROUP 

Constituted as 363d Fighter Group on 

II Feb 1943. Activated on i Mar 1943. 
Trained with P-39's and served as part of 
the air defense force. Moved to England 
in Dec 1943 for duty with Ninth AF. 
Equipped with P-51's in Jan 1944 and en- 
tered combat in Feb. Escorted bombers 
and fighter-bombers to targets in France, 
Germany, and the Low Countries; strafed 
and dive-bombed trains, marshalling yards, 
bridges, vehicles, airfields, troops, gun 




positions, and other targets on the Conti- 
nent. Supported the invasion of Nor- 
mandy in Jun 1944 by escorting troop car- 
riers and gliders and by attacking enemy 
positions near the front lines, and moved 
to the Continent at the end of Jun to take 
part in the Allied drive to the German 
border. 

Redesignated 363d Tactical Reconnais- 
sance Group in Sep 1944. Equipped with 
F-5 and F-6 aircraft. Flew photographic 
missions to support both air and ground 
operations; directed fighter-bombers to 
railway, highway, and waterway traffic, 
bridges, gun positions, troop concentra- 
tions, and other opportune targets; ad- 
justed artillery fire; and took photographs 
to assess results of Allied bombardment 
operations. Received two Belgian cita- 
tions for reconnaissance activities, includ- 
ing the group's support of the assault on 
the Siegfried Line and its participation 
in the Battle of the Bulge (Dec 1944- Jan 
1945) . Assisted Ninth Army's drive across 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VNITS— GROUPS 



247 



the Rhine and deep into Germany during 
the period from Feb 1945 to V-E Day. 
Redesignated 363d Reconnaissance Group 
in Jun 1945. Returned to the US in Dec. 
Inactivated on 11 Dec 1945. 

Activated on 29 Jul 1946. Equipped 
initially with RF-80 and RB-26 aircraft, 
and later with RF-84 and RB-57 aircraft. 
Redesignated 363d Tactical Reconnais- 
sance Group in Jun 1948. 

Squadrons, gth: 1953-. 12th: 1946- 
1947. lyth: 1951-. 31st: 1945. 33d: 1945. 
3gth: 1945. r^$th: 1945. 160th (formerly 
380th, later i6th): 1943-1945; 1947-1949, 
1950-. i6ist (formerly 381st, later i8th) : 

1943-1945; 194^1949, 1951-- -^62^ (for- 
merly 382d): 1943-1944; 1946-1950. 

Stations. Hamilton Field, Calif, i Mar 
1943; Santa Rosa AAFld, Calif, Aug 1943; 
Sacramento, Calif, Oct-c. 3 Dec 1943; 
Keevil, England, c. 23 Dec 1943; Riven- 
hall, England, Jan 1944; Staplehurst, 
England, Apr 1944; Maupertuis, France, 
c. I Jul 1944; Azeville, France, Aug 1944; 
Le Mans, France, Sep 1944; Luxembourg, 
Luxembourg, c. i Oct 1944; Le Culot, 
Belgium, c. 29 Oct 1944; Venlo, Holland, 
Mar 1945; Gutersloh, Germany, c. 15 Apr 
1945; Brunswick, Germany, c. 22 Apr 
1945; Wiesbaden, Germany, May 1945; 
Eschwege, Germany, Aug 1945; Darm- 
stadt, Germany, Sep-c. 2 Dec 1945; Camp 
Kilmer, NJ, c. 9-1 1 Dec 1945. Brooks 
Field, Tex, 29 Jul 1946; Langley Field, Va, 
Dec 1947; Shaw AFB, SC, c. 2 Apr 1951-. 

Commanders. Lt Col John R Ulricson, 
c. I Mar 1943; Capt Dave H Culberson, c. 
8 Apr 1943; Maj Theodore C Bunker, c. 27 



Apr 1943; Col John R Ulricson, 5 Jun 1943; 
Col James B Tipton, 7 May 1944; Col 
James M Smelley, c. i Sep 1944; Lt Col 
Seth A Mize, May 1945-unkn. Col Rus- 
sell A Berg, 29 Jul 1946; Col John R Dyas, 
c. 23 Aug 1946; Col James M Smelley, 5 
Nov 1947; Lt Col Walter W Berg, 30 Jun 
1949; Col Willis F Chapman, 31 Oct 1949; 
Col Benjamin G Willis, 7 Sep 1950; Maj 
Charles N Keppler, c. 13 Mar 1951; Col 
Willie O Jackson Jr, 2 Apr 1951; Lt Col 
Robert R Smith, i Nov 1951; Lt Col 
Robert R Evans, 5 Mar 1952; Col John 
M McNabb, 17 Mar 1952; Col Robert R 
Smith, c. 4 Mar 1953; Col Paul A Petti- 
grew, c. 16 Mar 1955-. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhine- 
land; Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Cited in the Order of the 
Day, Belgian Army: i Oct 1944-; 18 Dec 
1944-15 Jan 1945. Belgian Fourragere. 

Insigne. Shield: Quarterly, first quar- 
ter cheeky, argent and gules; second and 
third quarters, azure; fourth quarter gules, 
a lion rampant or, armed and langued 
azure, all within a diminutive of the 
border or. Wreath of the colors, argent 
and gules. Motto: VOIR C'EST SAV- 
OIR — To See is To Know. (Approved 16 
Jun 1952.) 

364th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 364th Fighter Group on 
25 May 1943. Activated on i Jun 1943. 
Trained with P-38's. Moved to England, 
Jan-Feb 1944. Began operations with 



248 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 




Eighth AF in Mar. Flew escort, dive- 
bombing, strafing, and patrol missions in 
France, Belgium, Holland, and Germany. 
At first, operated primarily as escort for 
heavy bombers. Patrolled the English 
Channel during the Normandy invasion 
in Jun 1944, and, while continuing escort 
operations, supported ground forces in 
France after the invasion by strafing and 
bombing locomotives, marshalling yards, 
bridges, barges, and other targets. Con- 
verted from P-38's to P-51's in the sum- 
mer of 1944 and from then until the end 
of the vi'ar flew many long-range escort 
missions for B-17's that attacked oil re- 
fineries, industries, and other strategic 
objectives at Berlin, Regensburg, Merse- 
burg, Stuttgart, Brussels, and elsewhere. 
Received a DUG for an escort mission on 
27 Dec 1944 when the group dispersed a 
large force of German fighters that at- 
tacked the bomber formation the group 
was escorting on a raid to Frankfurt. 
Also flew air-sea rescue missions, engaged 



in patrol activities, and continued to sup- 
port ground forces as the battle line moved 
through France and into Germany. Took 
part in the effort to invade Holland by air, 
Sep 1944; the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 
1944- Jan 1945; and the assault across the 
Rhine, Mar 1945. After the war, remained 
in England until Nov 1945. Returned to 
the US. Inactivated on 10 Nov 1945. 

Redesignated 131st Fighter Group. Al- 
lotted to ANG (Mo) on 24 May 1946. 
Extended federal recognition on 15 Jul 
1946. Redesignated 131st Composite 
Group in Nov 1950, and 131st Fighter 
Group in Feb 195 1. Ordered into active 
service on i Mar 195 1. Assigned to 
Strategic Air Command. Redesignated 
131st Fighter-Bomber Group in Apr 1951. 
Assigned to Tactical Air Command in 
Nov 1951. Trained with F-51's. Re- 
lieved from active duty and returned to 
ANG (Mo), on i Dec 1952. Redesig- 
nated 131st Bombardment Group (Light). 

Squadrons, iioth: 1951-1952. ijoth: 
1951-1952. 792^; 1951-1952. sS^d: 1943- 
1945. 384th: 1943-1945. sSsth: 1943- 
1945. 

Stations. Glendale, Calif, i Jun 1943; 
Van Nuys, Calif, 12 Aug 1943; Ontario 
AAFld, Calif, 11 Oct 1943; Santa Maria 
AAFld, Calif, c. 7 Dec 1943-c. 11 Jan 1944; 
Honington, England, Feb 1944-c. Nov 
1945; Camp Kilmer, NJ, 9-10 Nov 1945. 
Lambert Field, Mo, i Mar 195 1; Berg- 
strom AFB, Tex, 10 Mar 1951; George 
AFB, Calif, 7 Aug 1951-1 Dec 1952. 

Commanders. Lt Col Frederick C 
Grambo, 12 Jun 1943; Col Roy W Osborn, 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 

c. Mar 1944; Lt Col Joseph B McManus, c. 
9 Sep 1944; Lt Col John W Lowell, c. 23 
Oct 1944; Col Roy W Osborn, 2 Nov 1944; 
Lt Col Eugene P Roberts, 3 Jan-Nov 1945. 
Lt Col Val W BoUwerk, Mar 1951; Col 
Donald J M Blakeslec, c. Apr 1951; Col 
Woodrow W Ramsey, c. Dec 1951-1 Dec 
1952. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Frankfurt, Germany, 27 Dec 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, on a pile issu- 
ing from sinister chief argent an aircraft 
rocket sable banded of the second leaving 
a trail gules between two general purpose 
aerial bombs in bend sinisterwise of 
the third. Motto: PAR ATI AD 
AGENDUM— Ready for Action. (Ap- 
proved 29 Mar 1954.) 

365th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 365th Fighter Group on 
27 Apr 1943. Activated on 15 May 1943. 
Trained with P-47's. Moved to England 
in Dec 1943. Began combat operations 
with Ninth AF in Feb 1944. Engaged in 
escort activities and flew dive-bombing 
missions to attack such targets as bridges, 
airdromes, rail facilities, gun positions, and 
V-weapon sites prior to the invasion of the 
Continent. Attacked rail targets and gun 
emplacements in France during the inva- 
sion on 6 Jun. Moved to the Continent 
late in Jun and continued to dive-bomb 
targets during the succeeding weeks of the 



249 



«t.ii^.m 




battle for Normandy. Bombed targets 
near St Lo in Jul to assist Allied forces in 
breaking through German lines at that 
point, and supported the subsequent drive 
across northern France during Aug-Sep. 
In Sep, also flew patrols in cooperation 
with airborne operations in Holland. 
Cited by the Belgian government for as- 
sisting Allied armies in the period from 
the invasion of Normandy through the ini- 
tial phases of the liberation of Belgium. 
During the fall of 1944, operated in connec- 
tion with the seizure of Aachen and aided 
ground troops in the offensive toward the 
Rhine, receiving a DUC for destroying and 
damaging numerous enemy fighters over 
the Bonn-Dusseldorf area in Germany on 
21 Oct. Received second Belgian award' 
for actions during the Battle of the Bulge 
when the group struck such targets as 
vehicles, rolling stock, marshalling yards, 
gun positions, factories, and towns. Pro- 
vided cover during airborne operations 
across the Rhine in Mar 1945 and sup- 
ported the drive into Germany. Awarded 



250 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



second DUG for operations on 20 Apr 1945 
when the group attacked airfields, motor 
transports, and ammunition dumps to aid 
the Allied advance through southern Ger- 
many. Ended combat in May and took 
part in the disarmament program until 
Jun 1945. Moved to the US in Sep. In- 
activated on 22 Sep 1945. 

Redesignated i32d Fighter Group. Al- 
lotted to ANG (Iowa) on 24 May 1946. 
Extended federal recognition on 23 Aug 
1946. Ordered into active service on i 
Apr 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Com- 
mand. Redesignated i32d Fighter-Bom- 
ber Group in Jun 195 1. Assigned to Tac- 
tical Air Command in Nov 1951. 
Equipped with F-51's but with one squad- 
ron using F-84's until late in 195 1. Re- 
lieved from active service and returned, 
less personnel and equipment, to ANG 
(Iowa), on I Jan 1953. 

Squadrons. 124th: 1951-1953. ij^d: 
1951-1953. 386th (later 174th): 1943- 

1945; 1951-1953- 387th: 1943-1945- 
388th: 1943-1945. 

Stations. Richmond AAB, Va, 15 May 
1943; Langley Field, Va, 19 Jul 1943; Dov- 
er AAFld, Del, 11 Aug 1943; Richmond 
AAB, Va, 18 Nov-4 Dec 1943; Gosfield, 
England, 22 Dec 1943; Beaulieu, England, 
5 Mar 1944; Azeville, France, 28 Jun 1944; 
Lignerolles, France, 15 Aug 1944; Bre- 
tigny, France, 3 Sep 1944; Juvincourt, 
France, 15 Sep 1944; Chievres, Belgium, 
4 Oct 1944; Metz, France, 27 Dec 1944; 
Florennes/Juzaine, Belgium, 30 Jan 1945; 
Aachen, Germany, 16 Mar 1945; Fritz- 
lar, Germany, 13 Apr 1945; Suippes, 



France, c. 29 Jul 1945; Antwerp, Belgium, 
c. 22 Aug-ii Sep 1945; Camp Myles Stand- 
ish, Mass, 20-22 Sep 1945. Des Momes 
Mun Aprt, Iowa, i Apr 1951; Dow AFB, 
Maine, 15 Apr 1951; Alexandria AFB, La, 

19 Jun 1952-1 Jan 1953. 
Commanders. Col Lance Call, c. 15 

May 1943; Col Ray J Stecker, 26 Jun 1944; 
Lt Col Robert C Richardson III, 26 Apr 
1945-unkn. Col Charles G Teschner, c. 
I Apr 1951; Col Harold J Whiteman, 21 
Jun 1952-C. I Jan 1953. 

Campaigns. Air Oflfensivc, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes- Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Germany, 21 Oct 1944; Germany, 

20 Apr 1945. Cited in the Order of the 
Day, Belgian Army: 6 Jun-30 Sep 1944; 
16 Dec 1944-25 Jan 1945. Belgian Four- 
ragere. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure (sky blue), 
within a diminutive border or, a chevalier 
completely armed, in his dexter hand a 
tilting spear, with streamers; on his sinis- 
ter arm an escutcheon charged with a 
tierce, in gyrons of two bendwise; the 
horse caparisoned and in full gallop, charg- 
ing, all or, the horse's hind feet resting on 
a cloud proper, issuing from the base. 
(Approved 17 Oct 1952.) 

366th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 366th Fighter Group on 
24 May 1943. Activated on i Jun 1943. 
Prepared for overseas duty with P-47's. 
Moved to England, Dec 1943-Jan 1944. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 




Assigned to Ninth AF. Entered combat 
on 14 Mar 1944 with a fighter sweep along 
the French coast, then took part in opera- 
tions designed to prepare the way for the 
invasion of the Continent. Flew fighter 
sweeps over Normandy on 6 Jun 1944, at- 
tacking such targets as motor convoys and 
gun emplacements. Moved to the Con- 
tinent soon after D-Day and engaged pri- 
marily in dive-bombing missions against 
enemy communications and fortifications 
until May 1945. Received a DUC for sufv- 
porting ground forces on 11 Jul 1944: ap- 
proaching the assigned target — pillboxes 
in the vicinity of St Lo — the -group dis- 
covered an enemy tank column unknown 
to Allied infantry; despite driving rain 
and intense antiaircraft fire^jhe gf«up not 
only attacked assigned/<3b)ectives but also 
severely damaged the enemy's armored 
force. Among other operations, the 
group supported Allied armored columns 
during the breakthrough at St Lo in Jul 



251 

1944; attacked flak positions near Eind- 
hoven during the airborne landing in Hol- 
land in Sep 1944; flew armed reconnais- 
sance missions over the battle area during 
the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945; 
and escorted bombers during the airborne 
assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. The 
366th frequently attacked such targets as 
railroads, highways, bridges, motor trans- 
ports, gun emplacements, supply depots, 
and troops; often escorted bombers that 
hit airfields, factories, and marshalling 
yards; sometimes flew area patrols; and on 
occasion dropped leaflets. Flew last mis- 
sion, attacking harbors at Kiel and Flens- 
burg, on 3 May 1945. Remained in Ger- 
many after the war and, assigned to United 
States Air Forces in Europe, became part 
of the occupation force. Inactivated in 
Germany on 20 Aug 1946. 

Redesignated 366th Fighter-Bomber 
Group. Activated in the US on i Jan 1953. 
Assigned to Tactical Air Command. 
Trained with F-51, F-84, and F-86 air- 
craft. 

Squadrons. ^Sgth: 1943-1946; 1953- 
Sgoth: 1943-1946; 1953-. 391st: 1943- 
1946; 1953-. 

Stations. Richmond AAB, Va, i Jun 
1943; Bluethenthal Field, NC, 9 Aug 1943; 
Richmond AAB, Va, 3-17 Dec 1943 ; Mem- 
bury, England, 10 Jan 1944; Thruxton, 
England, i Mar-12 Jun 1944; St Pierre du 
Mont, France, 17 Jun 1944; Dreux/ 
Vermouillet, France, 24 Aug 1944; Laon/ 
Couvron, France, 8 Sep 1944; Assche, Bel- 
gium, 19 Nov 1944; Munster/Handorf, 
Germany, 11 Apr 1945; Bayreuth/Bind- 



252 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



lach, Germany, 25 Jun 1945; Fritzlar, 
Germany, 14 Sep 1945-20 Aug 1946. 
Alexandria AFB, La, i Jan 1953- 

CoMMANDERs. Maj Morris C Crossen, i 
Jun 1943; Col Dyke F Meyer, 11 Jul 1943; 
Lt Col James P Tipton, 19 Apr 1944; Lt 
Col Donald K Bennett, 30 Apr 1944; Col 
Harold N Holt, c. 22 May 1944; Lt Col 
Ansel J Wheeler, 28 Apr 1945; Col Clar- 
ence T Edwinson, May 1946-unkn. Col 
Harold J Whiteman, 1953; Lt Col Carroll 
B McElroy, 9 Jul 1953; Col Timothy F 
O'Keefe, 8 Aug 1953; Col Gerald J Dix, i 
Sep 1954; Col Clyde B Slocumb Jr, 16 Feb 

I955-- 
Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 

Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 

Ardennes- Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Normandy, 11 Jul 1944. Cited in the 
Order of the Day, Belgian Army: 6 Jun- 
30 Sep 1944; I Oct 1944- ; 18 Dec 1944-15 
Jan 1945. Belgian Fourragere. 

Insigne. Shield: Vert, a tiger's face 
proper, armed and embrued gules. 
Motto: AUDENTES FORTUNA JU- 
VAT— Fortune Favors the Bold. (Ap- 
proved 6 Oct 1954.) 

367th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 367th Fighter Group on 
26 May igif^^Actimted on 15 Jul 1943. 
Trained w^ith P^'s. Moved to England, 
Mar-Apr 1944, andx^ssigned to Ninth AF. 
Equipped with P-38's in Apr 1944 
and converted to P-47's in Feb 1945. En- 
tered combat in May 1944, attacking rail- 




roads, bridges, hangars, and other targets 
in western France, and escorting bombers 
that struck airfields, marshalling yards, 
and other facilities in the same area. From 
D-Day to 8 Jun 1944, provided cover for 
Allied forces crossing the Channel; dur- 
ing the remainder of Jun, bombed and 
strafed convoys, troops, flak towers, power 
stations, and other objectives behind the 
invasion beaches. Moved to the Continent 
in Jul 1944 and operated chiefly in support 
of ground forces until V-E Day. Struck 
railroads, marshalling yards, and trains 
to prevent enemy reinforcements from 
reaching the front during the Allied break- 
through at St Lo in Jul 1944. Received a 
DUC for a mission in France on 25 Aug: 
after attacking landing grounds at Clastres, 
Peronne, and Rosieries through an intense 
antiaircraft barrage, the group engaged a 
number of enemy planes and then, despite 
a low fuel supply, strafed a train and con- 
voy after leaving the scene of battle; later 
the same day the 367th flew a fighter 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VNirS—GROUPS 



253 



sweep of more than 800 miles, hitting land- 
ing grounds at Cognac, Bourges, and 
Dijon. Attacked German strong points 
to aid the Allied push against the Siegfried 
Line in the fall of 1944. On 26 Dec, dur- 
ing the Battle of the Bulge, escorted C-47's 
that dropped supplies to Allied troops en- 
circled at Bastogne. Received another 
DUC for action on 19 Mar 1945: although' 
its target was located in mountainous ter- 
rain, concealed by ground haze, and well- 
defended by antiaircraft artillery, the 
group descended to low altitude to bomb 
and strafe the headquarters of the German 
Commander-in-Chief, West, at Ziegen- 
burg. Struck tanks, trucks, flak positions, 
and other objectives in support of the as- 
sault across the Rhine late in Mar and the 
final Allied operations in Germany. Flew 
last mission on V-E Day. Returned to the 
US, )ul-Aug 1945. Inactivated on 7 Nov 
1945. 

Redesignated 133d Fighter Group. Al- 
lotted to ANG (Minn) on 24 May 1946. 
Extended federal recognition on 28 Aug 
1947. Ordered into active service on i Mar 
1951. Assigned to Air Defense Command. 
Redesignated 133d Fighter-Interceptor 
Group. Inactivated on 6 Feb 1952. Re- 
lieved from active duty, returned to ANG 
(Minn), and activated, on i Dec 1952. 

Squadrons. logth: 1951-1952. ly^th: 
1951-1952. 592^; 1943-1945. 595^ (later 
179th): 1943-1945; 1951-1952. 3g4th: 

1943-1945- 
Stations. Hamilton Field, Calif, 15 Jul 

1943; Santa Rosa AAFld, Calif, 11 Oct 

1943; Oakland Mun Aprt, Calif, 10 Dec 



1943-8 Mar 1944; Stony Cross, England, 
5 Apr 1944; Ibsley, England, 6 Jul 1944; 
Beuzeville, France, 22 Jul 1944; Crique- 
ville, France, 14 Aug 1944; Peray, France, 

4 Sep 1944; Clastres, France, 8 Sep 1944; 
Juvincourt, France, 28 Oct 1944; St-Dizier, 
France, i Feb 1945; Conflans, France, 14 
Mar 1945 ; Frankfurt/Eschborn, Germany, 
10 Apr-Jul 1945; Seymour Johnson Field, 
NC, Sep-7 Nov 1945. Holman Field, 
Minn, i Mar 1951; Ft Snelling, Minn, 
21 Jan-6 Feb 1952. 

Commanders. Maj Tuevo A Ahola, 17 
Jul 1943; Lt Col John R Alison, 11 Aug 
1943; Maj Tuevo A Ahola, 22 Oct 1943; 
Maj Morris C Crossen, 25 Nov 1943; Col 
Charles M Young, 22 Jan 1944; Col Edwin 

5 Chickering, 9 Nov 1944-unkn. Col 
John R Dohny, 1951-Feb 1952. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: France, 25 Aug 1944; Germany, 19 
Mar 1945. Cited in the Order of the Day, 
Belgian Army: 6 Jun-30 Sep 1944; 16 Dec 
1944-25 Jan 1945. Belgian Fourragere. 

Insigne. Shield: Per bend azure and 
gules, throughout in bend between in chief 
the dominant constellation of the northern 
sky argent (the Big Dipper, Ursa Major, 
with the North Star in sinister chief) and 
in base a griffin sejant with left foreleg 
slightly raised or, wings, head and neck 
feathers of the first all highlighted white 
and outlined sable, a vol argent outlined 
gray. Motto: SPLENDENTES IN DE- 



254 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



FENSIONE— Shining in Defense. (Ap- 
proved 9 Jul 1954.) 

368th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 368th Fighter Group on 
24 May 1943. Activated on i Jun 1943. 
Trained with P-47's. Moved to England, 
arriving in Jan 1944. Began operations 
with Ninth AF on 14 Mar when the group 
flew a fighter sweep over the coast of 
France. Made strafing and bombing at- 
tacks on airfields, rail and highway 
bridges, trains, vehicles, flak positions, and 
V-weapon sites to help prepare for the in- 
vasion of France. Supported the landings 
in Normandy early in Jun 1944 and began 
operations from the Continent later the 
same month. Aided in the taking of 
Cherbourg, participated in the air opera- 
tions that prepared the way for the Allied 
breakthrough at St Lo on 25 Jul, and sup- 
ported ground forces during their drive 
across France. Received a DUC for sup- 
port operations in the vicinity of Mons 
on 3 Sep 1944 when the group, dispatch- 



ing seven missions against the enemy on 
that day, not only destroyed large num- 
bers of motor transports, horse-drawn ve- 
hicles, and troops, but also attacked enemy 
positions that obstructed the progress of 
ground forces. Continued to support 
ground forces, participated in the assault 
against the Siegfried Line, and took part 
in the Battle of the Bulge (Dec 1944-Jan 
1945) by attacking rail lines and trains, 
marshalling yards, roads and vehicles, 
armored columns, and gun positions. Op- 
erated with the Allied forces that pushed 
across the Rhine and into Germany. After 
V-E Day, served with the army of occu- 
pation, being assigned to United States Air 
Forces in Europe. Inactivated in Ger- 
many on 20 Aug 1946. 

Redesignated 136th Fighter Group. Al- 
lotted to ANG (Tex) on 21 Aug 1946. 
Extended federal recognition on 27 Jan 
1947. Ordered into active service on 10 
Oct 1950. Assigned to Tactical Air Com- 
mand. Redesignated 136th Fighter- 
Bomber Group. Used F-51's until early 
in 1951, then began conversion to F-84's. 
Moved to Japan, May-Jul 1951. Attached 
to Far East Air Forces for duty in the 
Korean War. Engaged primarily in in- 
terdiction but also flew close-support, es- 
cort, and armed-reconnaissance missions, 
operating first from Japan and later from 
Korea. Relieved from active duty, re- 
turned to ANG (Tex) without personnel 
and equipment, and redesignated 136th 
Fighter-Interceptor Group, on 10 Jul 1952. 
Redesignated 136th Fighter-Bomber 
Group on i Jan 1953. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VNITS— GROUPS 



255 



Squadrons, iiith: 1950-1952. i^th: 
1950-1952. 395th: 1943-1946. 3g6th 
(later iSad): 1943-1946; 1950-1952. 
597/y^; 1943-1946. 

Stations. Westover Field, Mass, i Jun 
1943; Farmingdale, NY, 23 Aug-20 Dec 
1943; Greenham Common, England, 13 
Jan 1944; Chilbolton, England, 15 Mar 
1944; Cardonville, France, 20 Jun 1944; 
Chartres, France, 23 Aug 1944; Laon, 
France, 11 Sep 1944; Chievres, Belgium, 2 
Oct 1944; Juvincourt, France, 27 Dec 1944; 
Metz, France, 5 Jan 1945; Frankfurt-am- 
Main, Germany, 15 Apr 1945; Buchschwa- 
bach, Germany, 13 May 1945; Straubing, 
Germany, 13 Aug 1945-20 Aug 1946. 
Hensley Field, Tex, 10 Oct 1950; Langley 
AFB, Va, 24 Oct 1950-13 May 1951; Ita- 
zuke, Japan, May 1951 ; Taegu, Korea, 19 
Sep 1951-10 Jul 1952. 

Commanders. Col Gilbert L Meyers, c. 
3 Jun 1943; Col Frank S Perego, i Nov 
1944; Maj Dennis Crisp, 18 Oct 1945; Lt 
Col John L Locke, 2 Nov 1945; Col Robert 
P Montgomery, 22 Apr-20 Aug 1946. Col 
Albert C Prendergast, 10 Oct 1950; Lt Col 
William N Hensley, 26 Oct 1950; Lt Col 
Gerald E Montgomery, c. 9 May 1951 ; Col 
Dean Davenport, Jun 195 1; Col William 
T Halton, c. 20 Sep 195 1; Lt Col Daniel F 
Sharp, c. 21 Mar-c. Jul 1952. 

Campaigns. World War II: Air Offen- 
sive, Europe; Normandy; Northern 
France; Rhineland; Ardennes-Alsace; 
Central Europe. Korean War: UN Sum- 
mer-Fall Offensive; Second Korean 
Winter; Korea Summer-Fall, 1952. 



Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Mons, France, 3 Sep 1944. Cited in 
the Order of the Day, Belgian Army: 6 
Jun-30 Sep 1944; 16 Dec 1944-25 Jan 1945. 
Belgian Fourragere. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a lightning bolt 
bendwise in front of a winged star or, on 
a chief argent a cluster of grapes and a 
Korean bell proper. Motto: NULLI 
SECUNDUS— Second to None. (Ap- 
proved 22 Dec 1953.) 

369th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 369th Fighter Group on 
26 May 1943. Activated on i Aug 1943. 
Assigned to Third AF, later (Mar 1944) 
to Fourth AF. Redesignated 369th 
Fighter-Bomber Group in Apr 1944, and 
369th Fighter Group in Jun 1944. Trained 
replacement crews and participated in 
various maneuvers, such as the Louisiana 
Maneuvers in the summer of 1944. Air- 
craft included A-36's, P-39's, P-40's, and 
(in 1945) P-51's. Inactivated on 10 Aug 
1945. 

Squadrons. ^gSth: 1943-1945. ^ggth: 
1943-1945. 400th: 1943-1945. 

Stations. Hamilton Field, Calif, i Aug 
1943; Marysville AAFId, Calif, c. 5 Nov 
1943; Oroville AAFld, Calif, 28 Jan 1944; 
Hamilton Field, Calif, 16 Mar 1944; De- 
Ridder AAB, La, 28 Mar 1944; Stuttgart 
AAFld, Ark, 8 Feb-io Aug 1945. 

Commanders. Col Charles Young, i 
Aug 1943; Maj Paul M Brewer Jr, 12 Feb 
1944; Lt Col Emmett S Davis, 27 Nov 
1944; Lt Col Walter W Berg, 11 Jan 1945; 



256 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Lt Col Paul T O'Pizzi, 13 May 1945; Lt 
Col Harold G Lund, 19 May-io Aug 1945. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

370th FIGHTER GROUP 




"'^"■ATQWSl TIGRIS QU150^: 



Constituted as 370th Fighter Group on 
25 May 1943. Activated on i Jul 1943. 
Trained with P-47's. Moved to England, 
Jan-Feb 1944. Assigned to Ninth AF. 
Equipped with P-38's in Feb and trained 
until I May 1944 when the group entered 
combat. Dive-bombed radar installations 
and flak towers, and escorted bombers 
that attacked bridges and marshalling 
yards in France as the Allies prepared for 
the invasion of the Continent. Provided 
cover for Allied forces that crossed the 
Channel on 6 Jun 1944, and flew armed 
reconnaissance missions over the Coten- 
tin Peninsula until the end of the month. 
Moved to the Continent in Jul 1944 to sup- 



port the drive of ground forces across 
France and into Germany. Hit gun em- 
placements, troops, supply dumps, and 
tanks near St Lo in Jul and in the Falaise- 
Argentan area in Aug 1944. Sent planes 
and pilots to England to provide cover for 
the airborne assault on Holland in Sep 

1944. Struck pillboxes and troops early 
in Oct to aid First Army's capture of 
Aachen, and afterward struck railroads, 
bridges, viaducts, and tunnels in that area. 
Received a DUC for a mission in support 
of ground forces in the Hurtgen Forest 
area on 2 Dec 1944 when, despite bad 
weather and barrages of antiaircraft and 
small-arms fire, the group dropped napalm 
bombs on a heavily defended position in 
Bergstein, setting fire to the village and in- 
flicting heavy casualties on enemy troops 
defending the area. Flew armed recon- 
naissance during the Battle of the Bulge, 
Dec 1944-Jan 1945, attacking warehouses, 
highways, railroads, motor transports, and 
other targets. Converted to P-51's, Feb- 
Mar 1945. Bombed bridges and docks in 
the vicinity of Wesel to prepare for the 
crossing of the Rhine, and patrolled the 
area as paratroops were dropped on the 
east bank on 24 Mar. Supported opera- 
tions of 2d Armored Division in the Ruhr 
Valley in Apr. Flew last mission, a sweep 
over Dessau and Wittenberg, on 4 May 

1945. Returned to the US, Sep-Nov 1945. 
Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945. 

Redesignated 140th Fighter Group. Al- 
lotted to ANG (Colo) on 24 May 

1946. Extended federal recognition on i 
Oct 1946. Ordered to active duty on i 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



257 



Apr 1951. Assigned to Tactical Air 
Command. Redesignated 140th Fighter- 
Bomber Group in May 1951. Trained 
with F-51's. ReUeved from active service 
and returned, less personnel and equip- 
ment, to ANG (Colo), on i Jan 1953. 

Squadrons. 120th: 1951-1953. igist: 
1951-1953. 401st: 1943-1945. 402d (later 
187th): 1943-1945; 1951-1953- 4^5^^' 
1943-1945. 

Stations. Westover Field, Mass, i Jul 
1943; Groton AAFld, Conn, 19 Oct 1943; 
Bradley Field, Conn, 5-20 Jan 1944; Alder- 
maston, England, 12 Feb 1944; Andover, 
England, 29 Feb-19 Jul 1944; Cardonville, 
France, 24 Jul 1944; La Vielle, France, 15 
Aug 1944; Lonray, France, 6 Sep 1944; 
Roye/Amy, France, 11 Sep 1944; Flo- 
rennes/Juxaine, Belgium, 26 Sep 1944; 
Zwartberg, Belgium, 27 Jan 1945; Guter- 
sloh, Germany, 20 Apr 1945; Sandhofen, 
Germany, 27 Jun 1945; Fritzlar, Germany, 
6 Aug-Sep 1945; Camp Myles Standish, 
Mass, c. 6-7 Nov 1945. Buckley Field, 
Colo, I Apr 195 1 ; Clovis AFB, NM, 5 Dec 
1951-1 Jan 1953. 

Commanders. Col Howard F Nichols, 
I Jul 1954; Lt Col Seth J McKee, 6 Nov 
1944; Lt Col Morgan A Giffin, 22 Feb 
1945; Col Sedi J McKee, 10 May 1945- 
unkn. Col John H Lowell, i Apr 1951; 
Col Gerald J Dix, Dec 1952-1 Jan 1953. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Hurtgen Forest, Germany, 2 Dec 
1944. Cited in the Order of the Day, 



Belgian Army: 6 Jun-30 Sep 1944; i Oct 
1944- ; 16 Dec 1944-25 Jan 1945. Belgian 
Fourragere. 

Insigne. Shield: Per bend, argent and 
cheeky, sable and argent, over all a bend 
white. Motto: MILITAT QUASI 
TIGRIS QUISQUE— Each Fights Like a 
Tiger. (Approved 4 Jun 1952.) 

371st FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 371st Fighter Group on 
25 May 1943. Activated on 15 Jul 1943. 
Moved to the European theater during 
Feb-Mar 1944 and served in combat with 
Ninth AF from Apr 1944 to May 1945. 
Began operations, using P-47's, by making 
a fighter sweep over France. Flew fighter- 
sweep, dive-bombing, and escort missions 
prior to the invasion of the Continent. 
Attacked railroads, trains, vehicles, gun 
emplacements, and buildings in France 
during the invasion of 6 Jun 1944. Pa- 
trolled beachhead areas and continued its 
assaults against the enemy during the 



258 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF W0R7-D WAR II 



remainder of the Normandy campaign. 
Participated in the aerial barrage that pre- 
pared the way for the Allied breakthrough 
at St Lo on 25 Jul, and supported the sub- 
sequent drive across northern France. 
Operated in the area of northeastern 
France and southwestern Germany during 
the fall and winter of 1944-1945, attack- 
ing such targets as storage dumps, trains, 
rail lines, marshalling yards, buildings, 
factories, bridges, roads, vehicles, and 
strong points. Conducted operations that 
supported Allied ground action in the 
Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. 
Launched a series of attacks against ve- 
hicles, factories, buildings, railroad cars, 
tanks, and gun emplacements during the 
period 15-21 Mar 1945, being awarded a 
DUG for this six-day action that contrib- 
uted to the defeat of the enemy in southern 
Germany. Continued operations until 
May 1945. Returned to the US, Oct-Nov 

1945. Inactivated on 10 Nov 1945. 
Redesignated i42d Fighter Group. Al- 
lotted to ANG (Ore) on 24 May 1946. 
Extended federal recognition on 30 Aug 

1946. Ordered into active service on i 
Mar 195 1. Assigned to Air Defense Com- 
mand. Redesignated iAp.A Fighter-Inter- 
ceptor Group in Apr 1951. Supervised 
the training of attached squadrons that 
used F-51, F-84, and F-86 aircraft. 
Inactivated on 6 Feb 1952. Returned to 
ANG (Ore) and activated, on i Dec 1952. 

Squadrons, ^o^h: 1943-1945. /f.o$th: 
1943-1945- 406th: 1943-1945. 

Stations. Richmond AAB, Va, 15 Jul 
1943; Camp Springs AAFld, Md, 30 Sep 



1943; Richmond AAB, Va, 18 Jan-14 Feb 
1944; Bisterne, England, Mar 1944; Beuze- 
ville, France, Jun 1944; Perthes, France, 18 
Sep 1944; Dole/Tavaux, France, i Oct 
1944; Tantonville, France, 20 Dec 1944; 
Metz, France, 15 Feb 1945; Frankfurt/ 
Eschborn, Germany, 7 Apr 1945; Furth, 
Germany, 5 May 1945; Horsching, Aus- 
tria, 16 Aug 1945; Stuttgart, Germany, 
Sep-Oct 1945; Camp Shanks, NY, 9-10 
Nov 1945. Portland Mun Aprt, Ore, i 
Mar 1951; O'Hare Intl Aprt, 111, 11 Apr 
1951-6 Feb 1952. 

Commanders. Col Bingham T Kleine, 
27 Jul 1943 ; Lt Col William P McBride, c. 
Sep 1945-unkn. Col Harold W Scruggs, 
195 i-c. Feb 1952. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy ; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Germany, 15-21 Mar 1945. Cited in 
the Order of the Day, Belgian Army: 6 
Jun-30 Sep 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, issuing from a 
barrulet engrailed, argent, a demi sun in 
splendour, or ; in chief a stylized futuramic 
aircraft gules, fimbriated of the second; 
issuing from base a mountain of three 
peaks vert, capped argent. Motto: 
SEMPER VIGILANS— Always on 
Guard. (Approved 24 Jul 1951.) 

372d FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 372d Fighter Group on 12 
Oct 1943 and activated on 28 Oct. As- 
signed to Fourth AF, and later (Mar 1944) 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 




to Third AF. Redesignated 3720! Fighter- 
Bomber Group in Apr 1944, and yjid 
Fighter Group in Jun 1944. Functioned 
as an operational training unit. Also pro- 
vided air support for air-ground maneu- 
vers and demonstrations, participating in 
the Louisiana Maneuvers in the summer of 
1944 and in similar activities in the US 
until after V-J Day. Primary aircraft 
were P-40's until Jun 1945, then P-51's. 
Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945. 

Redesignated 144th Fighter Group. Al- 
lotted to ANG (Calif) on 24 May 1946. 
Extended federal recognition on 2 Jun 
1948. Redesignated 144th Fighter-Inter- 
ceptor Group in Oct 1952, and 144th 
Fighter-Bomber Group in Dec 1952. 

Squadrons. 40ph: 1943-1945. 408th: 

1943-1945- 409th: 1943-1945- 

Stations. Hamilton Field, Calif, 28 Oct 
1943; Portland AAB, Ore, 7 Dec 1943; 
Esler Field, La, 29 Mar 1944; Pollock 
AAFld, La, 14 Apr 1944; Esler Field, La, 



259 

9 Feb 1945; Alexandria AAFld, La, 14 
Sep-7 Nov 1945. 

Commanders. Maj Francis E Brenner, 
28 Oct 1943; Maj Darrell G Welch, 21 
Dec 1943; Maj Joseph S Wakefield, 4 Feb 
1944; Maj John R Harrison, 16 Feb 1944; 
Lt Col Sam W Westbrook, 3 Mar 1944; Lt 
Col Robert W Stephens, 17 Mar 1945; Lt 
Col Jack J Oberhansly, 30 May 1945; 
Col George R Bickell, 6 Aug-7 Nov 
1945. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, three clouds 
two and one argent, issuing from the sec- 
ond cloud two lightning flashes one ter- 
minating on the first cloud and the other 
on the third cloud golden orange; in chief 
three mullets of the second. (Approved 10 
Feb 1954.) 

373d FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 373d Fighter Group on 25 
May 1943. Activated on 15 Aug 1943. 
Trained for combat with P-47's. Moved 
to England, Mar-Apr 1944. Assigned 
to Ninth AF. Flew first combat mission, 
a fighter sweep over Normandy, on 8 May 
1944, and then took part in preinvasion ac- 
tivities by escorting B-26's to attack air- 
dromes, bridges, and railroads in France. 
Patrolled the air over the beachhead when 
the Allies launched the Normandy in- 
vasion on 6 Jun 1944, and hit troops, tanks, 
roads, fuel depots, and other targets in the 
assault area until the end of the month. 



260 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 




Moved to the Continent in Jul 1944; struck 
railroads, hangars, boxcars, warehouses, 
and other objectives to prevent enemy re- 
inforcements from reaching the front at 
St Lo, where the Allies broke through on 
25 Jul 1944. Bombed such targets as troops, 
gun emplacements, and armored vehicles 
to aid ground troops in the Falaise-Argen- 
tan area in Aug 1944. During the Battle 
of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945, concen- 
trated on the destruction of bridges, mar- 
shalling yards, and highways. Flew 
armed reconnaissance missions to support 
ground operations in the Rhine Valley in 
Mar 1945, hitting airfields, motor trans- 
ports, and other objectives. Received a 
DUG for a mission, 20 Mar 1945, that 
greatly facilitated the crossing of the Rhine 
by Allied ground forces: without losing 
any planes, the group repeatedly dived 
through barrages of antiaircraft fire to 
bomb vital airfields east of the river; also 
attacked rail lines and highways leading to 
the Rhine, hitting rolling stock, motor 
transports, and other objectives. Con- 



tinued tactical air operations until 4 May 

1945. Returned to the US, Jul-Aug 1945. 
Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945. 

Redesignated 146th Fighter Group. Al- 
lotted to ANG (Calif) on 24 May 1946. 
Extended federal recognition on 14 Sep 

1946. Redesignated 146th Composite 
Group in Nov 1950, and 146th Fighter 
Group in Feb 195 1. Ordered into active 
service on i Apr 1951 and assigned to 
Strategic Air Command. Redesignated 
146th Fighter-Bomber Group in Jun 1951. 
Assigned to Tactical Air Command in 
Nov 195 1. Trained with F-5 1 's. Relieved 
from active duty on i Jan 1953 and re- 
turned, without personnel and equipment, 
to ANG (Calif). 

Squadrons. ijSth: 1951-1953. i86th: 
1951-1953. 790^^; 1951-1953. 410th: 
1943-1945. 411th: 1943-1945. 412th: 
1943-1945. 

Stations. Westover Field, Mass, 15 Aug 
1943; Norfolk, Va, 23 Oct 1943; Richmond 
AAB, Va, 15 Feb-15 Mar 1944; Wood- 
church, England, 4 Apr-4 Jul 1944; Tour- 
en-Bassin, France, 19 Jul 1944; St- James, 
France, 19 Aug 1944; Reims, France, 19 
Sep 1944; Le Culot, Belgium, 22 Oct 1944; 
Venlo, Holland, 11 Mar 1945; Lippstadt, 
Germany, 20 Apr 1945; Illesheim, Ger- 
many, 20 May- Jul 1945; Sioux Falls 
AAFld, SD, 4 Aug 1945; Seymour John- 
son Field, NC, 20 Aug 1945; Mitchel 
Field, NY, 28 Sep-7 Nov 1945. Lockheed 
Air Terminal, Calif, i Apr 1951; Moody 
AFB, Ga, 10 May 1951; George AFB, 
Calif, 25 Oct 195 i-i Jan 1953. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



261 



Commanders. Maj Ansel J Wheeler, 23 
Aug 1943; Col William H Schwartz Jr, 
25 Aug 1943; Col James C McGehee, 17 
Nov 1944; Lt Col James F McCarthy, May 
1945-unkn. Lt Col Jack D Blanchard, i 
Apr 195 1 ; Col Cecil E West, Jun 195 1; Col 
Earl H Dunham, 22 Jun 1951 ; Lt Col Jack 
D Blanchard, 7 Jan 1952; Col Amos F 
Riha, 4 Apr 1952; Col Paul P Douglas, 
27 Oct 1952-1 Jan 1953. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes- Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Rhine River, 20 Mar 1945. French 
Croix de Guerre with Palm: Aug 1944. 
Cited in the Order of the Day, Belgian 
Army: i Oct 1944-; 18 Dec 1944-15 Jan 
1945. Belgian Fourragere. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure (light blue), on 
a pale or, a futuristic interceptor aircraft 
sable, highlighted white, overall in saltire 
a sword piercing a vulture's wing both 
argent, detailed and outlined of the third. 
(Approved 21 Jun 1957.) 

374th TROOP CARRIER GROUP 

Constituted as 374th Troop Carrier 
Group on 7 Nov 1942 and activated in 
Australia on 12 Nov. Assigned to Fifth 
AF. Transported men and materiel in 
the theater from Nov 1942 until after the 
war, operating from Australia, New 
Guinea, Biak, and the Philippines. Used 
war-weary and worn-out aircraft, includ- 
ing B-i8's, C-39's, C-49's, C-56's, C-6o's, 
DC-3's, and DC-5's, until equipped with 




C-47's in Feb 1943. Engaged in supplying 
Allied forces in the Papuan Campaign, 
receiving one DUC for these missions, and 
being awarded another DUC for trans- 
porting troops and equipment to Papua 
and evacuating casualties to rear areas, 
Nov-Dec 1942. Received third DUC for 
transporting men and supplies over the 
Owen Stanley Range, 30 Jan-i Feb 1943, 
to aid the small force defending the air- 
drome at Wau, New Guinea. Participated 
in the first airborne operation in the South- 
west Pacific on 5 Sep 1943, dropping para- 
troops at Nadzab, New Guinea, to seize 
enemy bases and cut inland supply routes. 
Other operations included evacuating 
wounded personnel, flying courier routes, 
making passenger flights, and helping to 
move the nth Division from Luzon to 
Okinawa in Aug 1945 for staging to Ja- 
pan. From Sep 1945 to May 1946, hauled 
cargo to the occupation army in Japan 
and flew courier routes from the Philip- 
pines to Japan. Inactivated on Luzon on 
15 May 1946. 



262 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Activated in the Philippines on 15 Oct 
1946. Assigned to Far East Air Forces. 
Transferred, without personnel and equip- 
ment, to Guam on i Apr 1947. Remanned 
and equipped with O-46 and C-47 air- 
craft. Flew courier, passenger, and cargo 
routes in the western Pacific. Redesig- 
nated 374th Troop Carrier Group (Heavy) 
in May 1948. Began converting to C-54's. 
Moved to Japan in Mar 1949. Began op- 
erations in the Korea War in Jun 1950, 
using C-47 ^rid C-54 aircraft, the C-47's 
being replaced with C-124's in 1952. 
Transported men and cargo to Korea and 
evacuated wounded personnel on return 
flights. Remained in Japan after the war. 

Squadrons. 6th: 1942-1946; 1946-. 
igth: 1946-1948. 21 St: 1942-1946; 1946-. 
22^; 1942-1946; 1946-. 55^; 1942-1946. 

Stations. Brisbane, Australia, 12 Nov 
1942; Port Moresby, New Guinea, Dec 
1942; Townsville, Australia, 7 Oct 1943; 
Nadzab, New Guinea, c. i Sep 1944 ; Biak, 
c. 14 Oct 1944; Nielson Field, Luzon, 28 
May 1945-15 May 1946. Nichols Field, 
Luzon, 15 Oct 1946; Harmon Field, 
Guam, I Apr 1947; Tachikawa, Japan, 5 
Mar 1949-. 

Commanders. Lt Col Erickson S 
Nichols, 12 Nov 1942; Maj Edgar H 
Hampton, 14 Dec 1942; Col Paul H Pren- 
tiss, 17 Dec 1942; Maj Fred M Adams, 22 
May 1943; Lt Col Edgar H Hampton, 12 
Jul 1943; Lt Col Fred M Adams, 2 Aug 
1943; Col Edward T Imparato, c. 3 Aug 
1944; Col John L Sullivan, Oct 1945-unkn. 
Col Audrin R Walker, 15 Oct 1946-unkn; 
Lt Col Forrest P Coons, 1947-unkn; Col 



Troy W Crawford, 1949; Lt Col Benjamin 
T Tarver Jr, Aug 1949; Col Herbert A Bott, 
22 Jul 1950; Col Charles W Howe, Jul 
1951 ; Col Edward H Nigro, Sep 1951 ; Lt 
Col James F Hogan, Apr 1952; Col Ed- 
ward H Nigro, II Aug 1952; Lt Col Fred- 
erick C Johnson, 11 Sep 1952; Col Francis 
W Williams, 24 Apr 1953; Col HoUis B 
Tara, 15 Jun 1954-. 

Campaigns. World War II: Air Offen- 
sive, Japan; Papua; New Guinea; North- 
ern Solomons; Bismarck Archipelago; 
Western Pacific; Leyte; Luzon. Korean 
War: UN Defensive; UN Offensive; CCF 
Intervention; ist UN Counteroffensive; 
CCF Spring Offensive; UN Summer-Fall 
Offensive; Second Korean Winter; Korea 
Summer-Fall, 1952; Third Korean Win- 
ter; Korea Summer-Fall, 1953. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Papua [Nov] 1942-23 Jan 1943; 
Papua, 12 Nov-22 Dec 1942; Wau, New 
Guinea, 30 Jan-i Feb 1943 ; Korea, 27 Jun- 
15 Sep 1950. Philippine Presidential Unit 
Citation. Republic of Korea Presidential 
Unit Citation: i Jul 1951-27 Jul 1953. 

Insigne. Shield: Per bend azure and 
or, in chief a hand couped in armour, hold- 
ing a dagger, point upward, issuing from 
its handle an arrow and a wheat stalk or, 
in base a winged foot azure. Motto: 
CELERITER PUGNARE— Swiftly to 
Fight. (Approved 3 Jul 1951.) 

375th TROOP CARRIER GROUP 

Constituted as 375th Troop Carrier 
Group on 12 Nov 1942 and activated on 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GjR0C/P5 



263 




i8 Nov. Used C-47's in training for over- 
seas duty. Moved to the Pacific theater, 
Jun-Jul 1943, and assigned to Fifth AF. 
Operated from New Guinea and Biak 
from Jul 1943 until Feb 1945, transporting 
men, supplies, and equipment to forvi^ard 
bases on New Guinea and New Britain 
and in the Solomon and Admiralty Islands. 
Used armed B-17's for the more hazard- 
ous missions that involved landing on 
fields that were under enemy attack. Took 
part in the first airborne operation in the 
Southwest Pacific, dropping paratroops to 
seize enemy bases and cut overland supply 
lines at Nadzab, New Guinea, on 5 Sep 

1943. Converted to C-46 aircraft late in 

1944. Moved to the Philippines in Feb 
1945 and during the next few months most 
of its missions were supply Rights to 
ground forces on Luzon and neighboring 
islands. Transported cargo to forces in the 
Ryukyus, Jun-Jul 1945. Moved to Okin- 
awa in Aug, and after the war helped 
transfer troops from Luzon to the Ryukyus 
for staging to Japan. Also ferried liberated 



prisoners from Okinawa to Luzon. 
Moved to Japan in Sep 1945. Inactivated 
on 25 Mar 1946. 

Allotted to the reserve. Activated in the 
US on 3 Aug 1947. Redesignated 375th 
Troop Carrier Group (Medium) in Jun 
1949. Called to active duty on 15 Oct 1950. 
Assigned to Tactical Air Command and 
equipped with C-82's. Inactivated on 14 
Jul 1952. 

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 14 
Jul 1952. 

Squadrons, i^h: 1947-1949. ^$th: 
1942-1946; 1947-1952; 1952-. $6th: 1942- 
1946; 1947-1952; 1952-. $7th: 1942-1946; 
1947-1952; 1952-. ^8th: 1942-1946; 1947- 
1950. 

Stations. Bowman Field, Ky, 18 Nov 
1942; Sedalia AAFld, Mo, 23 Jan 1943; 
Laurinburg-Maxton AAB, NC, 5 May 
1943; Baer Field, Ind, 2-15 Jun 1943; Bris- 
bane, Australia, 13 Jul 1943; Port Moresby, 
New Guinea, 31 Jul 1943; Dobodura, New 
Guinea, 19 Aug 1943; Port Moresby, New 
Guinea, 19 Dec 1943; Nadzab, New 
Guinea, 22 Apr 1944; Biak, 27 Sep 1944; 
San Jose, Mindoro, 17 Feb 1945; Porac, 
Luzon, 20 May 1945; Okinawa, Aug 1945; 
Tachikawa, Japan, Sep 1945-25 Mar 1946. 
Greater Pittsburgh Aprt, Pa, 3 Aug 1947; 
Donaldson AFB, SC, 15 Oct 1950-14 Jul 
1952. Pittsburgh, Pa, 14 Jul 1952-. 

CoMMANDERs. Col Joel G Pitts, 20 Nov 
1942; Lt Col Maurice W Wiley, 25 Dec 
1944; Lt Col John L Ames Jr, Aug 1945; 
Lt Col Benjamin C King, Sep 1945; Col 
Marshall S Roth, Oct 1945-unkn. Capt 
Charles J Newell, 15 Oct 1950; Lt Col 



264 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Charles R Gianque, 7 Nov 1950; Col Ken- 
neth L Johnson, 13 Nov 1951; Lt Col 
Arthur J Staveley, i Feb 1952; Col Stewart 
H Nichols, 17 Apr-14 Jul 1952. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Japan; New 
Guinea; Northern Solomons; Bismarck 
Archipelago; Western Pacific; Leyte; 
Luzon; Ryukyus. 

Decorations. Philippine Presidential 
Unit Citation. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, between a bend, 
compony of seven or and azure, cottised 
argent, a Pegasus rampant argent, and a 
parachute between two wings of the last. 
Motto: NOLLE SECUNDIS— None but 
the Best. (Approved 12 Feb 1952.) 

376th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 376th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 19 Oct 1942 and acti- 
vated in Palestine on 31 Oct. Began com- 
bat immediately, using B-24 aircraft. Op- 
erated with Ninth AF from bases in the 



Middle East, Nov 1942-Sep 1943, and with 
Twelfth AF from Tunisia, Sep-Nov 1943. 
Attacked shipping in the Mediterranean 
and harbor installations in Libya, Tunisia, 
Sicily, and Italy to cut enemy supply lines 
to Africa. Struck airdromes, marshalling 
yards, and other objectives in Sicily and 
Italy after the fall of Tunisia in May 1943. 
Received a DUC for action against the 
enemy in the Middle East, North Africa, 
and Sicily, Nov 1942-Aug 1943. Partici- 
pated in the famed low-level assault on oil 
refineries at Ploesti and received another 
DUC: nearing Ploesti on i Aug 1943 and 
realizing that it was off course, the group 
attempted to reach its assigned objective 
from another direction ; by this time, how- 
ever, enemy defenses were thoroughly 
alerted and intense opposition forced the 
376th to divert to targets of opportunity in 
the general target area. Moved to Italy in 
Nov 1943 and operated with Fifteenth AF 
until Apr 1945; Engaged primarily in 
long-range missions to targets in Italy, 
France, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Aus- 
tria, Hungary, and the Balkans to bomb 
factories, marshalling yards, oil refineries, 
oil storage facilities, airdromes, bridges, 
harbors, and other objectives. Received a 
DUC for attacking the oil industry at 
Bratislava on 16 Jun 1944. Also flew sup- 
port and interdictory missions, assisting 
Allied forces at Anzio and Cassino during 
Feb-Mar 1944, supporting the invasion of 
Southern France in Aug 1944, aiding the 
Russian sweep into the Balkans during the 
fall of 1944, and assisting Allied troops in 
northern Italy during Apr 1945. Moved 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— Gi?Of7P5 



265 



to the US in Apr. Redesignated 376th 
Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) in 
May 1945. Inactivated on 10 Nov 1945. 

Redesignated 376th Reconnaissance 
Group. Activated on 23 May 1947. Or- 
ganized as a weather group. Inactivated 
on 20 Sep 1948. 

Redesignated 376th Bombardment 
Group (Medium). Activated on i Jun 

1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Conunand 
and equipped with B-29's. Inactivated on 
16 Jun 1952. 

Squadrons. ^i2th: 1942-1945; 1947; 
1951-1952. 513th: 1942-1945; 1947; 1951- 

1952. 51/jth: 1942-1945; 1951-1952. 
$i$th: 1942-1945. 

Stations. Lydda, Palestine, 31 Oct 
1942; Abu Sueir, Egypt, 8 Nov 1942; Gam- 
but, Libya, c. Jan 1943; Soluch, Libya, 22 
Feb 1943; Bengasi, Libya, c. 6 Apr 1943; 
Enfidaville, Tunisia, 26 Sep 1943; San Pan- 
crazio, Italy, c. 17 Nov 1943-19 Apr 1945; 
Harvard AAFld, Neb, 8 May 1945; Grand 
Island AAFld, Neb, 25 Jun-io Nov 1945. 
Gravelly Point, Va, 23 May 1947-20 Sep 
1948. Forbes AFB, Kan, i Jun 1951; 
Barksdale AFB, La, c. i Oct 1951-16 Jun 
1952. 

Commanders. Col George- F McGuire, 
I Nov 1942; Col Keith K Compton, 20 
Feb 1943 ; Col Theodore Q Graflf, c. 9 Jan 
1944; Lt Col Richard W Fellows, 10 Jul 
1944; Col Theodore Q Graff, 29 Sep 1944; 
Col Robert H Warren, 22 Feb 1945-unkn. 
Unkn, 23 May 1947-20 Sep 1948. Col 
Cecil E Combs, i Jun 1951; Col Frederick 
J Sutterlin, May-i6 Jun 1952. 



Campaigns. Air Combat, FAME 
Theater; Egypt-Libya; Air Offensive, 
Europe; Tunisia; Sicily; Naples-Foggia; 
Anzio; Rome-Arno; Normandy; North- 
ern France; Southern France; North 
Apennines; Rhineland; Central Europe; 
Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: North Africa and Sicily, [Nov] 
1942-17 Aug 1943; Ploesti, Rumania, i 
Aug 1943; Bratislava, Czechoslovakia, 16 
Jun 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, in base, a 
stylized winged sphinx or, shaded tenne, 
and fimbriated azure, on a terra cotta 
mound sanguine, in dexter chief, a bomb 
or, point downward, charged with a 
roundle and a lozenge, sanguine, a tri- 
angle azure and a square sanquine, all 
within a diminutive of a border or. 
Motto: LIBERANDOS. (Approved 8 
Nov 1951.) 

377th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 377th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 13 Oct 1942 and ac- 
tivated on 18 Oct. Assigned to AAF Anti- 
submarine Command. Using O-47, 0-52, 
and other aircraft, the group engaged in 
patrol activity along the east coast of the 
US. Inactivated on 9 Dec 1942. 

Squadrons, nth Antisubmarine (for- 
merly 516th Bombardment): 1942. 12th 
Antisubmarine (formerly 517th Bombard- 
ment): 1942. iph Antisubmarine (for- 
merly 518th Bombardment): 1942. i^h 



266 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Antisubmarine (formerly 519th Bombard- 
ment): 1942. 

Stations. Ft Dix, NJ, 18 Oct-9 Dec 
1942. 

Commanders. Unkn. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

378th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 378th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 13 Oct 1942 and ac- 
tivated on 18 Oct. Assigned to AAF Anti- 
submarine Command. Engaged in patrol 
work along the east coast of the US, op- 
erating primarily with O-46's and O-47's. 
Inactivated on 14 Dec 1942. 

Squadrons, i^th Antisubmarine (for- 
merly 520th Bombardment): 1942. lyth 
Antisubmarine (formerly 522d Bombard- 
ment): 1942. ^2ist Bombardment: 1942. 
p^d Bombardment: 1942. 

Stations. Langley Field, Va, 18 Oct- 
14 Dec 1942. 

Commanders. Col Walter M Williams, 
1942. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Nqne. 

379th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 379th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 28 Oct 1942. Acti- 
vated on 3 Nov 1942. Moved to England, 




with the air echelon flying B-17's via the 
North Atlantic route in Apr 1943 and the 
ground echelon crossing by ship in May. 
Began operations with Eighth AF on 19 
May, and received a DUG for operations 
over Europe, May 1943-Jul 1944. En- 
gaged primarily in bombardment of 
strategic targets such as industries, oil re- 
fineries, storage plants, submarine pens, 
airfields, and communications centers in 
Germany, France, Holland, Belgium, Nor- 
way, and Poland. Specific targets in- 
cluded a chemical plant in Ludwigshafen, 
an aircraft assembly plant in Brunswick, 
ball-bearing plants at Schweinfurt and 
Leipzig, synthetic oil refineries at Merse- 
burg and Gelsenkirchen, marshalling 
yards at Hamm and Reims, and airfields 
in Mesnil au Val and Berlin. Received 
another DUG for flying without fighter 
protection into central Germany to attack 
vital aircraft factories on 11 Jan 1944. On 
several occasions attacked interdictory 
targets and operated in support of ground 
forces. Bombed V-weapon sites, airfields. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



267 



radar stations, and other installations be- 
fore the Normandy invasion in Jun 1944; 
bombed defended positions just ahead of 
the Allied landings on 6 Jun; and struck 
airfields, rail choke points, and gun cm- 
placements during the campaign that 
followed. Bombed enemy positions to 
assist ground troops at St Lo during the 
breakthrough, 24-25 Jul 1944. Attacked 
German communications and fortifica- 
tions during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 
1944-Jan 1945. Bombed bridges and via- 
ducts in France and Germany to aid the 
Allied assault across the Rhine, Feb-Mar 
1945. Moved to French Morocco in Jun 
1945. Inactivated on 25 Jul 1945. 

Squadrons. ^24th: 1942-1945. 525/^; 
1942-1945. 526M: 1942-1945. 527/A; 
1942-1945. 

Stations. Geiger Field, Wash, 3 Nov 
1942; Wendover Field, Utah, 19 Nov 1942; 
Sioux City AAB, Iowa, 3 Feb-Apr 1943; 
Kimbolton, England, 21 May 1943-12 Jun 
1945; Casablanca, French Morocco, 17 
Jun-25 Jul 1945. 

Commanders. Col Maurice A Preston, 
26 Nov 1942; Col Lewis E Lyle, 11 Oct 
1944; Lt Col Lloyd C Mason, 6 May 1945; 
Lt Col Horace E Frink, 23 May-Jun 1945. 
Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes- Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Continental Europe, 29 May 1943- 
31 Jul 1944; Germany, 11 Jan 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Per bend azure and 
gules, on a lightning bolt per bend 
throughout, or, seven stars per bend 



argent; all between a dart, with three stars 
arched and an atomic symbol encircled by 
nine stars, all of the last. Motto: DILI- 
GENTIA ET ACCURATIO— Precision 
and Accuracy. (Approved 23 Aug 1958.) 

380th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 380th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 28 Oct 1942. Acti- 
vated on 3 Nov 1942. Used B-24's in 
preparing for overseas duty. Moved to 
the Asiatic-Pacific Theater, Apr-May 
1943. Assigned to Fifth AF but attached 
to Royal Australian Air Force until Jan 
1945. Trained Australian crews to operate 
B-24's. Began combat operations in May 
1943 by flying armed reconnaissance 
patrols. Operated from AustraUan bases 
for a year and a half, striking enemy air- 
fields, ground installations, shipping, and 
industries in the Netherlands Indies and 
the Bismarck Archipelago. Received a 
DUC for a series of long-range attacks on 



268 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



oil refineries, shipping, and dock facili- 
ties in Balikpapan, Borneo, in Aug 1943. 
Repeatedly bombed enemy airfields in 
western New Guinea during Apr and May 
1944 in support of American landings in 
the Hollandia area, being awarded another 
DUG for this action. Moved in Feb 1945 
to Mindoro where its missions included 
support for ground forces on Luzon and 
strikes on industries in Formosa, oil re-* 
fineries in Borneo, railways and shipping 
in French Indochina, and ground instal- 
lations on the Ghina coast. Moved to 
Okinawa in Aug 1945, and after V-J Day 
flew reconnaissance missions over Japan 
and ferried liberated prisoners of war from 
Japan to Manila. Returned to the Philip- 
pines in Nov 1945. Inactivated on 20 Feb 
1946. 

Redesignated 380th Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the 
reserve. Activated in the US on 16 Jun 
1947. Redesignated 380th Bombardment 
Group (Medium) in Jun 1949. Ordered 
to active duty on i May 1951. Inactivated 
on 16 May 1951. 

Squadrons. jiSth: 1942-1946; 1947- 
1951. 529/^; 1942-1946; 1947-1949. 
^^oth: 1942-1946; 1947-1949. 331st: 1942- 

1946; 1947-1951- 

Stations. Davis-Monthan Field, Ariz, 
3 Nov 1942; Biggs Field, Tex, 2 Dec 1942; 
Lowry Field, Colo, 4 Mar-c. 17 Apr 1943; 
Fen ton, Australia, May 1943; Darwin, 
Australia, 9 Aug 1944; San Jose, Mindoro, 
20 Feb 1945; Okinawa, c. 9 Aug 1945; 
Ft William McKinley, Luzon, 28 Nov 



1945-20 Feb 1946. MacDill Field, Fla, 16 
Jun 1947-16 May 1951. 

Commanders. Col William A Miller, 
3 Nov 1942; Col Forrest L Brissey, 10 Feb 
1944; Lt Col Gayle S Cox, 30 Aug 1945; 
Col David A Tate, 8 Sep 1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Japan; 
China Defensive; New Guinea; Bismarck 
Archipelago; Western Pacific; Leyte; 
Luzon; Southern Philippines; China 
Offensive. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Borneo, 13, 15, and 17 Aug 1943; 
New Guinea, 20 Apr-17 May 1944. Phil- 
ippine Presidential Unit Citation. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, two cloud for- 
mations argent, fesswise, one issuing from 
dexter enhanced, one from sinister abased 
surmounted by a sword in pale, point to 
base, or, hilt, grip and pommel gules, en- 
twined with an olive branch vert. Motto: 
STRENGTH AND CONFIDENCE. 
(Approved 26 Nov 1956.) 

381st BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 381st Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 28 Oct 1942. Acti- 
vated on 3 Nov 1942. Used B-17's in pre- 
paring for duty overseas. Moved to Eng- 
land, May-Jun 1943, and assigned to 
Eighth AF. Served in combat from Jun 
1943 to Apr 1945, operating chiefly against 
strategic objectives on the Continent. Spe- 
cific targets included an aircraft assembly 
plant at Villacoublay, an airdrome at 
Amiens, locks at St Nazaire, an aircraft 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



269 



engine factory at Le Mans, nitrate works 
in Norway, aircraft plants in Brussels, in- 
dustrial areas of Munster, U-boat yards at 
Kiel, marshalling yards at Oflfenberg, air- 
craft factories at Kassel, aircraft assembly 
plants at Leipzig, oil refineries at Gelsen- 
kirchen, and ball-bearing works at 
Schweinfurt. Received a DUG for per- 
formance on 8 Oct 1943 when shipyards 
at Bremen were bombed accurately in 
spite of persistent enemy fighter attacks 
and heavy flak. Received second DUG 
for similar action on 11 Jan 1944 during a 
mission against aircraft factories in central 
Germany. Participated in the intensive 
campaign of heavy bombers against enemy 
aircraft factories during Big Week, 20-25 
Feb 1944. Often supported ground troops 
and attacked targets of interdiction when 
not engaged in strategic bombardment. 
Supported the Normandy invasion in Jun 
1944 by bombing bridges and airfields near 
the beachhead. Attacked enemy positions 
in advance of ground forces at St Lo in Jul 
1944. Assisted the airborne assault on 
Holland in Sep. Struck airfields, and com- 
munications near the battle zone during 
the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944- Jan 1945. 
Supported the Allied crossing of the Rhine 
in Mar 1945 and then operated against 
communications and transportation in the 
final push through Germany. Returned 
to the US, Jun-Jul 1945. Inactivated on 
28 Aug 1945. 

Redesignated 381st Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the re- 



serve. Activated on 24 Jul 1947. Inacti- 
vated on 27 Jun 1949. 

Squadrons. $ogth: 1948-1949. ^loth: 
1948-1949. 552^; 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 
533d: 1942-1945- S34th: 1942-1945; 1947- 
1948. S35th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949- 

Stations. Gowen Field, Idaho, 3 Nov 
1942; Ephrata, Wash, c. i Dec 1942; Pyote 
AAB, Tex, c. 3 Jan 1943; Pueblo AAB, 
Colo, c. 5 Apr-c. 9 May 1943; Ridgewell, 
England, Jun 1943- Jun 1945; Sioux Falls 
AAFld, SD, Jul-28 Aug 1945. Offutt 
Field, Neb, 24 Jul 1947-27 Jun 1949. 

Commanders. Col Joseph J Nazzaro, 
Jan 1943; Col Harry P Leber Jr, c. 9 Jan 
1944; Lt Col Conway S Hall, 6 Feb 1945- 
unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Germany, 8 Oct 1943; Germany, 11 
Jan 1944. 

Insigne, None. 

382d BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 382d Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 28 Oct 1942. Acti- 
vated on 3 Nov 1942. Assigned to Second 
AF and equipped with B-24's. Served 
first as an operational training and later 
as a replacement training unit. Inacti- 
vated on 31 Mar 1944. 

Redesignated 382d Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy). Activated on 25 
Aug 1944. Assigned to Second AF. 



270 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Trained for overseas duty with B-29's. 
Moved to the Pacific theater, Jul-Sep 1945, 
and assigned to Eighth AF. The war 
ended before the group could enter com- 
bat. Returned to the US in Dec 1945. 
Inactivated on 4 Jan 1946. 

Squadrons. 420th: 1944-1946. 464th 
1944-1946. $^6th: 1942-1944. $^ph 
1942-1944. ^^8th: 1942-1944. 539th 
1942-1944. 8'j2d: 1944-1946. 

Stations. Salt Lake City AAB, Utah, 
3 Nov 1942; Davis-Monthan Field, Ariz, 
23 Jan 1943; Pocatello AAFld, Idaho, 5 
Apr 1943; Muroc AAFld, Calif, 6 Dec 
1943-31 Mar 1944. Dalhart AAFld, Tex, 
25 Aug 1944; Smoky Hill AAFld, Kan, 11 
Dec 1944-8 Jul 1945; Guam, 8 Sep-i6 Dec 
1945; Camp Anza, Calif, 30 Dec 1945-4 
Jan 1946. 

Commanders. Unkn, Nov 1942-Jan 
1943; Maj Paul Schwartz, 23 Jan 1943; Lt 
Col George E Glober, 18 Jun 1943-31 Mar 
1944. 2d Lt Melvin A Dilcherd, 29 Aug 
1944; Col William W Jones, 19 Sep 1944; 
Col Audrin R Walker, 16 Feb 1945- unkn. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Asi- 
atic-Pacific Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 



383d BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 383d Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 28 Oct 1942. Acti- 
vated on 3 Nov 1942. Assigned to Second 
AF. Equipped with B-17's and B-24's. 
Served first as an operational training and 



later as a replacement training unit. In- 
activated on I Apr 1944. 

Redesignated 383d Bombardment Group 
(Very Heavy). Activated on 28 Aug 
1944. Assigned to Second AF. Prepared 
for combat with B-29's. Moved to the 
Pacific theater, Aug-Sep 1945, and as- 
signed to Eighth AF. The war ended 
before the group could enter combat. Re- 
turned to the US in Dec 1945. Inactivated 
on 3 Jan 1946. 

Squadrons. 540th: 1942-1944. 541st: 
1942-1944. 542d: 1942-1944. 543d: 1942- 
1944. SjSth: 1944-1946. 880th: 1944-1946. 
884th: 1944-1946. 

Stations. Salt Lake City AAB, Utah, 
3 Nov 1942; Rapid City AAB, SD, 12 Nov 
1942; Geiger Field, Wash, 20 Jun 1943; 
Peterson Field, Colo, 26 Oct 1943-1 Apr 
1944. Dalhart AAFld, Tex, 28 Aug 1944; 
Walker AAFld, Kan, 14 Jan-ii Aug 1945; 
Tinian, 12 Sep-19 Dec 1945; Camp Anza, 
Calif, 2-3 Jan 1946. 

Commanders. Maj Elliot Vandevanter 
Jr, 27 Nov 1942-unkn. Lt Col John P 
Proctor, 1944; Col Richard M Mont- 
gomery, 8 Dec 1944-unkn. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Asi- 
atic-Pacific Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

384th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 384th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 25 Nov 1942. Acti- 
vated on I Dec 1942. Trained for combat 
with B-17's. Moved to England, May- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



271 




Jun 1943, and assigned to Eighth AF. 
Functioned primarily as a strategic bom- 
bardment organization, concentrating its 
attacks on airfields and industries in 
France and Germany. Targets included 
airdromes at Orleans, Bricy, and Nancy; 
motor works at Cologne; a coking plant 
at Gelsenkirchen; an aircraft component 
parts factory at Halberstadt; steel works at 
Magdeburg; and ball-bearing plants at 
Schweinfurt. Made a damaging raid on 
aircraft factories in central Germany on 
II Jan 1944 and received a DUG for the 
action. Took part in the campaign of 
heavy bombers against the German air- 
craft industry during Big Week, 20-25 
Feb 1944. Received another DUG for the 
mission of 24 Apr 1944 when the group, 
although crippled by heavy losses of men 
and planes, led the 41st Wing through 
almost overwhelming opposition to attack 
an aircraft factory and airfield at Oberpfaf- 
fenhofen. The group also bombed ports, 
communications centers, oil facilities, and 



cities, attacking such targets as oil storage 
plants in Leipzig and Berlin, ports at Ham- 
burg and Emden, and marshalling yards 
at Duren and Mannheim. At times it flew 
interdictory and support missions. At- 
tacked installations along the coast of 
Normandy prior to and during the in- 
vasion in Jun 1944 and then bombed air- 
fields and communications beyond the 
beachhead. Supported ground troops dur- 
ing the breakthrough at St Lo, 24-25 Jul, 
by bombing enemy strong points just be- 
yond Allied lines. Hit tank and gun con- 
centrations north of Eindhoven to assist 
the airborne assault on Holland in Sep. 
Struck enemy communications and forti- 
fications during the Battle of the Bulge, 
Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Aided the Allied as- 
sault across the Rhine in Mar 1945 by 
attacking marshalling yards, railroad junc- 
tions, and bridges to cut off enemy sup- 
plies. Remained in the theater after the 
war as part of United States Air Forces in 
Europe. Carried American soldiers to 
Casablanca for return to the US, returned 
Greek soldiers to their homeland, and 
moved Allied troops to Germany. In- 
activated in France on 28 Feb 1946. 

Redesignated 384th Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy), Allotted to the re- 
serve. Activated on 16 Jul 1947. Inacti- 
vated on 27 Jun 1949. 

Squadrons. ^^Sth: 1947-1949. 339th: 
1947-1949. $44th: 1942-1946; 1947-1949. 
S4Sth: 1942-1946; 1947-1949. ^46th: 1942- 
1946. S47^h: 1942-1946. 

Stations. Gowen Field, Idaho, i Dec 
1942; Wendover Field, Utah, 2 Jan 1943; 



272 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Sioux City AAB, Iowa, c. 3 Apr-9 May 
1943; Grafton Underwood, England, Jun 
1943; Istres, France, c. Jun 1945-28 Feb 
1946. Nashville Mun Aprt, Tenn, 16 Jul 
1947-27 Jun 1949. 

Commanders. Col Budd J Peaslee, 2 
Jan 1943; Col Lucius K Lacey, c. 6 Sep 
1943; Col Dale O Smith, 23 Nov 1943; Lt 
Col Theodore E Milton, 24 Oct 1944; Lt 
Col Robert W Fish, 17 Jun 1945; Lt Col 
Lloyd D Chapman, 18 Oct 1945-Feb 1946. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Germany, 11 Jan 1944; Germany, 24 
Apr 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, between two 
cloud formations in chief and one in base 
throughout proper, five stars, one, two, and 
two or, the one in chief emitting a ray to 
each star of the like voided azure, and a 
lightning flash palewise to base point gules 
fimbriated argent, all within a diminutive 
border of the last. Motto: KEEP THE 
SHOW ON THE ROAD. (Approved 9 
Apr 1958.) 

385th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 385th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 25 Nov 1942. Acti- 
vated on I Dec 1942. Trained with 
B-17's. Moved to England in Jun 1943 
and assigned to Eighth AF. Operated 
primarily as a strategic bombardment or- 
ganization until the war ended, striking 



such targets as industrial areas, air bases, 
oil refineries, and communications centers 
in Germany, France, Poland, Belgium, 
Holland, and Norway. Received a DUC 
for bombing an aircraft factory at Regens- 
burg on 17 Aug 1943 after a long hazard- 
ous flight over enemy territory. Led the 
4th Wing a great distance through heavy 
and damaging opposition for the success- 
ful bombardment of an aircraft repair 
plant at Zwickau on 12 May 1944, being 
awarded another DUC for this perform- 
ance. Other strategic targets included 
aircraft factories in Oschersleben and 
Marienburg, battery works in Stuttgart, 
airfields in Beauvais and Chartres, oil 
refineries in Ludwigshafen and Mcrse- 
burg, and marshalling yards in Munich 
and Oranienburg. Sometimes supported 
ground forces and struck interdictory tar- 
gets. Attacked coastline defenses in Jun 
1944 in preparation for the Normandy 
invasion and hit marshalling yards and 
choke points during the landing on 
D-Day. Bombed enemy positions in sup- 
port of ground forces at St Lo in Jul 1944. 
Attacked German communications and 
fortifications during the Battle of the 
Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Bombed troop 
concentrations and communications cen- 
ters in Germany and France, Mar-Apr 
1945, to assist the final thrust into Ger- 
many. After V-E Day, hauled prisoners 
of war from Germany to Allied centers 
and flew food to Holland. Returned to 
the US in Aug. Inactivated on 28 Aug 
1945. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GRO{7P5 



273 



Squadrons. $^th: 1942-1945. 549th: 
1942-1945. 550th: 1942-1945. 551st: 
1942-1945. 

Stations. Davis-Monthan Field, Ariz, 
I Dec 1942; El Paso, Tex, 21 Dec 1942; 
Geiger Field, Wash, i Feb 1943; Great 
Falls AAB, Mont, 11 Apr-Jun 1943; Great 
Ashfield, England, Jun 1943-Aug 1945; 
Sioux Falls AAFld, SD, Aug-28 Aug 1945. 

Commanders. Col Elliot Vandevanter 
Jr, 3 Feb 1943; Col George Y Jumper, 24 
Aug 1944; Col William H Hanson, 2 Jun 
1945; Maj Totton J Anderson, c. Jul 1945- 
unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Germany, 17 Aug 1943; Zwickau, 
Germany, 12 May 1944. 

Insigne. None. 

386th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 386th Bombardment 
Group (Medium) on 25 Nov 1942. Acti- 
vated on I Dec 1942. Equipped with 
B-26's. Moved to England, arriving in 
Jun 1943. Operated with Eighth AF un- 
til assigned to Ninth in Oct 1943. Flew 
first mission in Jul 1943. Concentrated 
on airdromes but also bombed mar- 
shalling yards and gun positions during 
the first months of combat. Carried out 
an extensive campaign against V-weapon 
sites along the coast of France in the win- 
ter of 1943-1944, and bombed airfields in 
Holland and Belgium during Big Week, 



20-25 Feb 1944- Hammered marshalling 
yards, gun positions, and airdromes 
preceding the invasion of Normandy 
and made numerous assaults on bridges 
of the Seine late in May. Struck 
coastal batteries on D-Day and hit bridges, 
supply and fuel stores, gun positions, and 
defended areas during the remainder of 
the Normandy campaign. Supported 
Allied forces at Caen, and participated in 
the massive blows against the enemy at St 
Lo on 25 Jul 1944. Knocked out targets 
to help clear the Falaise gap of German 
forces in Aug 1944 and hit strong points 
at Brest during Sep. After moving to the 
Continent in Oct 1944, attacked strong 
points at Metz, flew missions to Holland, 
and assaulted such objectives as defended 
areas, storage depots, and communications 
in Germany. Focused its attacks primarily 
on bridges during the Battle of the Bulge, 
Dec 1944-Jan 1945, in order to cut off 
enemy supplies and reinforcements. Con- 
verted to A-26's shortly after the Ardennes 
campaign and continued to strike German 
communications, transportation, and stor- 
age facilities until May 1945. Redesig- 
nated 386th Bombardment Group (Light) 
in Jun 1945. Returned to the US, Jul-Aug. 
Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945. 

Redesignated 386th Fighter-Bomber 
Group. Activated on 8 Apr 1956. As- 
signed to Tactical Air Command. 

Squadrons. 552d: 1942-1945; 1956-. 
553d: 1942-1945; 1956-. 554th: 1942- 
1945; 1956-. 555th: 1942-1945- 

Stations. MacDill Field, Fla, i Dec 
1942; Lake Charles AAB, La, 9 Feb-8 May 



274 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



1943; Snetterton Heath, England, 3 Jun 
1943; Boxted, England, 10 Jun 1943; 
Great Dunmow, England, 24 Sep 1943; 
Beaumont-sur-Oise, France, 2 Oct 1944; St- 
Trond, Belgium, 9 Apr- Jul 1945; Seymour 
Johnson Field, NC, 7 Aug 1945; Westover 
Field, Mass 30 Sep-7 Nov 1945. Bunker 
Hill AFB, Ind, 8 Apr 195^. 

Commanders. Col Lester J Maitland, c. 
I Dec 1942; Col Richard C Sanders, 18 Nov 
1943; Col Joe W Kelly, 22 Jan 1944; Col 
Thomas G Corbin, c. 25 Aug 1944-1945. 
Capt Amos B Leighton, 8 Apr 1956-. 

Campaigns, Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes- Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: ETO, 30 Jul 1943-30 Jul 1944. 

Insigne. None. 

387th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 387th Bombardment 
Group (Medium) on 25 Nov 1942. Acti- 
vated on I Dec 1942. Trained with. B-26 
aircraft. Moved to England in Jun 1943. 
Served with Eighth AF until assigned to 
Ninth in Oct 1943. Began combat in Aug 
1943 and concentrated its attacks on air- 
dromes during the first months of opera- 
tions. Made numerous strikes on V- 
weapon sites in France in the winter of 
1943-1944. Hit airfields at Leeuwarden 
and Venlo during Big Week, 20-25 F^b 
1944, the intensive campaign against the 
German Air Force and aircraft industry. 
Helped to prepare for the invasion of 
Normandy by attacking coastal batteries 



and bridges in France during May 1944. 
Bombed along the invasion coast on 6 Jun 
1944 and supported ground forces 
throughout the month by raiding rail- 
roads, bridges, road junctions, defended 
areas, and fuel dumps. Moved to the Con- 
tinent in Jul 1944 and participated in at- 
tacks on the enemy at St Lo in the latter 
part of the month and on German forces 
at Brest during Aug and Sep. Extended 
operations into Germany by fall of 1944. 
Received a DUC for action during the Bat- 
tle of the Bulge when the group hit 
strongly defended transportation and 
communications targets at Mayen and 
Prum. Supported the Allied drive into 
the Reich by attacking bridges, communi- 
cations centers, marshalling yards, storage 
installations, and other objectives. Ended 
combat operations in Apr 1945, Returned 
to the US in Nov. Inactivated on 17 Nov 
1945. 

Squadrons. $$6th: 1942-1945. $Sph: 
1942-1945. s^8th: 1942-1945. SS9*^'' 
1942-1945. 

Stations. MacDill Field, Fla, i Dec 
1942; Drane Field, Fla, 12 Apr 1943; God- 
man Field, Ky, c. 11 May-io Jun 1943; 
Chipping Ongar, England, 25 Jun 1943; 
Stony Cross, England, 18 Jul 1944; Mau- 
pertuis, France, 22 Aug 1944; Chateaudun, 
France, 18 Sep 1944; Clastres, France, 30 
Oct 1944; Beek, Holland, 29 Apr 1945; 
Rosieres-en-Santerre, France, 24 May-c. 
Nov 1945; Camp Kilmer, NJ, 14-17 Nov 
1945. 

Commanders. Maj David S Blackwell, 
20 Dec 1942; Col Carl R Storrie, c. 19 Jan 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



275 



1943; Col Jack E Caldwell, 8 Nov 1943; 
Col Thomas M Seymour, 13 Apr 1944; 
Col Grover C Brown, c. 18 Jul 1944; Lt 
Col Richard R Stewart, 20 May 1945; 
Col Philip A Sykes, Jun 1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Germany, 23 Dec 1944. 

Insigne. None. 

388th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 388th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 19 Dec 1942 and acti- 
vated on 24 Dec. Trained for combat 
with B-17's. Moved to England in Jun 
1943 and assigned to Eighth AF. Began 
operations on 17 Jul 1943 by attacking an 
aircraft factory in Amsterdam. Func- 
tioned primarily as a strategic bombard- 
ment organization until the war ended. 



Targets included industries, naval instal- 
lations, oil storage plants, refineries, and 
communications centers in Germany, 
France, Poland, Belgium, Norway, Ru- 
mania, and Holland. Received a DUC for 
withstanding heavy opposition to bomb a 
vital aircraft factory at Regensburg on 17 
Aug 1943. Received another DUC for 
three outstanding missions: an attack 
against a tire and rubber factory in Han- 
nover on 26 Jul 1943; the bombardment of 
a synthetic oil refinery in Brux on 12 May 
1944; and a strike against a synthetic oil 
refinery at Ruhland on 21 Jun 1944, during 
a shuttle raid from England to Russia. 
Attacked many other significant targets, 
including aircraft factories in Kassel, 
Reims, and Brunswick; airfields in Bor- 
deaux, Paris, and Berlin; naval works at 
La Pallice, Emden, and Kiel; chemical in- 
dustries in Ludwigshafen; ball-bearing 
plants in Schweinfurt; and marshalling 
yards in Brussels, Osnabruck, and Biele- 
feld. Operations also included support 
and interdictory missions. Helped pre- 
pare for the invasion of Normandy by at- 
tacking military installations in France, 
and on D-Day struck coastal guns, field 
batteries, and transportation. Continued 
to support ground forces during the cam- 
paign that followed, hitting such objec- 
tives as supply depots and troop concen- 
trations. Bombed in support of ground 
forces at St Lo in Jul 1944 and at Caen in 
Aug. Covered the airborne assault on 
Holland in Sep 1944 by attacking military 
installations and airfields at Arnheim. 
Aided the final drive through Germany 



276 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



during the early months of 1945 by strik- 
ing targets such as marshalling yards, rail 
bridges, and road junctions. After V-E 
Day, flew food to Holland to relieve flood- 
stricken areas. Returned to the US in 
Aug. Inactivated on 28 Aug 1945. 

Redesignated 388th Fighter-Bomber 
Group. Activated on 23 Nov 1953. As- 
signed to Tactical Air Command. Trained 
with F-86 aircraft. Moved to France, 
Nov-Dec 1954, and became part of United 
States Air Forces in Europe. 

Squadrons. ^6oth: 1942-1945. $6ist: 
1942-1945; 1953-. s^2d: 1942-1945; 1953-. 
S63d: 1942-1945; 1953-. 

Stations. Gowen Field, Idaho, 24 Dec 
1942; Wendover Field, Utah, i Feb 1943; 
Sioux City AAB, Iowa, c. 29 Apr-io Jun 
1943; Knettishall, England, Jun 1943-Aug 
1945; Sioux Falls AAFld, SD, 13-28 Aug 
1945. Clovis AFB, NM, 23 Nov 1953-28 
Nov 1954; Etain Rouvres AB, France, 12 
Dec 1954-. 

Commanders. Col William B David, i 
Feb 1943; Col Chester C Cox, 7 Oct 1944- 
c. 28 Aug 1945. Maj Charles M Read, 
23 Nov 1953; Col Clayton L Peterson, 11 
Jan 1954-. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsacc; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Germany, 17 Aug 1943; Hannover, 
Germany (26 Jun 1943), Brux, Czecho- 
slovakia (12 May 1944), and from Eng- 
land to Russia (21 Jun 1944). 

Insigne. Shield: Per bend azure and 
gules, on a bend or, a lightning flash sable. 



Supporters: The shield supported by two 
wings light blue, feathered and detail 
black. Motto: LIBERTAS VEL 
MORS— Liberty or Death. (Approved 11 
Mar 1955.) 

389th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 389th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 19 Dec 1942 and ac- 
tivated on 24 Dec. Prepared for duty 
overseas with B-24's. Moved to England, 
Jun-Jul 1943, and assigned to Eighth AF. 
Almost immediately a detachment was 
sent to Libya, where it began operations 
on 9 Jul 1943. The detachment flew mis- 
sions to Crete, Sicily, Italy, Austria, and 
Rumania. The group received a DUC for 
the detachment's participation in the 
famed low-level attack against oil refi- 
neries at Ploesti on i Aug 1943. For his 
action during the same operation, 2d Lt 
Lloyd H Hughes was awarded the Medal 
of Honor: refusing to turn back although 
gasoline was streaming from his flak- 
damaged plane, Lt Hughes flew at low 
altitude over the blazing target area and 
bombed the objective; the plane crashed 
before Hughes could make the forced 
landing that he attempted after the bomb 
run. The detachment returned to Eng- 
land in Aug and the group flew several 
missions against airfields in France and 
Holland. Operating temporarily from 
Tunisia, Sep-Oct 1943, the 389th supported 
Allied operations at Salerno and hit tar- 
gets in Corsica, Italy, and Austria. Re- 
sumed operations from England in Oct 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROC7P5 



277 



1943, and until Apr 1945 concentrated pri- 
marily on strategic objectives in France, 
the Low Countries, and Germany. Tar- 
gets included shipbuilding yards at Vege- 
sack, industrial areas of Berlin, oil facili- 
ties at Merseburg, factories at Munster, 
railroad yards at Sangerhausen, and V- 
weapon sites at Pas de Calais. Participated 
in the intensive air campaign against the 
German aircraft industry during Big 
Week, 20-25 F^b 1944. Also flew support 
and interdictory missions on several oc- 
casions, bombing gun batteries and air- 
fields in support of the Normandy in- 
vasion in Jun 1944, striking enemy posi- 
tions to aid the breakthrough at St Lo 
in Jul 1944, hitting storage depots and 
communications centers during the Bat- 
tle of the Bulge (Dec i944-}an 1945), and 
dropping food, ammunition, gasoline, and 
other supplies to troops participating in 
the airborne assault across the Rhine in 
Mar 1945. Flew last combat mission late 
in Apr 1945. Returned to the US, May- 
Jun 1945. Inactivated on 13 Sep 1945. 

Squadrons. ^S/fth: 1942-1945. §6§th: 
1942-1945. ^66th: 1942-1945. ^6yth: 
1942-1945. 

Stations. Davis-Monthan Field, Ariz, 
24 Dec 1942; Biggs Field, Tex, i Feb 1943; 
Lowry Field, Colo, 19 Apr-8 Jun 1943; 
Hethel, England, 11 Jun 1943-30 May 
1945; Charleston AAFld, SC, 12 Jun-13 
Sep 1945. 

Commanders. Col David B Lancaster, 
24 Dec 1942; Col Jack W Wood, 16 May 
1943; Col Milton W Arnold, 30 Dec 1943; 
Col Robert B Miller, 29 Mar 1944; Col 



Ramsay D Potts Jr, 17 Aug 1944; Col John 
B Herboth Jr, 4 Dec 1944; Lt Col Jack G 
Merrell, 14 Apr 1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME Thea- 
ter; Air Offensive, Europe; Sicily; Naples- 
Foggia; Normandy; Northern France; 
Rhineland; Ardennes-Alsace; Central Eu- 
rope. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Ploesti, Rumania, i Aug 1943. 

Insigne. None. 

390th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 390th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 15 Jan 1943 and acti- 
vated on 26 Jan. Prepared for combat 
with B-17's. Moved to England in Jul 
1943 and assigned to Eighth AF. Op- 
erated chiefly against strategic objectives, 
flying many missions with the aid of path- 
finders. Began combat on 12 Aug 1943. 
Five days later, attacked the Messerschmitt 
aircraft complex at Regensburg and re- 
ceived a DUC for the mission. Received 
another DUC for a mission on 14 Oct 
1943 when the group braved unrelenting 
assaults by enemy fighters to bomb the 
antifriction-bearing plants at Schweinfurt. 
Participating in the intensive Allied as- 
sault on the German aircraft industry dur- 
ing Big Week, 20-25 F^b 1944, the organi- 
zation bombed aircraft factories, instru- 
ment plants, and air parks. Other stra- 
tegic missions included attacks on marshal- 
ling yards at Frankfurt, bridges at 
Cologne, oil facilities at Zeitz, factories at 
Mannheim, naval installations at Bremen, 



278 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



and synthetic oil refineries at Merseburg. 
Sometimes flew interdictory and support 
missions. Bombed the coast near Caen 
fifteen minutes before the landings in 
Normandy on 6 Jim 1944. Attacked 
enemy artillery in support of ground 
forces during the breakthrough at St Lo 
in Jul. Cut German supply lines during 
the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 
1945. Hit airfields in support of the air- 
borne assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. 
Flew last combat mission on 20 Apr 1945. 
Dropped food supplies to the Dutch during 
the week prior to V-E Day. Returned to 
the US in Aug. Inactivated on 28 Aug 

1945- 
Squadrons. ^68th: 1943-1945. $6gth: 

1943-1945. sjoth: 1943-1945. S7i5t: 

1943-1945. 

Stations. Geiger Field, Wash, 26 Jan 
1943; Great Falls AAB, Mont, 6 Jun-4 Jul 
1943; Framlingham, England, Jul 1943-4 
Aug 1945; Sioux Falls AAFld, SD, 12-28 
Aug 1945. 

Commanders. Col Edgar M Whittan, 
26 Jan 1943; Col Frederick W Ott, 21 Apr 
1944; Col Joseph A Miller, 17 Sep 1944; 
Lt Col George W Von Arb Jr, 23 May 
1945; Maj John A Angotti, 26 Jun-Aug 
1945. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes- Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Germany, 17 Aug 1943; Germany, 
14 Oct 1943. 

Insigne. None. 



391st BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 391st Bombardment 
Group (Medium) on 15 Jan 1943 and 
activated on 21 Jan. Trained with B-26's 
for duty in Europe with Ninth AF. 
Moved to England, Jan-Feb 1944. En- 
tered combat on 15 Feb 1944 and during 
the ensuing weeks bombed targets such 
as airfields, marshalling yards, bridges, 
and V-weapon sites in France and the Low 
Countries to help prepare for the invasion 
of Normandy. Attacked enemy defenses 
along the invasion beaches on 6 and 7 
Jun 1944. From Jun to Sep, continued 
cross-Channel operations, which included 
attacks on fuel dumps and troop concen- 
trations in support of Allied forces during 
the breakthrough at St Lo in Jul 1944, and 
strikes on transportation and communica- 
tions to block the enemy's retreat to the 
east. Began flying missions from bases on 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



279 



the Continent in Sep 1944, extending its 
area of operations into Germany and con- 
tinuing its attacks against enemy railroads, 
highways, troops, bridges, ammunition 
dumps, and other targets. Contributed 
vital assistance to ground forces during the 
Battle of the Bulge by attacking heavily 
defended positions such as bridges and 
viaducts, 23-26 Dec 1944; for these mis- 
sions, performed without fighter escort in 
the face of intense flak and overwhelming 
attacks by enemy aircraft, the group was 
awarded a DUG. From Jan to May 1945, 
and using A-26's beginning in Apr, the 
group concentrated its attacks on the Ger- 
man transportation and communications 
system. Flew its last mission on 3 May. 
Redesignated 391st Bombardment Group 
(Light) in Jul. Returned to the US in 
Oct. Inactivated on 25 Oct 1945. 

Redesignated iiith Bombardment 
Group (Light). Allotted to ANG (Pa) 
on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recog- 
nition on 20 Dec 1948. Redesignated iiith 
Composite Group in Nov 1950, and iiith 
Bombardment Group (Light) in Feb 1951. 
Ordered to active service on i Apr 1951. 
Assigned to Strategic Air Command. 
Trained with B-26 and B-29 aircraft. 
Redesignated iiith Strategic Reconnais- 
sance Group (Medium) in Aug 1951. 
Converted to RB-29's. Inactivated on 16 
Jun 1952. Returned to ANG (Pa), re- 
designated I nth Fighter-Bomber Group, 
and activated, on i Jan 1953. 

Squadrons. lo^d: 1951-1952. iijth: 
1951. i22d: 1951. izgth: 1951-1952. 



i^oth: 1951-1952. 572^; 1943-1945. 
573d- 1943-1945- 57¥h: 1943-1945- 
575th: 1943-1945- 

Stations. MacDill Field, Fla, 21 Jan 
1943; Myrtle Beach Bombing Range, SC, 
24 May 1943; Godman Field, Ky, 4 Sep-31 
Dec 1943; Matching, England, 25 Jan 1944; 
Roye/Amy, France, 19 Sep 1944; Assche, 
Belgium, 16 Apr 1945; Vitry-en-Artois, 
France, 27 May-27 Jul 1945; Camp Shanks, 
NY, Oct-25 Oct 1945. Philadelphia Intl 
Aprt, Pa, I Apr 195 1; Fairchild AFB, 
Wash, 10 Apr 1951-16 Jun 1952. 

Commanders. Col Gerald E Williams, 
23 Jan 1943-1945. Col Joseph B McManus, 
I Apr 1951; Col Edward D Edwards, 24 
Jun 1951 ; Col S E Manzo, 8 Nov 1951-16 
Jun 1952. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace ; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion : Germany, 23-26 Dec 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Per bend or and azure, 
a bend counter compony sable and argent 
between in chief a Pegasus of the second 
and in base a cluster of three feathers of 
the first surmounted by a mullet of the 
fourth and third. Motto: VIRTUTE 
ALISQUE— With Wings and Courage. 
(Approved 11 Jan 1954.) 

392d BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 392d Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 15 Jan 1943 and acti- 
vated on 26 Jan. Trained with B-24's. 



280 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Moved to England, Jul-Aug 1943, and 
assigned to Eighth AF. Began combat on 
9 Sep 1943 and engaged primarily in bom- 
bardment of strategic objectives on the 
Continent until Apr 1945. Attacked such 
targets as an oil refinery at Gelsenkirchen, 
a marshalling yard at Osnabruck, a rail- 
road viaduct at Bielefeld, steel plants at 
Brunswick, a tank factory at Kassel, and 
gas works at Berlin. Took part in the 
intensive campaign of heavy bombers 
against the German aircraft industry dur- 
ing Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944, being 
awarded a DUG for bombing an aircraft 
and component parts factory at Gotha on 
24 Feb. Sometimes supported ground 
forces or carried out interdictory opera- 
tions. Bombed airfields and V-weapon 
sites in France prior to the Normandy in- 
vasion in Jun 1944 and struck coastal 
defenses and choke points on D-Day. Hit 
enemy positions to assist ground forces at 
St Lo during the breakthrough in Jul 1944. 
Bombed railroads, bridges, and highways 
to cut off German supply lines during the 
Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. 
Dropped supplies to Allied troops during 
the air attack on Holland in Sep 1944 and 
during the airborne assault across the 
Rhine in Mar 1945. Flew last combat 
mission on 25 Apr 1945, then carried food 
to the Dutch. Returned to the US in Jun. 
Inactivated on 13 Sep 1945. 

Redesignated 392d Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the 
reserve. Activated on 30 Jul 1947. Re- 
designated 392d Bombardment Group 



(Light) in Jun 1949. Inactivated on 10 
Nov 1949. 

Squardrons. ^ySth: 1943-1945; 1947- 
1949- 577th: 1943-1945; 1947-1949. 
SySth: 1943-1945; 1947-1949- 579ih: 
1943-1945; 1947-1949. 

Stations. Davis-Monthan Field, Ariz, 
26 Jan 1943; Biggs Field, Tex, i Mar 1943; 
Alamogordo AAB, NM, 18 Apr-i8 Jul 
1943; Wendling, England, Jul 1943-15 Jun 
1945; Charleston AAFld, SC, 25 Jun-13 
Sep 1945. Barksdale Field, La, 30 Jul 
1947-10 Nov 1949. 

Commanders. Col Irvine A Rendle, 26 
Jan 1943; Col Lorin L Johnson, 21 Jun 
1944; Lt Col Lawrence G Gilbert, 27 May 
1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion : Gotha, Germany, 24 Feb 1944. 

Insigne. None. 

393d BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 393d Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 29 Jan 1943. Activated 
on 16 Feb 1943. Assigned to Second AF. 
Equipped with B-17's. Served as an opera- 
tional training unit until Aug 1943, then 
became a replacement training unit. In- 
activated on I Apr 1944. 

Squadrons. ^8oth: 1943-1944. ^8ist: 
1943-1944- 5^2^; 1943-1944. sSsd: 1943- 
1944. 

Stations. Geiger Field, Wash, 16 Feb 
1943; Gowen Field, Idaho, 3 Mar 1943; 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



281 



Wendover Field, Utah, Apr 1943; Sioux 
City AAB, Iowa, 11 Jun 1943; Kearney 
AAFld, Neb, i Aug 1943; Sioux City AAB, 
Iowa, 7 Nov 1943-1 Apr 1944. 

Commanders. Col Chester P Gilger, 
Feb 1943; Lt Col George A Blakey, 15 Sep 
1943-1 Apr 1944. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 



394th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




STRENGTHENS 



Constituted as 394th Bombardment 
Group (Medium) on 15 Feb 1943. Acti- 
vated on 5 Mar 1943. Trained with B-26's. 
Moved to England, Feb-Mar 1944, and 
assigned to Ninth AF. Entered combat in 
Mar 1944 and helped to prepare for the in- 
vasion of Normandy by hitting V-weapon 
sites, marshalling yards, bridges, air- 
dromes, and gun emplacements. On D- 
Day, 6 Jun, bombed gun positions at Cher- 
bourg; afterward, struck communications. 



fuel supplies, and strong points in sup- 
port of the Normandy campaign. Aided 
the breakthrough at St Lo by bombing 
targets in the area on 25 Jul 1944. Re- 
ceived a DUC for operations from 7 to 
9 Aug 1944 when the group made five 
attacks against strongly fortified targets 
in northern France, knocking out an 
ammunition dump and four railroad 
bridges. Capt Darrell R Lindsey was 
awarded the Medal of Honor for lead- 
ing a formation of B-26's over one of 
these bridges on 9 Aug. During the 
flight, Lindsey's plane was hit and the right 
engine burst into flames. Knowing that 
the gasoline tanks could explode at any 
moment, he continued to lead the forma- 
tion until the bomb run had been made, 
then ordered his crew to bail out. The 
bombardier, the last man to leave the 
plane, offered to lower the wheels so that 
Lindsey might escape through the nose of 
the aircraft, but realizing that this could 
throw the plane into a spin and hinder the 
bombardier's chances to escape, Lindsey 
refused the offer and remained with his 
B-26 until it crashed. After moving to 
the Continent late in Aug 1944, the group 
hit strong points at Brest and then began 
to operate against targets in Germany. 
Took part in the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 
1944 — Jan 1945, by hitting communica- 
tions to deprive the enemy of supplies and 
reinforcements. Bombed transportation, 
storage facilities, and other objectives until 
the war ended; also dropped propaganda 
leaflets. Remained in the theater to serve 
with United States Air Forces in Europe 



282 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



as part of the army of occupation. Re- 
designated 394th Bombardment Group 
(Light) in Dec 1945. Began training with 
A-26's. Transferred, without personnel 
and equipment, to the US on 15 Feb 1946. 
Inactivated on 31 Mar 1946. 

Redesignated io6th Bombardment 
Group (Light). Allotted to ANG (NY) 
on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recog- 
nition on 21 Mar 1947. Redesignated 
io6th Composite Group in Nov 1950, and 
io6th Bombardment Group (Light) in 
Feb 1951. Ordered to active service on i 
Mar 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Com- 
mand. Redesignated io6th Bombardment 
Group (Medium) in May 1951. Equipped 
with B-29's. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952. 
Returned to ANG (NY) on i Dec 1952. 
Redesignated io6th Bombardment Group 
(Light). 

Squadrons. io2d: 1951-1952. n^th: 
1951-1952. i^$th: 1951-1952. ^84th: 
1943-1946. s^^th: 1943-1946. $86th: 

1943-1946. S^7th: 1943-1945- 

Stations. MacDill Field, Fla, 5 Mar 
1943; Ardmore AAFld, Okla, 12 Jul 1943; 
Kellogg Field, Mich, 19 Aug 1943-15 Feb 
1944; Boreham, England, c. 11 Mar 1944; 
Holmsley, England, 24 Jul 1944; Tour-en- 
Bassin, France, 25 Aug 1944; Bricy, 
France, 18 Sep 1944; Cambrai/Niergnies, 
France, 8 Oct 1944; Venlo, Holland, 2 May 
1945; Kitzingen, Germany, Sep 1945-15 
Feb 1946; Boiling Field, DC, 15 Feb-31 
Mar 1946. Floyd Bennett Field, NY, i 
Mar 1951; March AFB, Calif, 28 Mar 
1951-16 Jun 1952. 



Commanders. Lt Col Joe W Kelly, c. 
20 Mar 1943; Col Thomas B Hall, 6 Apr 
1943; Col Gove C Celio Jr, c. 24 Jan 1945-c. 
Feb 1946. Unkn, Mar-Aug 1951; Col 
Howell M Estes Jr, 4 Aug 1951 ; Col Loran 
D Briggs, I Mar-i6 Jun 1952. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Air 
•Offensive, Europe; Normandy; Northern 
France; Rhineland; Ardennes-Alsace; 
Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion : France, 7-9 Aug 1944. French Croix 
de Guerre with Palm: France, 6 Jun-14 
Sep 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a clenched fist 
terminating in displayed dexter demi-wing 
of an eagle, the first grasping a torch, all 
sable fimbriated argent, flames gules fim- 
briated of the last. Motto: READINESS 
STRENGTHENS LIBERTY. (Ap- 
proved 15 Apr 1954.) 

395th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 395th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 29 Jan 1943. Activated 
on 16 Feb 1943. Assigned to Second AF. 
Equipped with B-17's. Served first as an 
operational training unit, becoming a re- 
placement training unit in Oct 1943. In- 
activated on I Apr 1944. 

Squadrons. ^88th: 1943-1944. ^8gth: 

1943-1944. S9o(^: 1943-1944- 59^^^: 

1943-1944- 
Stations. Ephrata AAB, Wash, 16 Feb 

1943; Ardmore AAFld, Okla, 25 Oct 1943- 

I Apr 1944. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VNITS— GROUPS 



283 



Commanders. Lt Col Luther J Fair- 
banks, Feb 1943; Lt Col Hugh D Wallace, 
8 Apr 1943; Col Howard M Turner, 19 
Apr 1943; Lt Col Hugh D Wallace, 24 
Apr 1943; Col Allen W Reed, 2 Aug 1943; 
Lt Col Quentin T Quick, 23 Sep-Nov 
1943; Unkn, Nov 1943-1 Apr 1944. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

396th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 396th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 29 Jan 1943. Activated 
on 16 Feb 1943. Assigned to Second AF, 
later (Nov 1943) to Third AF, Equipped 
with B-17's. Served as an operational 
training unit until Aug 1943, then became 
a replacement training unit. Inactivated 
on I May 1944. 

Squadrons, ^gid: 1943-1944. sg^d: 
1943-1944. sg^th: 1943-1944. S95th: 
1943-1944. 

Stations. Mountain Home AAFld, 
Idaho, 16 Feb 1943; Moses Lake AAB, 
Wash, 10 Apr 1943; Drew Field, Fla, 5 Nov 
1943-1 May 1944. 

Commanders. Lt Col Frederick T 
Crimmins Jr, 1943-1 May 1944. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

397th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 397th Bombardment 
Group (Medium) on 20 Mar 1943. Acti- 



vated on 20 Apr 1943. Trained with B- 
26's. Moved to England, Mar-Apr 1944, 
and assigned to Ninth AF. Participated 
in operations preparatory to the Normandy 
invasion by attacking V-weapon sites, 
bridges, coastal defenses, marshalling 
yards, and airfields, Apr-Jun 1944. Hit 
strong points in France on D-Day and as- 
sisted ground forces throughout the re- 
mainder of the Normandy campaign by 
bombing fuel dumps, defended areas, and 
other objectives. Engaged in bombard- 
ment of German forces in the region of 
St Lo during the Allied breakthrough in 
Jul. After moving to the Continent in 
Aug, struck enemy positions at St Malo 
and Brest and bombed targets in the 
Rouen area as Allied armies swept across 
the Seine and advanced to the Siegfried 
Line. Began flying missions into Ger- 
many in Sep, attacking such targets as 
bridges, defended areas, and storage de- 
pots. Struck the enemy's communica- 
tions during the Battle of the Bulge (Dec 
1944-Jan 1945) and received a DUC for 
a mission on 23 Dec 1944 when the group 
withstood heavy flak and fighter attack 
to sever a railway bridge at EUer, a vital 
link in the enemy's supply line across the 
Moselle. Continued to support the Allied 
drive into Germany until Apr 1945. Re- 
turned to the US, Dec 1945-Jan 1946. In- 
activated on 6 Jan 1946. 

Squadrons. 596/A; 1943-1945, sgjth: 
1943-1946- SgSth: 1943-1945. sggth: 

1943-1945- 

Stations. MacDill Field, Fla, 20 Apr 
1943; Avon Park Bombing Range, Fla, 12 



284 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Oct 1943; Hunter Field, Ga, i Nov 1943- 
13 Mar 1944; Gosfield, England, 5 Apr 
1944; Rivenhall, England, 15 Apr 1944; 
Hurn, England, 5 Aug 1944; Gorges, 
France, Aug 1944; Dreux, France, c. 11 
Sep 1944; Peronne, France, 6 Oct 1944; 
Venlo, Holland, 25 Apr 1945; Peronne, 
France, c. 24 May-c. Dec 1945; Camp 
Kilmer, NJ, 5-6 Jan 1946. 

Commanders, Maj Rollin M Wining- 
ham, c. May 1943; Lt Col John F Batjer, 
18 Jul 1943; Col Richard T Coiner Jr, 5 
Oct 1943; Lt Col Jimmie W Britt, 23 Jul 
1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion : Eller, Germany, 23 Dec 1944. 

Insigne. None. 

398th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 398th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 15 Feb 1943. Activated 
on I Mar 1943. Prepared for combat with 
B-17's, but interrupted these activities 
from Jul to Dec 1943 to train replacement 
crews for other organizations. Moved to 
England in Apr 1944 and assigned to 
Eighth AF. Entered combat in May 1944, 
and until V-E Day operated primarily 
against strategic objectives in Germany, 
attacking targets such as factories in Ber- 
lin, warehouses in Munich, marshalling 
yards in Saarbrucken, shipping facilities 
in Kiel, oil refineries in Merseburg, and 



aircraft plants in Munster. Temporarily 
suspended strategic missions to attack 
coastal defenses and enemy troops on the 
Cherbourg peninsula during the Nor- 
mandy invasion in Jun 1944; strike gun 
positions ne^r Eindhoven in support of 
the air attack on Holland in Sep 1944; raid 
power stations, railroads, and bridges dur- 
ing the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 
1945; and attack airfields to aid the Allied 
assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. 
Flew last combat mission, attacking an 
airfield in Pilsen, Czechoslovakia, on 25 
Apr 1945. Transported liberated prison- 
ers from Germany to France after V-E 
Day. Returned to the US, May-Jun 1945. 
Inactivated on i Sep 1945. 

Squadrons. Sooth: 1943-1945. 601 st: 
1943-1945- <5o2^.- 1943-1945. 603d: 1943- 
1945. 

Stations. Ephrata AAB, Wash, i Mar 
1943; Blythe AAFld, Calif, 5 Apr 1943; 
Geiger Field, Wash, 29 Apr 1943; Rapid 
City AAB, SD, 20 Jun 1943-4 Apr 1944; 
Nuthampstead, England, 22 Apr 1944-26 
May 1945; Drew Field, Fla, 3 Jul-i Sep 
1945. 

Commanders. Col Frank P Hunter Jr, 
I Mar 1943; Lt Col Lewis P Ensign, 29 
Jan 1945; Lt Col Arthur F Briggs, 18 Apr 
1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Air 
Offensive, Europe; Normandy; Northern 
France; Rhineland; Ardennes- Alsace; 
Central Europe. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



285 



399th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 399th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 15 Feb 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Mar 1943. Assigned to Second 
AF; reassigned to Fourth AF in Dec 1943. 
Equipped with B-24's. Served first as an 
operational training unit and later (Aug 
1943) became a replacement training unit. 
Disbanded on 31 Mar 1944. 

Squadrons. 604th: 1943-1944. 605th: 
1943-1944. 606th: 1943-1944. 6oyth: 
1943-1944. 

Stations. Davis-Monthan Field, Ariz, 
I Mar 1943; Gowen Field, Idaho, 10 Apr 
1943; Wendover Field, Utah, 27 Apr 1943; 
March Field, Calif, 3 Dec 1943-31 Mar 
1944. 

Commanders. Lt Col Luther J Fair- 
banks, Apr 1943; Lt Col James H Isbell, 
I Oct 1943; Lt Col John E Dougherty, 11 
Nov 1943; Lt Col Eugene T Yarbrough, 
15 Feb-31 Mar 1944. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

400th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 400th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 15 Feb 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Mar 1943. Equipped with 
B-24's. Functioned as an operational 
training unit of Second AF from May to 
Dec 1943. Reassigned to First AF to train 
replacement crews. Disbanded on 10 Apr 
1944. 



Squadrons. 608th: 1943-1944. 609th: 
1943-1944. 6ioth: 1943-1944. 6iith: 
1943-1944. 

Stations. Pyote AAB, Tex, i Mar 1943; 
Davis-Monthan Field, Ariz, Apr 1943; 
Pueblo AAB, Colo, c. 2 May 1943; Salina, 
Kan, 31 Jul 1943; Alamogordo AAFld, 
NM, 19 Sep 1943; Charleston AAFld, SC, 
15 Dec 1943-10 Apr 1944. 

Commanders. Lt Col John A Way, c. 
Mar 1943-Apr 1944. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

401st BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 401st Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 20 Mar 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Apr 1943. Prepared for com- 
bat with B-17's. Moved to England, Oct- 
Nov 1943, and served in combat with 
Eighth AF, Nov 1943-Apr 1945. Oper- 
ated chiefly against strategic targets, bomb- 
ing industries, submarine facilities, ship- 



286 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



yards, missile sites, marshalling yards, and 
airfields; beginning in Oct 1944, concen- 
trated on oil reserves. Received a DUG 
for striking telling blows against German 
aircraft production on 11 Jan and 20 Feb 
1944. In addition to strategic missions, 
operations included attacks on transpor- 
tation, airfields, and fortifications prior 
to the Normandy invasion and on D-Day, 
Jun 1944; support for ground operations 
during the breakthrough at St Lo in Jul, 
the siege of Brest in Aug, and the airborne 
attack on Holland in Sep 1944; participa- 
tion in the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944- 
Jan 1945, by assaulting transportation tar- 
gets and communications centers in the 
battle area; and support for the airborne 
attack across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Re- 
turned to the US after V-E Day. Inacti- 
vated on 28 Aug 1945. 

Redesignated 401st Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the 
reserve. Activated on 26 Jun 1947. Re- 
designated 401st Bombardment Group 
(Medium) in Jun 1949. Called to active 
service on i May 1951. Assigned to Stra- 
tegic Air Command. Inactivated on 25 
Jun 195 1. 

Redesignated 401st Fighter-Bomber 
Group. Activated on 8 Feb 1954. As- 
signed to Tactical Air Command and 
equipped with F-86's. 

Squadrons. 612th: 1943-1945; 1947- 
1951; 1954-- 6/3^.- 1943-1945; 1947- 
1949; I954-- 6i4ih: 1943-1945; i947-i949; 
1954-. 6isth: 1943-1945; 1947-1949. 

Stations. Ephrata AAB, Wash, i Apr 
1943; Geiger Field, Wash, Jun 1943; Great 



Falls AAB, Mont, Jul-Oct 1943; Deene- 
thorpe, England, c. i Nov 1943-May 1945; 
Sioux Falls AAFld, SD, c. 1-28 Aug 1945. 
Brooks Field, Tex, 26 Jun 1947; Biggs 
AFB, Tex, 27 Jun 1949-25 Jun 1951. Alex- 
andria AFB, La, 8 Feb 1954- 

CoMMANDERS. Col Ncil B Harding, c. 
I Apr 1943; Col Harold W Bowman, Jun 
1943; Col William T Seawell, Dec 19:14- 
1945. Unkn, I May-25 Jun 1951. Col 
Walter G Benz Jr, 8 Feb 1954-. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Germany, 11 Jan 1944; Germany, 
20 Feb 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, within a di- 
minutive border argent a sheaf of four 
lances bend sinisterwise of the last, sur- 
mounted by a fess chequy sable and of 
the second overall a bend wavy vert, gules, 
or and of the first each fimbriated silver. 
Motto: CAELUM ARENA NOSTRA— 
The Sky is Our Arena. (Approved 9 Sep 
1958. This insigne replaced an insigne 
approved 22 Apr 1955.) 

402d FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 402d Bombardment 
Group (Medium) on 20 Apr 1943. Acti- 
vated in China on 19 May 1943. Assigned 
to Fourteenth AF. No squadrons were 
assigned and headquarters apparently was 
never fully manned. Disbanded in China 
on 31 Jul 1943. Reconstituted (in Oct 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



287 



1956) and consolidated with 402d Fighter 
Group. 

402d Fighter Group was constituted on 
24 Sep 1943. Activated in the US on 
I Oct 1943. Assigned to First AF. 
Trained replacement pilots for combat 
with P-47's. Disbanded on 10 Apr 1944. 

Reconstituted and redesignated 402d 
Fighter-Day Group, on 4 Oct 1956. Acti- 
vated on 15 Oct 1956. Assigned to Tacti- 
cal Air Command. 

Squadrons. j20th: 1943-1944; 1956-. 
442d: 1943-1944; 1956-. 4pd: 1943-1944. 
SsSth: 1943. 539th: 1943. S4oth: 1943- 
1944; 1956-. 

Stations. Kunming, China, 19 May- 
31 Jul 1943. Westover Field, Mass, i Oct 
1943; Seymour Johnson Field, NC, c. 13 
Oct 1943; Bluethenthal Field, NC, c. 9 
Dec 1943; Bradley Field, Conn, c. 11 Feb- 
10 Apr 1944. Greenville AFB, Miss, 15 
Oct 1956-. 

Commanders. Unkn, 19 May-31 Jul 
1943. Lt Col Joseph L Dickman, unkn- 
Apr 1944. Capt Charles E Burtner, 15 
Oct 1956-. 

Campaigns. Asiatic-Pacific Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

403d TROOP CARRIER GROUP 

Constituted as 403d Troop Carrier 
Group on 7 Dec 1942 and activated on 12 
Dec. Trained for overseas duty with 
C-47's. Moved to the South Pacific, Jul- 
Sep 1943, and assigned to Thirteenth AF. 




Transported men and supplies to forward 
areas in the Solomons and flew passenger 
and cargo routes to New Zealand, Aus- 
tralia, Fiji, and New Caledonia. Moved 
personnel of Thirteenth AF units to the 
Southwest Pacific. Supported the New 
Guinea and Philippines campaigns by 
transporting men and cargo to combat 
areas, evacuating casualties, and landing or 
dropping supplies for guerrilla forces. 
Dropped paratroops at Laguna de Bay, 
Luzon, on 23 Feb 1945, to free civilian in- 
ternees held by the Japanese. Received a 
DUC for operations from Apr to Jun 1945 
when it transported ammunition, food, 
and other supplies to Eighth Army forces 
in Mindanao and often landed on jungle 
airstrips to evacuate wounded personnel. 
Moved to Leyte in Jun 1945 and remained 
in the Philippines after the war as part of 
Far East Air Forces. Ferried occupation 
troops to Japan, evacuated prisoners who 



288 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



had been liberated, and flew cargo and pas- 
senger routes to Japan and Australia. In- 
activated in Manila on 15 Oct 1946. 

Redesignated 403d Troop Carrier Group 
(Medium). Allotted to the reserve. Acti- 
vated in the US on 27 Jun 1949. Called to 
active duty on i Apr 1951. Assigned to 
Tactical Air Command. Trained with 
C-46 and C-47 aircraft. Moved to Japan, 
Mar-Apr 1952, and attached to Far East 
Air Forces for operations in the war 
against communist forces in Korea. Using 
C-119's, aided UN forces in Korea by 
dropping paratroops and supplies, trans- 
porting personnel and equipment, and 
evacuating casualties. Relieved from ac- 
tive duty and inactivated in Japan, on i 
Jan 1953. 

Allotted to the reserve. Activated in 
the US on i Jan 1953. 

Squadrons. 6th: 1946. gth: 1946. 
igth: 1946. S^d: 1942-1946; 1949-1953; 
1953-. 6^h: 1942-1946; 1949-1953; 1953-. 
6sth: 1942-1946; 1949-1953; 1953- 66M; 
1942-1946; 194^1951. 

Stations. Bowman Field, Ky, 12 Dec 
1942; Alliance, Neb, 18 Dec 1942; Pope 
Field, NC, 3 May 1943; Baer Field, Ind, 
20 Jun-c. 15 Jul 1943; Espiritu Santo, 15 
Sep 1943; Los Negros, 30 Aug 1944; Biak, 
4 Oct 1944; Leyte, 25 Jun 1945; Clark 
Field, Luzon, Jan 1946; Manila, c. Jun-15 
Oct 1946. Portland Mun Aprt, Ore, 27 
Jun 1949-29 Mar 1952; Ashiya, Japan, 14 
Apr 1952-1 Jan 1953. Portland Intl Aprt, 
Ore, I Jan 1953-. 

CoMMANDERS. Col Harry J Sands Jr, 12 
Dec 1942; Lt Col Norton H Van Sicklen, 



24 Aug 1945-unkn ; Col Audrin R Walker, 
c. Jun-15 Oct 1946. Lt Col Robert B As- 
bury, I Apr 195 1; Lt Col Henry C Alt- 
haus, 25 Jul 1951; Maj Wallace C For- 
sythe, 22 Apr 1952; Lt Col Ernest W Bur- 
ton, Aug 1952-1 Jan 1953. 

Campaigns. World War II: New 
Guinea; Northern Solomons; Bismarck 
Archipelago; Western Pacific; Leyte; 
Luzon; Southern Philippines. Korean 
War: Korea Summer-Fall, 1952; Third 
Korean Winter. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Philippine Islands, 17 Apr-30 Jun 
1945. Philippine Presidential Unit Cita- 
tion. Republic of Korea Presidential Unit 
Citation: [1952]. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, two hands in 
bend sinister proper, the upper a dexter 
hand issuing from a cloud argent and 
holding an olive branch of the second, a 
lightning flash or and a sword sable, the 
lower sinister hand in profile issuing from 
a fan indented of seven sections (blue, 
white, orange, black, white, yellow and 
red) which in turn issues from base, above 
the cloud four mullets of four points of 
the third; all within a diminished bordure 
of the last. Motto: SPECTATE AD 
CAELUM— Look to the Skies. (Ap- 
proved 9 Jan 1953.) 

404th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 404th Bombardment 
Group (Dive) on 25 Jan 1943. Activated 
on 4 Feb 1943. Redesignated 404th 
Fighter-Bomber Group in Aug 1943. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 




Trained with P-39, P-47j and other air- 
craft. Moved to England, Mar-Apr 1944. 
Assigned to Ninth AF. Redesignated 
404th Fighter Group in May 1944. Be- 
came operational on i May 1944 and, 
using P-47's, helped to prepare for the 
Normandy invasion by bombing and 
strafing targets in France. Provided top 
cover for landings in Normandy on 6 and 
7 Jun 1944 and continued operations from 
England until Jul 1944. Moved to the 
Continent and operated in close support of 
ground troops until the end of the war, 
supporting the Allied breakthrough at St 
Lo in Jul 1944, the drive through Holland 
in Sep 1944, Allied operations during the 
Battle of the Bulge (Dec 1944-Jan 1945), 
and the establishment of the Remagen 
bridgehead and the subsequent crossing of 
the Rhine in Mar 1945. Also flew inter- 
dictory and escort missions, strafing and 
bombing such targets as troop concentra- 
tions, railroads, highways, bridges, am- 
munition and fuel dumps, armored ve- 
hicles, docks, and tunnels, and covering 



289 

the operations of B-17's, B-24's, and B-26's 
that bombed factories, airdromes, marshal- 
ling yards, and other targets. Received a 
DUG for three armed reconnaissance mis- 
sions flown on 10 Sep 1944 when, despite 
bad weather and antiaircraft fire, the 
group attacked enemy factories, rolling 
stock, and communications centers to aid 
the advance of ground forces. Received 
a French Croix de Guerre with Palm for 
assisting First Army at St Lo on 29, 30, 
and 31 Jul 1944 when the group, although 
suffering severe losses from flak, con- 
tinuously provided cover for four armored 
divisions. Also cited by the Belgian gov- 
ernment for operations contributing to 
the liberation of its people. After V-E 
Day, aided in disarming the German Air 
Force and in dismantling the enemy's air- 
craft industry. Returned to the US in 
Aug. Inactivated on 9 Nov 1945. 

Redesignated 137th Fighter Group. Al- 
lotted to ANG (Okla) on 24 May 1946. 
Extended federal recognition on 18 Dec 
1947. Ordered to active duty on 10 Oct 
1950. Redesignated 137th Fighter-Bomber 
Group. Trained with F-84's. Moved to 
France in May 1952 and assigned to United 
States Air Forces in Europe. Relieved 
from active service and returned, without 
personnel and equipment, to the control of 
ANG (Okla), on 10 Jul 1952. 

Squadrons. i2^th: 1950-1952, i2ph: 
1950-1952. 128th: 1950-1952. 455th: 
1943-1944. 506th (formerly 620th) : 1943- 
1945. 5ojth (formerly 621st) : 1943-1945. 
508th (formerly 622d) : 1943-1945. 62^d: 
1943. 



290 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Stations. Key Field, Miss, 4 Feb 1943; 
Congaree AAFld, SC, 5 Jul 1943; Burns 
AAFld, Ore, 4 Sep 1943; Myrtle Beach 
AAFld, SC, 13 Nov 1943-12 Mar 1944; 
Winkton, England, 4 Apr 1944; Chapelle, 
France, 6 Jul 1944; Bretigny, France, 29 
Aug 1944; Juvincourt, France, 13 Sep 1944; 
St-Trond, Belgium, i Oct 1944; Keltz, Ger- 
many, 30 Mar 1945 ; Fritzlar, Germany, 12 
Apr 1945; Stuttgart, Germany, 23 Jun-2 
Aug 1945; Drew Field, Fla, 11 Sep-9 Nov 
1945. Will Rogers Field, Okla, 10 Oct 
1950; Alexandria Mun Aprt, La, 27 Nov 
1950-4 May 1952; Chaumont, France, 13 
May-io Jul 1952. 

Commanders. Lt Col Lucius G Drafts, 
4 Feb 1943; Lt Col James Van G Wilson, 
6 May 1943; Col Carroll W McColpin, 27 
Jan 1944; Lt Col Leo C Moon, 25 Nov 
1944; Lt Col John R Murphy, 23 Apr 
1945-unkn. Lt Col Joseph W Turner, 10 
Oct 1950; Lt Col Roger B Ludeman, 27 
Dec 1950; Col Chesley G Peterson, 8 Aug 
1951-10 Jul 1952. 

Campaigns. American Theater ; Air Of- 
fensive, Europe; Normandy; Northern 
France; Rhineland; Ardennes-Alsace; 
Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Germany, 10 Sep 1944. French 
Croix de Guerre with Palm: 29, 30, and 31 
Jul 1944. Cited in the Order of the Day, 
Belgian Army: 6 Jun-30 Sep 1944; i Oct 
1944-; 18 Dec 1944-15 Jan 1945. Belgian 
Fourragere. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, three lightning 
bolts, or, issuing from a cloud, proper, in 



dexter chief, all within a diminutive 
bordure, gules. Motto: TONITRUS E 
CAELO— Thunder from the Sky. (Ap- 
proved 6 Jun 1952.) 

405th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 405th Bombardment 
Group (Dive) on 4 Feb 1943. Activated 
on I Mar 1943. Redesignated 405th 
Fighter-Bomber Group in Aug 1943, and 
405th Fighter Group in May 1944. 
Trained with A-24, A-25, P-39, and finally 
P-47 aircraft, the latter being used in com- 
bat. Moved to England, Feb-Mar 1944. 
Entered combat with Ninth AF in Apr 
1944. Until D-Day, engaged chiefly in 
bombing airdromes, marshalling yards, 
and bridges in France in preparation for 
the invasion of France. Flew patrols in 
the vicinity of Brest during the invasion 
and then flew armed reconnaissance mis- 
sions to support operations in Normandy. 
Moved to the Continent at the end of Jun 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GK0[/P5 



291 



1944 and engaged primarily in providing 
support for ground forces until May 1945. 
Bombed enemy vehicles and gun positions 
at St Lo in Jul 1944; attacked barges, 
troops, roads, and warehouses during the 
Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945; 
and struck airfields and marshalling yards 
when the Allies crossed the Rhine in Mar 
1945. Received a DUG for a mission in 
France on 24 Sep 1944: answering a re- 
quest from Third Army for support near 
Laneuveville-en-Saulnois, two squadrons, 
flying on instruments through rain and 
dense overcast, were directed by ground 
control toward a furious tank battle where, 
in spite of severe ground fire, one squadron 
repeatedly bombed and strafed enemy 
tanks; the second squadron, unable to find 
this target because of the weather, attacked 
a convoy of trucks and armored vehicles; 
later the same day, the third squadron hit 
warehouses and other buildings and 
silenced ground opposition in the area. 
For operations, Jun-Sep 1944, that aided 
the drive across Normandy and the libera- 
tion of Belgium, the group was cited by 
the Belgian government. Flew last mis- 
sion on 8 May 1945. Returned to the US, 
Jul-Oct 1945. Inactivated on 29 Oct 1945. 

Redesignated 405th Fighter-Bomber 
Group. Activated on i Dec 1952. As- 
signed to Tactical Air Command and 
equipped with F-84's. 

Squadrons. $ogth (formerly 624th) : 
1943-1945; 1952-. ^loth (formerly 
625th): 1943-1945; 1952-. ^iith (for- 
merly 626th): 1943-1945; 1952-. 62ph: 

1943- 



Stations. Drew Field, Fla, i Mar 1943; 
Walterboro AAFld, SC, 14 Sep 1943-14 
Feb 1944; Christchurch, England, 7 Mar- 
22 Jun 1944; Picauville, France, 30 Jun 
1944; St-Dizier, France, 14 Sep 1944; Op- 
hoven, Belgium, 9 Feb 1945; Kitzingen, 
Germany, 30 Apr 1945; Straubing, Ger- 
many, 8 May-Jul 1945; Camp Patrick 
Henry, Va, Oct-29 Oct 1945. Godman 
AFB, Ky, I Dec 1952; Langley AFB, Va, 
16 Apr 1953-. 

CoMMANDERs. Lt Col Marvin S Zipp, 
I Mar 1943; Lt Col Mark E Hubbard, 2 
Jul 1943; Maj Fred G Hook Jr, 12 Jul 
1943; Col James Ferguson, 5 Nov 1943; 
Col Robert L Delashaw, 26 Apr 1944; Lt 
Col J Garrett Jackson, 22 Oct 1944-unkn. 
Col George Laven Jr, i Dec 1952; Col Don- 
ald A Baccus, 16 Apr 1953; Col William 
S Cowart Jr, 6 Jul 1954; Col Robert D 
Johnston, c. 14 May 1955-. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: France, 24 Sep 1944. Cited in the 
Order of the Day, Belgian Army: 6 Jun- 
30 Sep 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a sphere argent, 
land marking and grid lines sable, sur- 
mounted by a bend gules, charged with a 
lightning flash or, between a fleur-de-lis 
of the last and two olive branches, in sal- 
tire, proper, all within a diminutive bor- 
der of the second. Motto: MOVERE ET 
AGGREDI— Deploy and Attack. (Ap- 
proved 10 Nov 1955.) 



292 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



406th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 406th Bombardment 
Group (Dive) on 4 Feb 1943. Activated 
on I Mar 1943. Redesignated 406th 
Fighter-Bomber Group in Aug 1943, and 
406th Fighter Group in May 1944. 
Trained with A-24, A-35, A-39, P-47, and 
other aircraft. Joined Ninth AF in Eng- 
land in Apr 1944 and entered combat with 
P-47's in May when the Allies were pre* 
paring for the invasion of the Continent. 
Provided area cover during the landings 
in Jun, and afterwards flew armed-recon- 
naissance and dive-bombing missions 
against the enemy, attacking such targets 
as motor transports, gun emplacements, 
ammunition dumps, rail lines, marshal- 
ling yards, and bridges during the cam- 
paign in Normandy. Helped prepare the 
way for the Allied breakthrough at St Lo 
on 25 Jul. Moved to the Continent early 
in Aug and continued to provide tactical 



air support for ground forces. Participated 
in the reduction of St Malo and Brest. 
Aided the Allied drive across France, re- 
ceiving a DUC for operations on 7 Sep 
1944 when the group destroyed a large 
column of armored vehicles and military 
transports that were attempting to escape 
from southeastern France through the 
Belfort Gap. Operated closely with 
ground forces and flew interdictory mis- 
) sions during the drive to the Moselle-Saar 
region. Shifted operations from the Saar 
basin to the Ardennes and assisted the be- 
leaguered garrison at Bastogne after the 
Germans had launched the counterof- 
fensive that precipitated the Battle of the 
Bulge. Operated almost exclusively 
within a ten-mile radius of Bastogne from 
23-27 Dec 1944, a period for which the 
group received a second DUC for its at- 
tacks on tanks, vehicles, defended build- 
ings, and gun positions. Flew escort, 
interdictory, and close-support missions in 
the Ruhr Valley early in 1945 and thus as- 
sisted Allied ground forces in their drive 
to and across the Rhine. Remained in 
Europe after V-E Day, being assigned to 
United States Air Forces in Europe for 
duty in Germany with the army of occupa- 
tion. Inactivated on 20 Aug 1946. 

Redesignated 406th Fighter-Bomber 
Group. Activated in England on 10 Jul 
1952. Assigned to United States Air 
Forces in Europe. Equipped with F-84's; 
converted to F-86's late in 1953. Redesig- 
nated 406th Fighter-Interceptor Group in 
Apr 1954. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VNITS— GROUPS 



293 



Squadrons. p2th (formerly 628th): 
1943-1946; 1952-. SI 3th (formerly 629th) : 
1943-1946; 1952-. 5/^A (formerly 
630th): 1943-1946; 1952-. 631st: 1943. 

Stations. Key Field, Miss, i Mar 1943; 
Congaree AAFld, SC, c. 18 Sep 1943-13 
Mar 1944; Ashford, England, 4 Apr 1944; 
Tour-en-Bassin, France, 5 Aug 1944; Cret- 
teville, France, 17 Aug 1944; Le Mans, 
France, 4 Sep 1944; Mourmelon-le-Grand, 
France, 22 Sep 1944; Metz, France, 2 Feb 
1945; Assche, Belgium, 8 Feb 1945; Han- 
dorf, Germany, 15 Apr 1945; Nordholz, 
Germany, 5 Jun 1945-20 Aug 1946. Mans- 
ion, England, 10 Jul 1952-. 

CoMMANDERs. Lt Col Bryan B Harper, 
Mar 1943; Col Anthony V Grossetta, c. 
6 Nov 1943; Lt Col Converse B Kelly, c. 
Jun 1945; Lt Col Robert C Brow^n, 27 Sep 
1945; Lt Col Arvis L Hilpert, 17 Jan 1946; 
Col Earl H Dunham, 6 Apr-Aug 1946. 
Lt Col Delynn E Anderson, Jul 1952; Lt 
Col Arthur F Jeffrey, 1952; Lt Col Harry 
G Sanders, c. Mar 1953; Col William S 
Harrell, c. Jun 1954-. 

Campaigns. American Theater ; Air Of- 
fensive, Europe; Normandy; Northern 
France; Rhineland; Ardennes-Alsace; 
Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: France, 7 Sep 1944; Belgium, 23-27 
Dec 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a bend gules 
fimbriated argent overall a dexter hand 
in spiked nail gauntlet palewise proper 
grasping a three-pronged lightning flash 
or and surmounted at the cuff by a chain 
of four links of the last. Motto: ASCEN- 



DE ET DEFENDE— Rise and Defend. 
(Approved 14 May 1953.) 

407th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 407th Bombardment 
Group (Dive) on 23 Mar 1943 and acti- 
vated on 28 Mar. Assigned to Second and 
later (Nov 1943) to Third AF. Part of the 
group, the air echelon with A-24's, vi^as sta- 
tioned in Alaska during Jul and Aug 1943 
for operations against the Japanese in the 
Aleutians. Redesignated 407th Fighter- 
Bomber Group in Aug 1943. Trained for 
combat and later functioned as a replace- 
ment training unit, using a variety of air- 
craft that . included A-36's, P-47's, and 
P-51's. Disbanded on i Apr 1944. 

Squadrons. 4g$th: 1944. ^isth (for- 
merly 632d) : 1943-1944. p6th (formerly 
633d): 1943-1944. snth (formerly 
634th) : 1943- 1944. 63Sth: 1943. 

Stations. Drew Field, Fla, 28 Mar 1943 ; 
Lakeland AAFld, Fla, 2 Oct 1943; Galves- 
ton AAFld, Tex, 9 Nov 1943-1 Apr 1944. 



294 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Commanders, ist Lt William E Gar- 
land, 28 Mar 1943; Lt Col Mark E Hub- 
bard, 3 Jun 1943 ; Lt Col Carroll W McCol- 
pin, 8 Sep 1943; Maj Pat M DeBerry, 18 
Jan 1944; Maj T W Rivers, 30 Mar-i Apr 
1944. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure (light blue), 
over an Indian bow and arrov*^ proper, in 
sal tire (the bow^ green, the arrow yellow, 
tipped red, feathered blue, yellow, and red, 
veins black) an Indian shield argent, edged 
black, charged with a war bird gules, 
markings sable, twelve feathers pendanted, 
from the base of the shield, proper. (Ap- 
proved I Jun 1955.) 

408th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 408th Bombardment 
Group (Dive) on 23 Mar 1943. Activated 
on 5 Apr 1943. Redesignated 408th 
Fighter-Bomber Group in Aug 1943. As- 



signed to Third AF, then to Second (Nov 
1943), and again to Third (Feb 1944). 
Received A-24, A-26, P-40, and P-47 air- 
craft in Oct 1943 and began training. 
Disbanded on i Apr 1944. 

Reconstituted and redesignated 408th 
Fighter Group (Air Defense), on 8 Jul 
1955. Activated on 8 Apr 1956. As- 
signed to Air Defense Command. 

Squadrons. 45$^^- I944' 518th (for- 
merly 636th): 1943-1944; 1956-. ^igth 
(formerly 637th) : 1943-1944. 520^^ (for- 
merly 638th): 1943-1944. S^gth: 1943. 

Stations. Key Field, Miss, 5 Apr 1943; 
Drew Field, Fla, 22 Sep 1943; Abilene 
AAFld, Tex, 10 Nov 1943; DeRidder 
AAB, La, 12 Feb 1944; Woodward AAFld, 
Okla, 26 Mar-i Apr 1944. Klamath Falls 
Mun Aprt, Ore, 8 Apr 1956-. 

Commanders, ist Lt Reynold H Ulick, 
7 Apr 1943; Maj John R Reynolds, 22 Jun 
1943; Maj Wyatt P Exum, 22 Sep 1943; Lt 
Col Thomas Hitchcock, 26 Dec 1943; Maj 
Wyatt P Exum, i Feb 1944; Lt Col Harry 
L Galusha, 18 Mar-i Apr 1944. Lt Col 
Robert L Larson, Apr 1956-. 
Campaigns. None. 
Decorations. None. 
Insigne. Shield: Azure, a lightning 
bolt, bendwise, or, between two jet-like 
eagles volant proper with trailing speed 
vapor proper. Motto: DEFEND WITH 
VIGILANCE. (Approved 22 May 1957.) 

409th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 409th Bombardment 
Group (Light) on i Jun 1943 and acti- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT JJmTS— GROUPS 



295 



vated the same day. Used A-20's in pre- 
paring for duty overseas. Moved to 
England, Feb-Mar 1944, and assigned to 
Ninth AF. Bombed coastal defenses, V- 
weapon sites, airdromes, and other targets 
in France, Apr-Jun 1944, in preparation 
for the invasion of Normandy. Supported 
ground forces during the Normandy 
campaign by hitting gun batteries, rail 
lines, bridges, communications, and other 
objectives. During Jul 1944, aided the 
Allied offensive at Caen and the break- 
through at St Lo with attacks on enemy 
troops, flak positions, fortified villages, 
and supply dumps. Supported Third 
Army's advance toward Germany, Aug- 
Nov 1944, operating from bases in France 
beginning in Sep. Converted to A-26 air- 
craft in Dec and participated in the Battle 
of the Bulge (Dec 1944-Jan 1945) by at- 
tacking lines of communication and sup- 
ply. Continued to operate against targets 
in Germany until May 1945. Flew last 
mission on 3 May, attacking an ammuni- 
tion dump in Czechoslovakia. Returned 
to the US, Jun-Aug 1945. Inactivated on 
7 Nov 1945. 
Squadrons. 640th: 1943-1945. 641st: 

1943-1945- 6^2^; 1943-1945- ^43^- 1943- 
1945. 

Stations. Will Rogers Field, Okla, i 

Jun 1943; Woodward AAFld, Okla, Oct 

1943; DeRidder AAB, La, c. 10 Dec 1943- 

10 Feb 1944; Little Walden, England, 7 

Mar 1944; Bretigny, France, Sep 1944; 

Laon/Couvron, France, Feb- Jun 1945; 

Seymour Johnson Field, NC, Aug 1945; 



Wcstover Field, Mass, c. 6 Oct-7 Nov 
1945. 

Commanders. Col Preston P Pender, 
Jun 1943; Col Thomas R Ford, 4 Jul 1944- 
1945. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy ; Northern France ; Rhineland ; 
Ard*ennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

410th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 410th Bombardment 
Group (Light) on 16 Jun 1943. Activated 
on I Jul 1943. Trained with A-20's. 
Moved to England, Mar-Apr 1944, and 
assigned to Ninth AF. Entered combat 
in May 1944 and helped to prepare for the 
invasion of Normandy by assaulting 
coastal defenses, airfields, and V-weapon 
sites in France, and marshalling yards in 
France and Belgium. Supported the in- 
vasion in Jun by bombing gun positions 
and railway choke points. Assisted 
ground forces at Caen and St Lo in Jul 
and at Brest in Aug and Sep by attacking 
bridges, vehicles, fuel and ammunition 
dumps, and rail lines. Moved to France in 
Sep, and through mid-Dec struck de- 
fended villages, railroad bridges and over- 
passes, marshalling yards, military camps, 
and communications centers to support the 
Allied assault on the Siegfried Line. Par- 
ticipated in the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 
1944-Jan 1945, by pounding marshalling 



296 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



yards, railheads, bridges, and vehicles in 
the battle area. Received a DUG for the 
effectiveness of its bombing in the Ar- 
dennes, 23-25 Dec 1944, when the group 
made numerous attacks on enemy lines 
of communications. Flew several night 
missions in Feb 1945, using B-26's as flare 
planes, an A-26 for target marking, and 
A-2o's to bomb the objectives. Continued 
to fly support and interdictory missions, 
aiding the drive across the Rhine and into 
Germany, Feb-Apr 1945. Converted to 
A-26 aircraft, but the war ended before 
the group was ready to fly them in com- 
bat. Returned to the US, Jun-Aug 1945. 
Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945. 

Squadrons. 64^h: 1943-1945. 64^th: 
1943-1945. 646th: 1943-1945- ^47th: 
1943-1945. 

Stations. Will Rogers Field, Okla, i 
Jul 1943; Muskogee AAFld, Okla, Oct 
1943; Laurel AAFld, Miss, Jan 1944; Lake- 
land AAFld, Fla, c. 8 Feb-c. 13 Mar 1944; 
Birch, England, c. 4 Apr 1944; Gosfield, 
England, c. 16 Apr 1944; Coulommiers, 
France, Sep 1944; Juvincourt, France, Feb 
1945; Beaumont-sur-Oise, France, May- 
Jun 1945; Seymour Johnson Field, NC, 
Aug 1945; Myrtle Beach AAFld, SC, c. 
5 Oct-7 Nov 1945, 

Commanders. Unkn, i Jul-13 Aug 
1943; Lt Col Clark L Miller, 13 Aug 1943; 
Col Ralph Rhudy, 17 Sep 1943; Col Sher- 
man R Beaty, 3 Jul 1944; Col Robert J 
Hughey, Dec 1944-1945. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes- Alsace; Central Europe. 



Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Germany, 23-25 Dec 1944. 
Insigne. None. 

41 1th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 411th Bombardment 
'Group (Light) on 14 Jul 1943. Activated 
on I Aug 1943. Assigned to Third AF. 
Functioned as a replacement training unit, 
using A-20 aircraft. Disbanded on i May 
1944. 

Squadrons. 648th: 1943-1944. 64gth: 
1943-1944. 650th: 1943-1944. 6$ist: 
1943-1944. 

Stations. Will Rogers Field, Okla, i 
Aug 1943; Florence AAFld, SC, 15 Aug 
1943-1 May 1944. 

Commanders. Lt Col Blaine B Camp- 
bell, c. Aug 1943-1 May 1944. 

Campaigns. None. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

412th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 412th Fighter Group on 
20 Nov 1943 and activated on 29 Nov. As- 
signed to Fourth AF. Conducted tests and 
engaged in experimental work with P-59A 
and P-80 jet aircraft. Also trained pilots 
and other personnel for duty with units 
using jet aircraft. Inactivated on 3 Jul 
1946. 

Redesignated 412th Fighter Group (Air 
Defense). Activated oniS Aug ig^$. As- 
signed to Air Defense Comnaand. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



297 




Squadrons. 2gfA: 1944-1946, jist: 
1944-1946. 445th: 1944-1946; 1955- 

Stations. Muroc, Calif, 29 Nov 1943; 
Palmdale AAFld, Calif, i Jun 1944; 
Bakersfield Mun Arpt, Calif, 11 Oct 1944; 
Santa Maria AAFld, Calif, 10 Jul 1945; 
March Field, Calif, c. 29 Nov 1945-3 J"^ 
1946. Wurtsmith AFB, Mich, 18 Aug 

I955-- 
Commanders. Capt Brunncr R Coke, 

29 Nov 1943; Maj John W Mitchell, Dec 

1943; Col Homer A Boushey, 11 Jan 1944; 

Col David L Hill, 29 Sep '1945; Col Bruce 

K Holloway, 30 Jan-3 Jul 1946. Col Ralph 

A Tiylor Jr, 1955-. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Per bend azure and 
sable; a stylized jet aircraft, in bend, point 
to dexter chief, argent, with swirling jet 
stream moving to sinister base gules, 
streaked or, the end of the jet stream super- 
imposed over a cloud formation issuing 
from sinister base of the third, shaded of 



the first; all between a star in sinister chief 
and a lightning bolt in dexter base of the 
fifth. (Approved 22 May 1957.) 

413th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 413th Fighter Group on 
5 Oct 1944 and activated on 15 Oct. 
Trained for very-long-range operations 
with P-47's. Moved to the Asiatic-Pa- 
cific Theater, Apr-Jun 1945. Assigned to 
Twentieth AF; reassigned to the Eighth 
early in Aug 1945. Flew a few strafing 
missions from Saipan to the Truk Islands 
in May before beginning operations from 
le Shima in Jun. Engaged in dive-bomb- 
ing and strafing attacks on factories, radar 
stations, airfields, small ships, and other 
targets in Japan. Made several attacks 
on shipping and airfields in China during 
Jul. Flew its only escort mission on 8 
Aug 1945 when it covered B-29's during 
a raid against Yawata, Japan. Served as 
a part of the air defense and occupation 




298 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



force for the Ryukyu Islands after the war. 
Inactivated on Okinawa on 15 Oct 1946. 

Redesignated 413th Fighter-Day Group. 
Activated in the US on 11 Nov 1954. As- 
signed to Tactical Air Command. Equip- 
ped first with F-86's, later with F-ioo's. 

Squadrons, ist: 1944-1946; 1954-. 
21st: 1944-1946; 1954-. 34th: 1944-1946; 
1954-. 

Stations. Seymour Johnson Field, NC, 
15 Oct 1944; Bluethenthal Field, NC, 9 
Nov 1944-6 Apr 1945; le Shima, 19 May 
1945; Kadena, Okinawa, 10 Nov 1945; 
Yontan, Okinawa, 29 Jan-15 Oct 1946. 
George AFB, Calif, ii Nov 1954- 

CoMMANDERs. Lt Col Gcorge H Hol- 
lingsworth, 15 Oct 1944; Col Harrison R 
Thyng, i Nov 1944; Lt Col John B Cole- 
man, 14 Oct 1945; Col Loring F Stetson 
Jr, c. Jun-15 Oct 1946. Col George Laven 
Jr, II Nov 1954; Lt Col Maurice G Long, 
40cti955-. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Japan; East- 
ern Mandates; Western Pacific; Ryukyus; 
China Offensive. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Argent, within a di- 
minutive border per border of the like 
and azure a sheaf of broad swords points 
upward gules of the second, vert and or, 
all with hilts of the first. Motto: SIVA. 
(Approved 26 Apr 1955.) 

414th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 414th Fighter Group on 
5 Oct 1944 and activated on 15 Oct. 
Equipped with P-47's. Moved to the 




Asiatic-Pacific Theater, Jun-Aug 1945. 
Assigned to Twentieth AF, The air 
echelon, based temporarily on Guam, at- 
tacked objectives in the Truk Islands on 
13 and 22 Jul. The group began opera- 
tions from Iwo Jima late that month with 
an attack against a radar station on Chichi 
Jima. Operations during Aug were di- 
rected primarily against enemy airfields in 
Japan, but the group also strafed hangars, 
barracks, ordnance dumps, trains, mar- 
shalling yards, and shipping. Moved to 
the Philippines late in Dec 1945. As- 
signed to Thirteenth AF. Inactivated in 
the Philippines on 30 Sep 1946. 

Redesignated 414th Fighter Group (Air 
Defense) . Activated in the US on 18 Aug 
1955. Assigned to Air Defense Com- 
mand. Equipped first with F-94's, later 
with F-89's. 

Squadrons. 4i^th: 1944-1946. 437th: 
1944-1946; 1955-. 4s6th: 1944-1946. 

Stations. Seymour Johnson Field, NC, 
15 Oct 1944; Self ridge Field, Mich, 15 Nov 
1944; Bluethenthal Field, NC, 19 Mar-ii 
May 1945; North Field, Iwo Jima, 7 Jul 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



299 



1945; Clark Field, Luzon, 23 Dec 1945-30 
Sep 1946. Oxnard AFB, Calif, 18 Aug 

I955-- 

Commanders. Lt Col Robert C Bagby, 
28 Oct 1944; Col Henry G Thorne Jr, 6 
Dec 1944-unkn. Col Edwin F Carey Jr, 

I955-- 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Japan; East- 
ern Mandates. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a bend or, be- 
tween two martlets volant argent, light- 
ning bolts gules streaming from each of 
their tails. (Approved 26 Jul 1956.) 

415th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 415th Bombardment 
Group (Dive) on 12 Feb 1943 and acti- 
vated on 15 Feb. Equipped with A-20's, 
A-24's, A-26's, B-25's, and P-39's. Served 
as a training and demonstration organiza- 
tion at AAF School of Applied Tactics and 
later as a replacement training unit of 
Second AF. Disbanded on 5 Apr 1944. 

Squadrons. ^S^th: 1943-1944. ^21 st 
(formerly 667th) : 1943-1944. 

Stations. Alachua AAFld, Fla, 15 Feb 
1943; Orlando AB, Fla, 25 Feb 1944; 
Dalhart AAFld, Tex, 19 Mar-5 Apr 1944. 

Commanders. 2d Lt Michael J Panek, 
I Mar 1943; Maj Wesley E Dickerson, 12 
Mar 1943; Lt Col Robert K Martin, 29 Mar 
1943; Col John R Kelly, 23 Oct 1943; Lt 
Col Steele R Patterson, 6 Mar-5 Apr 1944. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 



416th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 416th Bombardment 
Group (Light) on 25 Jan 1943. Activated 
on 5 Feb 1943. Used A-20's in preparing 
for duty overseas. Moved to England, 
Jan-Feb 1944, and assigned to Ninth AF. 
Entered combat in Mar 1944, and during 
the next several weeks directed most of 
its attacks against V-weapon sites in 
France. Flew a number of missions 
against airfields and coastal defenses to 
help prepare for the invasion of Nor- 
mandy. Supported the invasion in Jun 
1944 by striking road junctions, marshall- 
ing yards, bridges, and railway overpasses. 
Assisted ground forces at Caen and St Lo 
in Jul and at Brest later in the summer, by 
hitting transportation facilities, supply 
dumps, radar installations, and other 
targets. In spite of intense resistance, the 
group bombed bridges, railways, rolling 
stock, and a radar station to disrupt the 
enemy's retreat through the Falaise gap, 
6-9 Aug 1944, and received a DUC for the 
missions. Assisted the airborne attack on 
Holland in Sep. Supported the assault on 
the Siegfried Line by pounding transporta- 
tion, warehouses, supply dumps, and de- 
fended villages in Germany. Converted 
to A-26 aircraft in Nov. Attacked trans- 
portation facilities, strong points, commu- 
nications centers, and troop concentra- 
tions during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 
1944-Jan 1945. Aided the Allied thrust 
into Germany by continuing its strikes 
against transportation, communications, 
airfields, storage depots, and other objec- 



300 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



tives, Feb-May 1945. Bombed flak posi- 
tions in support of the airborne assault 
across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Returned 
to the US, Jul-Oct 1945. Inactivated on 
24 Oct 1945. 

Squadrons. 668th: 1943-1945. 66gth: 
1943-1945. 6'joth: 1943-1945. 67 /rf: 

1943-1945. 

Stations. Will Rogers Field, Okla, 5 
Feb 1943; Lake Charles AAFld, La, 4 Jun 
1943; Laurel AAFld, Miss, Nov 1943- c. 
I Jan 1944; Wethersfield, England, Feb 
1944; Melun, France, Sep 1944; Laon/ 
Athics, France, Feb 1945; Cormeilles-en- 
Vexin, France, May- Jul 1945; Camp 
Myles Standish, Mass, c. 23-24 Oct 1945. 

Commanders. Lt Col Richard D Dick, 
Feb 1943; Col Harold L Mace, Oct 1943; 
Col Theodore R Aylesworth, 3 Aug 1944- 
1945. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

DecoRATiONS. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: France, 6-9 Aug 1944. 

Insigne, None. 

417th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 417th Bombardment 
Group (Light) on 23 Mar 1943 and acti- 
vated on 28 Mar. Trained with A-20's. 
Moved to New Guinea, Dec 1943-Jan 
1944, and assigned to Fifth AF. Began 
combat in Mar 1944, operating in support 
of ground forces on New Guinea and strik- 
ing airfields, bridges, personnel concentra- 



tions, installations, and shipping in that 
area. Operated from Noemfoor, Sep-Dec 
1944, attacking airfields and installations 
on Ceram, Halmahera, and western New 
Guinea. Moved to the Philippines in Dec 
1944, and until Jun 1945 supported ground 
forces and attacked enemy airfields, trans- 
portation, and installations on Luzon, 
Cebu, Negros, and Mindanao. Received 
a DUC for attacking Japanese convoys at 
IJngayen, 30 Dec 1944-2 Jan 1945, action 
that not only impaired enemy shipping 
and supply strength, but also helped to 
clear the way for the American invasion of 
Luzon. Flew its last missions in Jul, 
dropping propaganda leaflets to Japanese 
troops on Luzon. Moved to Okinawa in 
Aug 1945 and to Japan in Nov. Inacti- 
vated on 15 Nov 1945. 

Squadrons. 672^; 1943-1945. 673^: 
1943-1945. 674th: 1943-1945- 675^^: 
1943-1945. 

Stations. Will Rogers Field, Okla, 28 
Mar 1943; DeRidder AAB, La, 4 Aug-io 
Dec 1943; Cape Sudest, New Guinea, 28 
Jan 1944; Dobodura, New Guinea, 7 Feb 
1944; Saidor, New Guinea, 8 Apr 1944; 
Noemfoor, c. 9 Sep 1944; Tacloban, 
Leyte, 6 Dec 1944; San Jose, Mindoro, 22 
Dec 1944; Okinawa, 17 Aug 1945; Itami, 
Japan, c. 1-15 Nov 1945. 

Commanders. Col Jack W Saunders, 
31 Mar 1943; Lt Col Howard S Ellmore, 
5 Jul 1944; Lt Col Milton W Johnson, 2 
Jan 1945; Lt Col Charles W Johnson, 28 
Apr 1945; Lt Col James E Sweeney, 10 
Oct-15 Nov 1945. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 

Campaigns. New Guinea; Leyte; Lu- 
zon; Southern Philippines. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Philippine Islands, 30 Dec 1944-2 Jan 
1945. Phihppine Presidential Unit Cita- 
tion. 

Insigne. None. 

418th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 418th Bombardment 
Group (Light) on 16 Jul 1943. Activated 
on I Aug 1943. Assigned to Third AF. 
Disbanded on 15 Sep 1943. Consolidated 
(in Apr 1958) with the 418th Bombard- 
ment Group (Very Heavy). 

418th Bombardment Group (Very 
Heavy) was constituted on 28 Feb 1944. 
Activated on 11 Mar 1944. Assigned to 
Second AF as a replacement training unit 
but had no squadrons assigned. Dis- 
banded on I Apr 1944. 

Squadrons. 6^th: 1943. 6gjth: 1943. 
6g8th: 1943. 6ggth: 1943. 

Stations. Lake Charles AAFld, La, i 
Aug-15 Sep 1943. Alamogordo AAFld, 
NM, II Mar-i Apr 1944. 

Commanders. Unkn. 

Campaigns. None. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

419th TROOP CARRIER GROUP 

Constituted as 419th Troop Carrier 
Group on i Dec 1944. Activated on Guam 
on 31 Jan 1945. Assigned to Seventh AF. 



301 




No tactical squadrons or aircraft were as- 
signed. The group's headquarters had 
detachments at Saipan, Tinian, and An- 
guar, the latter detachment moving to Iwo 
Jima in Mar 1945. These detachments 
operated transportation terminals that as- 
sisted in moving troops, equipment, food, 
and mail to, and in evacuating wounded 
personnel from, combat areas. Inactivated 
on Guam on 15 Feb 1946. 

Allotted to the reserve. Activated in 
the US on 22 Mar 1947. Redesignated 
419th Troop Carrier Group (Medium) in 
Jun 1949. Ordered to active service on i 
May 1951. Inactivated on 2 May 1951. 

Redesignated 419th Troop Carrier 
Group (Assault, Fixed Wing). Activated 
on 9 Jul 1956. Assigned to Tactical Air 
Command and equipped with C-123's. 

Squadrons. 12th Rescue: 1947-1949. 
i^th Fighter: 1947-1949. 6^d: 1947-1949. 
64th: 1947-1949. 6$th: 1947-1949. 66th: 
1947-1949. jgth: 1948-1949. ssgth: 1949- 



302 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



1951; 1956-. ^4oth: 1949-1951; 1956-. 
5^/j/: 1949-1951; 1956-. S4^d: 1949-1951. 

Stations. Guam, 31 Jan 1945-15 Feb 
1946. Richmond AAB, Va, 22 Mar 1947; 
Scott AFB, III, 27 Jun 1949-2 May 195 1. 
Ardmore AFB, Okla, 9 Jul 1956-. 

Commanders. Capt Vernon C Dang, i 
Feb 1945; Maj Victor C Swearingen, 5 
Mar 1945; Col Frank H Mears, 10 May 
1945; Lt Col Victor C Swearingen, 6 Aug 
1945; Maj John B Wakefield Jr, 19 Aug 
1945; Capt Vernon C Dang, 10 Nov 1945; 
Capt John L Boggs, 21 Nov 1945-unkn. 
Maj Joseph C Hamilton Jr, 9 Jul 1956-. 

Campaigns. Western Pacific. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Per pale azure and 
vert, on a pile argent a point in point re- 
versed gules between the wings of an eagle 
volant, sable, his head and detail of the 
third, grasping with his talons the left 
hand of a Roman warrior and lowering 
him to base; the warrior holding a sword 
in his right hand; all between three stars, 
argent, one in chief, one in dexter base, 
one in sinister base. (Approved 25 Jun 

I957-) 

423d RECONNAISSANCE 
GROUP 

Constituted as 423d Observation Group 
on 30 Mar 1943. Activated on i Apr 1943. 
Assigned to Third AF. Redesignated 
423d Reconnaissance Group on 20 Apr 
1943. Original mission of training re- 
placements was changed in Jun 1943 to 



training pilot instructors for III Fighter 
Command. Disbanded on 15 Aug 1943. 

Squadrons. 2gth: 1943. 52^; 1943. 
Ssd: 1943- 3^h: 1943. 

Stations. DeRidder AAB, La, i Apr- 
15 Aug 1943. 

Commanders. Unkn. 

Campaigns. None. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

424th RECONNAISSANCE 
GROUP 

Constituted as 424th Observation Group 
on 30 Mar 1943. Activated on i Apr 1943. 
Assigned to Third AF. Redesignated 
424th Reconnaissance Group on 20 Apr 
1943. Apparently was never fully organ- 
ized. Disbanded on 15 Aug 1943. 

Squadrons. 2$th: 1943. 2,6th: 1943. 
37th: 1943. 38th: 1943. 

Stations. DeRidder AAB, La, i Apr- 
15 Aug 1943. 

Commanders. Unkn. 

Campaigns. None. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

426th RECONNAISSANCE 
GROUP 

Constituted as 426th Reconnaissance 
Group on 25 Jun 1943. Activated on i 
Jul 1943. Assigned to Third AF. Ap- 
parently was never fully organized. Dis- 
banded on 15 Aug 1943. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GKOUPS 



303 



Squadrons. 44th: 1943. 4$th: 1943. 
46th: 1943. 4'jth: 1943. 

Stations. Gainesville AAFld, Tex, i 
Jul-15 Aug 1943. 

Commanders. Unkn. 

Campaigns. None. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

432d RECONNAISSANCE 
GROUP 




Constituted as 432d Observation Group 
on 18 Feb 1943 and activated on 22 Feb. 
Assigned to AAF School of Applied Tac- 
tics. Redesignated ^y.d Reconnaissance 
Group in Apr 1943, and 432d Tactical Re- 
connaissance Group in Aug 1943. Air- 
craft included P-39's and L-3's. Trained, 
and provided reconnaissance to assist 



fighter, bombardment, and ground units 
with their training. Disbanded on i Nov 

1943- 

Reconstituted on 14 Jan 1954. Acti- 
vated on 18 Mar 1954. Assigned to Tacti- 
cal Air Command. Equipped with RF- 
8o's, RF-84's, RB-26's, RB-57's, and 
RB-66's. 

Squadrons, jd: 1943. 2otk: 1954-. 
29th: 1954-. 4ist: 1954-. 43d: 1954-. 

Stations. Alachua AAFld, Fla, 22 
Feb 1943; Keystone AAFld, Fla, Mar-i 
Nov 1943. Shaw AFB, SC, i8 Mar 1954- 

CoMMANDERs. ist Lt Richard I Purnell, 
c. I Mar 1943; Capt John J Owen Jr, c. 
17 Mar 1943; Capt William C Collins, c. 
21 Mar 1943; Maj William B Merrill Jr, 
23 Mar 1943; Lt Col Eugene H Rice, 18 
Apr 1943-unkn. Col Frank A Sharp, 18 
Mar 1954-unkn ; Col John G Foster, 1955-. 

Campaigns. None. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Gules, a stylized owl, 
holding in his dexter claws two lightning 
bolts in saltire, all sable, detail of the field. 
Motto: VICTORIA PER SCIENTIAM— 
Victory through Knowledge. (Approved 
2 Jun 1955.) 

433d TROOP CARRIER GROUP 

Constituted as 433d Troop Carrier 
Group on 22 Jan 1943. Activated on 9 
Feb 1943. Trained to tow gHders and to 
transport and drop supplies and para- 
troops. Moved to New Guinea, via Ha- 



304 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



waii, the Fiji Islands, and Australia, 
Aug-Nov 1943. Assigned to Fifth AF. 
Operated from New Guinea and Biak un- 
til 1945, using C-47's and a few B-17's, plus 
C-46's that were acquired late in 1944. 
Transported troops; hauled such things as 
gasoline, ammunition, medicine, rations, 
communications equipment, and construc- 
tion materials; and evacuated wounded 
personnel. Moved to the Philippines in 
Jan 1945. Operations included delivering 
ammunition, rations, and other items to 
Filipino guerrilla forces; evacuating pris- 
oners of war and civilian internees; trans- 
porting combat units from New Guinea, 
the Netherlands Indies, and the Solomons, 
to the Philippines; and dropping rice to 
the leper colony on Culion Island. Trans- 
ported organizations of Fifth AF to 
Okinawa, Jun-Aug 1945, and hauled 
occupation forces to Japan after V-J Day. 
Moved to Japan in Sep 1945. Inactivated 
on 15 Jan 1946. 

Allotted to the reserve. Activated in the 
US on 6 Jul 1947. Redesignated 433d 
Troop Carrier Group (Medium) in Jun 

1949. Equipped for a time with C-46 and 
C-47 aircraft; converted to C-119's in 

1950. Ordered to active service on 15 Oct 

1950. Assigned to Tactical Air Com- 
mand. Moved to Germany, Jul-Aug 

1951, and assigned to United States Air 
Forces in Europe. Inactivated in Ger- 
many on 14 Jul 1952. 

Allotted to the reserve. Activated in 
the US on 18 May 1955. 

Squadrons, ^th: 1948-1949. 6^th: 
1943-1945. 66th: 1943-1945. 6jth: 1943- 



1946; 1947-1952; 1955- 68th: 1943-1946; 
1947-1952; 1955-. 6gth: 1943-1946; 1947- 
1952. joth: 1943-1946; 1947-1950. ^i$th: 
1948-1949. 

Stations. Florence AAFld, SC, 9 Feb 
1943; Baer Field, Ind, 1-12 Aug 1943; Port 
Moresby, New Guinea, 25 Aug 1943 ; Biak, 
17 Oct 1944; Tanauan, Leyte, 19 Jan 1945; 
Clark Field, Luzon, 31 May 1945; Tachi- 
kawa, Japan, 11 Sep 1945-15 Jan 1946. 
Akron, Ohio, 6 Jul 1947; Cleveland Mun 
Aprt, Ohio, 27 Jun 1949; Greenville AFB, 
SC, 16 Oct 1950-20 Jul 1951 ; Rhein-Main 
AB, Germany, 5 Aug 1951-14 Jul 1952. 
Brooks AFB, Tex, 18 May 1955-. 

CoMMANDERs. Col Cecil B Guilc, 10 
Feb 1943; Lt Col Marvin O Calliham, 17 
Apr 1945; Lt Col James L Cole, Sep 1945- 
unkn. Lt Col Cornelius P Chima, 15 Oct 
1950; Col Lucion N Powell, 24 Mar-14 Jul 
1952. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Japan; 
New Guinea; Northern Solomons; Bis- 
marck Archipelago; Western Pacific; 
Leyte; Luzon; Southern Philippines; 
Ryukyus. 

Decorations. Philippine Presidential 
Unit Citation. 

Insigne. None. 

434th TROOP CARRIER GROUP 

Constituted as 434th Troop Carrier 
Group on 30 Jan 1943. Activated on 9 
Feb 1943. Trained with C-47's for opera- 
tions in Europe with Ninth AF. Moved 
to England in Oct 1943 and entered a 
seven-month training period with loist 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



305 




Airborne Division in preparation for the 
invasion of northern France. Towed 
gliders carrying troops to Normandy on 6 
Jun 1944 and flew follow-up missions later 
on D-Day and on 7 Jun to provide rein- 
forcements of troops, vehicles, and ammu- 
nition. Received a DUG and the French 
Croix de Guerre with Palm for action in 
the invasion of Normandy. Dropped 
paratroops in the assault area and towed 
gliders with reinforcements during the air- 
borne operation in Holland, 17-25 Sep 
1944. Moved to France in Feb 1945. 
Participated in the airborne assault across 
the Rhine, dropping paratroops over the 
east bank on 24 Mar. In addition to these 
airborne operations, the group reinforced 
ground troops in the St Lo area during the 
breakthrough in Jul 1944; provided sup- 
plies for Third Army during its drive 
across France in Aug, an action for which 
the group was cited by the French Govern- 
ment; and resupplied troops at Bastogne 
in Dec 1944 in the effort to stop the Ger- 
man offensive in the Ardennes. Also en- 
gaged in numerous transport missions, 



hauling mail, rations, clothing, and other 
supplies from England to bases in France 
and Germany, and evacuating the Allied 
wounded. After V-E Day, transported 
gasoline to Allied forces in Germany and 
evacuated prisoners of war to relocation 
centers in France and Holland. Returned 
to the US, Jul-Aug 1945. Trained with 
C-46's. Inactivated on 31 Jul 1946. 

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 15 
Mar 1947. Redesignated 434th Troop Car- 
rier Group (Medium) in Jul 1949. 
Ordered to active duty on i May 1951. As- 
signed to Tactical Air Command. Used 
C-47 aircraft. Relieved from active serv- 
ice and inactivated, on i Feb 1953. 

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on i 
Feb 1953. 

Squadrons, jist: 1943-1946; 1947-1953; 
1953-. 72d: 1943-1946; 1947-1953; I953-- 
73d' 1943-1946; 1947-1948, 194^1953; 
1953-1954- 74ih: 1943-1946; 1947-1951- 
80th: 1948-1949. 81 St: 1948-1949. 

Stations. Alliance AAFld, Neb, 9 Feb 
1943; Baer Field, Ind, 5 Sep-Oct 1943; 
Fulbeck, England, 7 Oct 1943; Welford 
Park, England, 10 Dec 1943; Aldermaston, 
England, 3 Mar 1944-12 Feb 1945; Mour- 
melon-le-Grand, France, Feb-24 Jul 1945; 
Baer Field, Ind, 4 Aug 1945; Alliance 
AAFld, Neb, 15 Sep 1945; George Field, 
111, I Oct 1945; Greenville AAB, SC, 2 
Feb-31 Jul 1946. Stout Field, Ind, 15 Mar 
1947; Atterbury AFB^ Ind, i Jul 1949; 
Lawson AFB, Ga, 23 Jan 1952-1 Feb 1953. 
Atterbury AFB, Ind, i Feb 1953-. 

CoMMANDERS. Maj Edward F Culler- 
ton, 9 Feb 1943; Lt Col Fred D Stevers, 18 



306 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Aug 1943; Col William B Whitacre, 29 
Nov 1943; Lt Col Ben A Garland, 17 Dec 
1944; Lt Col Frank W Hansley, 15 Sep 
1945; Col Adriel N Williams, i Oct 1945- 
31 Jul 1946. Col Wallace L Linn, i May 
1951; Lt Col Jack F Linn, 20 Feb 1952- 
I Feb 1953. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Nor- 
mandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes- Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: France, [6-7] Jun 1944. French 
Croix de Guerre with Palm: 6-7 Jun 1944; 
20-28 Aug 1944. French Fourragere. 

Insigne. Shield: Or, in chief a pair of 
stylized wings erect and conjoined azure, 
between a chevronel reversed gules; issuing 
from base a demi-sphere with land mark- 
ings azure, longitude and latitude lines 
argent, thereover a parachute of the last; 
the sphere surmounting the apex of the 
chevronel. (Approved 10 Oct 1952.) 

435th TROOP CARRIER GROUP 

Constituted as 435th Troop Carrier 
Group on 30 Jan 1943. Activated on 25 
Feb 1943. Used C-47's and C-53's in 
preparing for duty overseas with Ninth 
AF. Moved to England, Oct-Nov 1943, 
and began training for participation in 
the airborne operation over Normandy. 
Entered combat on D-Day 1944 by drop- 
ping paratroops of loist Airborne Divi- 
sion near Cherbourg; towed Waco and 
Horsa gliders carrying reinforcements to 
that area on the afternoon of D-Day and 
on the following morning; received a 




DUC for its part in the Normandy in- 
vasion. Began transport services follow- 
ing the landings in France and intermit- 
tently engaged in missions of this type 
until V-E Day; hauled supplies such as 
serum, blood plasma, radar sets, clothing, 
rations, and ammunition, and evacuated 
wounded personnel to Allied hospitals. 
Interrupted supply and evacuation mis- 
sions to train for and participate in three 
major airborne assaults. A detachment 
that was sent to Italy in Jul 1944 for the 
invasion of Southern France dropped para- 
troops over the assault area on 15 Aug 
and released gliders carrying troops and 
equipment such as jeeps, guns, and am- 
munition; flew a resupply mission over 
France on 16 Aug; and then transported 
supplies to bases in Italy before returning 
to England at the end of the month. In 
Sep 1944 the group participated in the air 
attack on Holland, dropping paratroops 
of 82d and loist Airborne Divisions and 
releasing gliders carrying reinforcements. 
Moved to France in Feb 1945 for the air- 
borne assault across the Rhine; each air- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



307 



craft towed two gliders in transporting 
troops and equipment to the east bank of 
the Rhine on 24 Mar; then the group flew 
resupply missions to Germany in support 
of ground forces. Transported supplies to 
occupation forces in Germany and evacu- 
ated Allied prisoners of war after V-E 
Day. Returned to the US in Aug. In- 
activated on 15 Nov 1945. 

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 15 
Jul 1947. Redesignated 435th Troop 
Carrier Group (Medium) in Jun 1949. 
Ordered to active service on i Mar 1951. 
Assigned to Tactical Air Command. 
Trained with C-119's. Relieved from 
active duty and inactivated, on i Dec 1952. 

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on i 
Dec 1952. 

Squadrons, j^th: 1943-1945. y6th: 
1943-1945; 1947-1952; 1952-. TJth: 1943- 

1945; 1947-1952; 1952-- 78th: 1943-1945; 
1947-1952; 1952-1954, 1955-. 326th: 1947- 

1949- 349th: 1949-1951. 

Stations. Bowman Field, Ky, 25 Feb 
1943; SedaUa AAFld, Mo, 4 May 1943; 
Pope Field, NC, 2 Jul 1943; Baer Field, 
Ind, 6-13 Oct 1943; Langer, England, 3 
Nov 1943; Welford Park, England, 25 Jan 
1944; Bretigny, France, c. 13 Feb-25 Jun 
1945; Baer Field, Ind, 5 Aug 1945; Kel- 
logg Field, Mich, 13 Sep-15 Nov 1945. 
Morrison Field, Fla, 15 Jul 1947; Miami 
Intl Aprt, Fla, 26 Jun 1949-1 Dec 1952. 
Miami Intl Aprt, Fla, i Dec 1952-. 

CoMMANDERS. Col Frank J MacNees, 
25 Feb 1943-15 Nov 1945. Lt Col Stanley 
N Simpson, i Mar 1951; Lt Col John R 
Pountnay, 1951; Maj Thomas L Morris, 



20 Feb 1952; Col Leonard J Barrow Jr, 20 
Mar-i Dec 1952. 

Campaigns. Rome-Arno; Normandy; 
Northern France; Southern France; 
Rhineland; Ardennes-Alsace; Central 
Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: France, [6-7] Jun 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Per fess wavy, or and 
azure, charged with two martlets, counter- 
volant and counter-changed, between two 
Ranches chequy sable and gules. Motto: 
CITUS ET CERTUS— Swift and Sure. 
(Approved 22 May 1952.) 

436th TROOP CARRIER GROUP 




Constituted as 436th Troop Carrier 
Group on 23 Mar 1943. Activated on i 
Apr 1943. Trained with C-47's for duty 
in Europe with Ninth AF. Moved over- 
seas, Dec 1943-Jan 1944. Began opera- 
tions in Jun 1944 and participated in four 
major airborne operations prior to the Al- 
lied victory in May 1945. Received a DUC 



308 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



for its first missions, which were flown 
during the Normandy invasion: dropped 
paratroops of Sad Airborne Division over 
the beachhead early on 6 Jun; released 
gliders with reinforcements of troops and 
supplies on the afternoon of D-Day and 
on the following morning. In Jul 1944 
a detachment was sent to Italy to take part 
in the invasion of Southern France: re- 
leased gliders carrying troops and dropped 
paratroops in the assault area on 15 Aug; 
flew several resupply missions to France 
and then dropped supplies to Allied forces 
in Italy. The detachment returned to 
England late in Aug, and in Sep the group 
carried out airborne operations over Hol- 
land, dropping paratroops of loist Air- 
borne Division and releasing gliders with 
reinforcements of troops and equipment. 
Towed gliders to Wcsel on 24 Mar 1945 
to provide troops for the airborne assault 
across the Rhine; carried gasoline to the 
front lines and evacuated patients, 30-31 
Mar. Flew transport missions almost daily 
when not engaged in airborne operations; 
hauled such things as gasoline, ammuni- 
tion, medical supplies, rations, and cloth- 
ing; evacuated the wounded to hospitals 
in England and France. After V-E Day, 
evacuated patients and prisoners of war 
and flew practice missions with French 
paratroops. Returned to the US in Aug. 
Inactivated on 15 Nov 1945. 

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 15 
Mar 1947. Redesignated 436th Troop Car- 
rier Group (Medium) in Jun 1949. 
Ordered to active duty on i Apr 1951. In- 
activated on 16 Apr 1951. 



Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 18 
May 1955. 

Squadrons, y^d: 1948-1949. j^h: 
1943-1945; 1949-1951; I955-- ^oth: 1943- 
1945; 1947-1948, 1949-1951. 8ist: 1943- 
1945; 1947-1948, 1949-1951; 1955- 82d: 

1943-1945; 1947-1951- Si^th: 1947-1949- 

Stations. Baer Field, Ind, i Apr 1943; 
AUiance AAFld, Neb, 2 May 1943; Lau- 
rinburg-Maxton AAB, NC, i Aug 1943; 
Baer Field, Ind, 14-28 Dec 1943; Bottes- 
ford, England, Jan 1944; Membury, Eng- 
land, 3 Mar 1944-Feb 1945; Melun, 
France, 26 Feb- Jul 1945; Baer Field, Ind, 
15 Aug 1945; Maiden AAFld, Mo, 13 Sep- 
15 Nov 1945. Godman Field, Ky, 15 Mar 
1947; Standiford Mun Aprt, Ky, 20 Oct 
1950-16 Apr 1951. New York NAS, NY, 
18 May 1955-. 

Commanders. Col Adriel N Williams, 
I Apr 1943-1 Oct 1945; unkn, i Oct-15 
Nov 1945. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Rome- 
Arno; Normandy; Northern France; 
Southern France; Rhineland; Ardennes- 
Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: France, [6-7] Jun 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Gules, a sphere azure 
with longitude and latitude Unes argent; 
the sphere issuing from four lightning 
bolts radiating upward from base of the 
last; a parachute, in pale, between the four 
bolts, two and two, argent, gores outlined 
of the second, all superimposed over the 
sphere; over all in chief an antique crown 
or, winged argent. Motto: PAR ATI, 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



309 



VOLENTES, POTENTES— Ready, Will- 
ing and Able. (Approved 20 Jun 1957.) 

437th TROOP CARRIER GROUP 




Constituted as 437th Troop Carrier 
Group on 15 Apr 1943. Activated on i 
May 1943. Trained with C-46 and C-47 
aircraft for duty overseas with Ninth AF. 
Moved to England, Jan-Feb 1944, and 
began preparing for the Normandy in- 
vasion. Released gliders near Cherbourg 
early on 6 Jun 1944; flew follow-up mis- 
sions on 6 and 7 Jun, carrying reinforce- 
ments of troops, antiaircraft pieces, am- 
munition, rations, and other supplies for 
82d Airborne Division; received a DUC 
for these actions in France. A detach- 
ment was sent to Italy in Jul 1944 for the 
invasion of Southern France in Aug; it 
dropped paratroops over the assault area 
on 15 Aug, flew a resupply mission on the 
following day, and then hauled freight to 
bases in Italy until it returned to England 



on 24 Aug. During the airborne attack on 
Holland, 17-25 Sep 1944, the group re- 
leased gliders carrying troops and equip- 
ment, and flew several resupply missions 
to provide reinforcements. Moved to 
France in Feb 1945 for action during the 
air assault across the Rhine; each aircraft 
towed two gliders over the east bank and 
released them near Wesel on 24 Mar 1945. 
Flew numerous missions in Mar and Apr 
to carry gasoline, food, medicine, and other 
supplies to ground forces pushing across 
Germany. When not participating in one 
of the major airborne operations, the or- 
ganization continually transported ammu- 
nition, rations, clothing, and other sup- 
plies, and evacuated wounded personnel to 
rear-zone hospitals. Evacuated prisoners 
of war and displaced persons to relocation 
centers after V-E Day. Returned to the 
US in Aug 1945. Inactivated on 15 Nov 
1945. 

Redesignated 437th Troop Carrier 
Group (Medium). Allotted to the re- 
serve. Activated on 27 Jun 1949. Ordered 
to active duty on 10 Aug 1950. Moved to 
Japan in Nov 1950 and assigned to Far 
East Air Forces for duty in the Korean 
War. Used C-119's and C-46's to partici- 
pate in the airlift between Japan and 
Korea from Dec 1950 to Jun 1952, trans- 
porting ammunition, rations, aircraft parts, 
gasoline, and other items to Pusan, Taegu, 
Suwon, Kimpo, Pyongyang, and other 
bases in Korea, and evacuating wounded 
personnel to hospitals in Japan. Dropped 
paratroops of 187th Regimental Combat 
Team at Munsan-ni in Mar 195 1 and flew 



310 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



resupply and reinforcement missions in 
Apr and May. Supported the advance of 
Eighth Army into North Korea in Jun 
1951. From Jan to Jun 1952, engaged 
chiefly in evacuating personnel on leave 
and in transporting replacements to the 
battle area. Relieved from active duty and 
inactivated in Japan, on 10 Jun 1952. 

Allotted to the reserve. Activated in the 
US on 15 Jun 1952. 

Squadrons. S^d: 1943-1945; 1949-1952; 
1952-. 8^h: 1943-1945; 1949-1952; 1952-. 
85th: 1943-1945; 1949-1952; 1952-. 86th: 

1943-1945; 1949-1950, 1951-1952. 

Stations. Baer Field, Ind, i May 1943; 
Sedalia AAFId, Mo, 8 Jun 1943; Pope 
Field, NC, 10 Oct 1943; Baer Field, Ind, 
29 Dec 1943-Jan 1944; Balderton, England, 
Jan 1944; Ramsbury, England, 5 Feb 1944; 
Coulommiers/Voisins, France, 25 Feb- Jul 
1945; Baer Field, Ind, 15 Aug 1945; Marfa 
AAFld, Tex, 14 Sep-15 Nov 1945. Chi- 
cago-Orchard Aprt, 111, 27 Jun 1949; Shaw 
AFB, SC, 14 Aug-i6 Oct 1950; Brady AB, 
Japan, 8 Nov 1950-10 Jun 1952. O'Hare 
Intl Aprt, III, 15 Jun 1952-. 

Commanders. Col Cedric E Hudgens, 
I May 1943; Col Donald J French, 12 Jun 
1944-1945. Col John R Roche, 1950; Lt 
Col Edward H Nigro, Jan 1951; Lt Col 
George W Sutcliflfe, Mar 1951; Lt Col 
Jack L Crawford Jr, 5 Sep 1951-10 Jun 
1952. 

Campaigns. World War II: American 
Theater; Rome-Arno; Normandy; North- 
ern France; Southern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. Ko- 
rean War: CCF Intervention; ist UN 



Counteroffensive; CCF Spring Offensive; 
UN Summer-Fall Offensive; Second Ko- 
rean Winter; Korea Summer-Fall, 1952. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: France, [6-7] Jun 1944. Republic of 
Korea Presidential Unit Citation: i Jul 
i95i-[io Jun 1952]. 

Insigne. On a yellow disk, within a 
narrow blue border and a narrow white 
border, a running "Minute Man" with 
rifle at high port, all in blue silhouette, in 
front of a pair of wings elevated and con- 
joined. (Approved 24 Nov 1953.) 

438th TROOP CARRIER GROUP 




Constituted as 438th Troop Carrier 
Group on 14 May 1943. Activated on i 
Jun 1943. Trained with C-47's. Moved 
to England in Feb 1944 and assigned to 
Ninth AF. Until Jun 1945, trained for 
and participated in airborne operations, 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



311 



flew resupply and reinforcement missions 
to combat zones, evacuated casualties, and 
hauled freight. Received a DUG for 
dropping paratroops in Normandy and 
towing gliders with reinforcements during 
the invasion of France in Jun 1944. A de- 
tachment went to Italy in Jul 1944 and 
participated in the invasion of Southern 
France in Aug by dropping paratroops and 
towing gliders that carried reinforce- 
ments; also hauled freight in Italy before 
returning to England late in Aug. In 
Sep the group helped to supply Third 
Army in its push across France, and trans- 
ported troops and supplies when the Allies 
launched the airborne operation in Hol- 
land. Flew supply missions to battle 
areas, including two flights to Bastogne, 
during the Battle of the Bulge (Dec 1944- 
Jan 1945). Moved to France, Feb-Mar 
1945. Dropped paratroops during the air- 
borne attack across the Rhine in Mar. 
Evacuated Allied prisoners of war after 
V-E Day. Returned to the US, Aug-Sep 
1945. Inactivated on 15 Nov 1945. 

Redesignated 438th Troop Carrier 
Group (Medium). Allotted to the re- 
serve. Activated on 27 Jun 1949. Called 
to active duty on 10 Mar 1951. Inacti- 
vated on 14 Mar 1951. 

Redesignated 438th Fighter-Bomber 
Group. Allotted to the reserve. Acti- 
vated on 15 Jun 1952. 

SguiADRONS. Syth: 1943-1945; 1949- 
1951; 1952-. 88th: 1943-1945; 1949-1951; 
1952-. 8gth: 1943-1945; 1949-1951; 1952-. 
goth: 1943-1945; 1949-1951. 



Stations. Baer Field, Ind, i Jun 1943; 
Sedalia AAFld, Mo, c. 11 Jun 1943; Lau- 
rinburg-Maxton AAB, NC, Oct 1943; Baer 
Field, Ind, c. 15-c. 28 Jan 1944; Welford, 
England, Feb 1944; Greenham Common, 
England, Mar 1944; Prosnes, France, Feb 
1945; Amiens/Glisy, France, May-c. 3 Aug 
1945; Baer Field, Ind, c. 16 Sep 1945; Law- 
son Field, Ga, c. i Oct-15 Nov 1945. Ofl- 
utt AFB, Neb, 27 Jun 1949-14 Mar 1951. 
General Billy Mitchell Field, Wis, 15 Jun 
1952; Milwaukee, Wis, Jan 1953- 

CoMMANDERs. Lt Col William F Stew- 
art, c. I Jun 1943; Col John M Donalson, 
c. 13 Jul 1943; Col Lucion N Powell, 27 
Dec 1944-1945. 

Campaigns. Rome-Arno; Normandy; 
Northern France; Southern France-; 
Rhineland; Ardennes- Alsace; Central Eu- 
rope. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: France, [6-7] Jun 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Per bend sinister pur- 
pure and argent, fimbriated or, a globe all 
elements counterchanged, the globe fim- 
briated or and purpure, surmounting a 
stylized lashing swirling spear of the first, 
second and third, the shield fimbriated 
purpure and or. Motto: NUNQUAM 
NON PARATUS— Never Unprepared. 
(Approved 10 Aug 1954.) 

439th TROOP CARRIER GROUP 

Constituted as 439th Troop Carrier 
Group on 14 May 1943. Activated on i 
June 1943. Trained with C-47's. Moved 
to England, Feb-Mar 1944, for duty with 



312 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 




Ninth AF. Prepared for the invasion of 
the Continent and began operations by 
dropping paratroops of loist Airborne Di- 
vision in Normandy on 6 Jun 1944 and 
releasing gliders with reinforcements on 
the following day, receiving a DUC and 
a French citation for these missions. After 
the Normandy invasion the group ferried 
supplies in the United Kingdom until 
the air echelon was sent to Italy in Jul to 
transport cargo to Rome and evacuate 
wounded personnel. The detachment 
dropped paratroops of 517th Parachute 
Infantry Regiment along the Riviera to 
aid the invasion of Southern France on 
15 Aug 1944 and later towed gliders to 
provide reinforcements; for these missions 
the group was again cited by the French 
government. After the air echelon re- 
turned to England on 25 Aug, the group 
resumed its cargo missions. In Sep the 
group moved to France for further opera- 
tions in support of the advancing Allies. 
Dropped paratroops of 82d Airborne Di- 
vision near Nijmegen and towed gliders 



carrying reinforcements during the air- 
borne attack on Holland, 17-25 Sep 1944. 
Participated in the Battle of the Bulge by 
releasing gliders with supplies for loist 
Airborne Division near Bastogne on 27 
Dec 1944. Each aircraft of the group 
towed two gliders with troops of 17th 
Airborne Division and released them near 
Wesel when the Allies made the air as- 
sault across the Rhine on 24 Mar 1945. 
Continually hauled food, clothing, medi- 
cine, gasoline, ordnance equipment, and 
other supplies to the front lines and eva- 
cuated patients to rear-zone hospitals when 
not engaged in airborne operations. Con- 
verted from C-47's to C-46's, which were 
used to transport displaced persons from 
Germany to France and Belgium after 
V-E Day. Returned to the US, Jul-Sep 
1945. Trained with C-46 aircraft. /«- 
activated on 10 Jun 1946. 

Redesignated 439th Troop Carrier 
Group (Medium). Allotted to the re- 
serve. Activated on 27 Jun 1949. Or- 
dered to active duty on i Apr 1951. 
Inactivated on 3 Apr 1951. 

Redesignated 439th Fighter-Bomber 
Group. Allotted to the reserve. Aai- 
vated on 15 Jun 1952. 

Squadrons. 9/rf; 1943-1946; 1949- 
1951; 1952-1954. 92^.' 1943-1946; 1949- 
1951; 1952-1954. 95^; 1943-1946; 1949- 
1951; 1952-. g4th: 1943-1946; 1949-1951. 
4yist: 1954-. 4^2d■. 1954-. 

Stations. AUiance AAFld, Neb, i Jun 
1943; Sedaiia AAFld, Mo, 15 Jun 1943; 
Alliance AAFld, Neb, 2 Aug 1943; Laurin- 
burg-Maxton AAB, NC, 16 Dec 1943; Baer 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



313 



Field, Ind, 2-14 Feb 1944; Balderton, Eng- 
land, 21 Feb 1944; Upottery, England, 26 
Apr 1944; Juvincourt, France, 8 Sep 1944; 
Lonray, France, 28 Sep 1944; Chateaudun, 
France, 4 Nov 1944-11 Jul 1945; Baer 
Field, Ind, Jul 1945; Sedalia AAFld, Mo, 
7 Oct 1945-10 Jun 1946. Selfridge AFB, 
Mich, 27 Jun 1949-3 Apr 1951. Selfridge 
AFB, Mich, 15 Jun 1952-. 

Commanders. Lt Col Ralph L Zim- 
merman, I Jun 1943; Col Charles H 
Young, 21 Jan 1944; Col Gordon L Edris, 
6 Oct 1945; Lt Col Lester C Messenger, 
16 Apr 1946; Lt Col William M Massen- 
gale Jr, 28 May-io Jun 1946. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Rome- 
Arno; Normandy; Northern France; 
Southern France; Rhineland; Ardennes- 
Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: France, [6-7] Jim 1944. French 
Croix de Guerre with Palm: [6-7] Jun 
1944; 15 Aug 1944. French Fourragere. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a beaver volant 
proper, holding a missile in his right paw, 
argent, markings gules and sable and sup- 
ported in the air with aircraft wings of 
the third, tanks of the fourth, on the right 
wing the national aircraft marking in its 
proper colors. (Approved 20 Apr 1956.) 

440th TROOP CARRIER GROUP 

Constituted as 440th Troop Carrier 
Group on 25 May 1943. Activated on i 
Jul 1943. Prepared for duty overseas with 
C-47's. Moved to England, Feb-Mar 
1944, and assigned to Ninth AF. Began 




operations by dropping paratroops of loist 
Airborne Division near Carentan on the 
Cotentin Peninsula on 6 Jun 1944 and by 
transporting gasoline, ammunition, food, 
and other supplies to the same area on 7 
Jun, being awarded a DUC for completing 
these missions during the invasion of Nor- 
mandy. Began flying supply and evacua- 
tion missions between England and 
France after the invasion of the Continent. 
In Jul 1944 part of the group was sent to 
Italy where it transported supplies to 
Rome until Aug. The detachment also 
participated in the invasion of Southern 
France, dropping paratroops of 517th 
Parachute Infantry Regiment near Le Muy 
on 15 Aug 1944 and towing gliders carry- 
ing reinforcements to that area later in the 
day. Meanwhile, the group in England 
continued to haul cargo, and on 10 Aug 
1944 it dropped supplies to an infantry 
battalion encircled at Mortain in northern 
France. The detachment returned to 
England on 25 Aug and the group moved 



314 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



to France in Sep. During the attack on 
Holland the 440th dropped paratroops of 
82d Airborne Division near Groesbeek on 
17 Sep 1944 and released gliders with 
reinforcements on 18 and 23 Sep. On 26 
Dec 1944, during the Battle of the Bulge, 
it hauled gliders filled with supplies for 
10 1 St Airborne Division encircled at Bas- 
togne. In Mar 1945 it towed gliders with 
troops of 17th Airborne Division to the 
battle area near Wesel during the airborne 
assault across the Rhine. When not en- 
gaged in airborne operations the group 
transported food, clothing, medical sup- 
plies, gasoline, ammunition, and other 
cargo to the front lines and evacuated 
casualties to rear-zone hospitals. After 
the war the group transported liberated 
prisoners and displaced persons. Inacti- 
vated in Europe on 18 Oct 1945. 

Allotted to the reserve. Activated in the 
US on 3 Sep 1947. Redesignated 440th 
Troop Carrier Group (Medium) in Jun 
1949. Ordered to active duty on i May 
1951. Inactivated on 4 May 1951. 

Redesignated 440th Fighter-Bomber 
Group. Allotted to the reserve. Activated 
on 15 Jun 1952. 

Squadrons, g^th: 1943-1945; 1947- 
1951; 1952- g6th: 1943-1945; 1947-1951; 

1952-. 97M; 1943-1945; 1947-1951; 1952-- 
98th: 1943-1945; 1947-1951. 

Stations. Baer Field, Ind, i Jul 1943; 
Sedalia AAFld, Mo, 9 Jul 1943; Alliance 
AAFld, Neb, 7 Sep 1943; Pope Field, NC, 
4 Jan 1944; Baer Field, Ind, 14-21 Feb 
1944; Bottesford, England, 11 Mar 1944; 
Exeter, England, 18 Apr 1944; Reims, 



France, 11 Sep 1944; Le Mans, France, 30 
Sep 1944; Orleans, France, 2 Nov 1944-18 
Oct 1945. Wold-Chamberlain Field, 
Minn, 3 Sep 1947-4 May 195 1. Ft Snel- 
ling, Minn, 15 Jun 1952; Minneapolis-St 
Paul Intl Aprt, Minn, 8 Jan 1953-. 

Commanders. Maj Charles H Young, 
5 Jul 1943; Lt Col Frank X Krebs, 7 Jul 
1943; Lt Col Loyd C Waldorf, 18 Sep 
1944; Col Frank X Krebs, 29 Oct 1944- 
1945. 

Campaigns. Rome-Arno; Normandy; 
Northern France; Southern France; 
Rhineland; Ardennes-Alsace; Central 
Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: France, [6-7] Jun 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Argent, on and over 
the upper edge of a targe azure bearing 
Polaris and Ursa Major of the field within 
an orle or, a winged viking helmet of the 
like, behind the targe a sword and spear 
in saltire of the last all detailed and fim- 
briated of the second; all within an orle of 
the last and a diminished border gold. 
Motto: NUNQUAM NON PARATUS— 
Never Unprepared. (Approved 14 Nov 
1958.) 

441st TROOP CARRIER GROUP 

Constituted as 441st Troop Carrier 
Group on 25 May 1943. Activated on i 
Aug 1943. Used C-47's to train for over- 
seas duty. Moved to England, Feb-Mar 
1944, and assigned to Ninth AF. Trained 
and transported cargo in the United King- 
dom until Jun 1944. Began operations 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



315 



during the invasion of Normandy, drop- 
ping paratroops of loist Airborne Division 
near Cherbourg on D-Day and releasing 
gliders with reinforcements on 7 Jun, 
being awarded a DUC for carrying out 
these missions. Following the operations 
in Normandy, the organization trans- 
ported cargo in France and the United 
Kingdom until part of the group went to 
Italy in Jul 1944. In Italy it made sched- 
uled flights between Grosseto and Rome, 
transporting supplies and evacuating pa- 
tients. When the Allies invaded southern 
France in Aug 1944 the detachment in 
Italy dropped troops of 509th Parachute 
Infantry Regiment along the Riviera on 
15 Aug and hauled gliders with reinforce- 
ments later in the day. After the detached 
echelon returned to England on 25 Aug, 
the group resumed its cargo missions, then 
moved to the Continent in Sep 1944 for 
further operations in support of the ad- 
vancing Allies. Dropped paratroops of 
82d and loist Airborne Divisions near 
Nijmegen on 17 Sep during the air attack 
on Holland, and towed gliders with re- 
inforcements on 18 and 23 Sep. In Dec, 
transported ammunition, rations, medi- 
cine, and other supplies to troops of loist 
Airborne Division surrounded by the 
enemy at Bastogne. Released gliders car- 
rying troops of 17th Airborne Division 
near Wesel on 24 Mar 1945 when the Allies 
launched the airborne assault across the 
Rhine. Hauled gasoline to armored col- 
umns in Germany after the Allies crossed 
the Rhine. Continually transported 
freight and personnel in the theater when 



not participating in airborne operations. 
Evacuated casualties and prisoners who 
had been liberated. Remained overseas 
after the war as part of United States Air 
Forces in Europe. Continued to trans- 
port personnel and equipment, using 
C-46, C-47, and C-109 aircraft. Inacti- 
vated in Germany on 30 Sep 1946. 

Redesignated 441st Troop Carrier 
Group (Medium). Allotted to the re- 
serve. Activated in the US on 27 Jun 1949. 
Ordered to active service on 10 Mar 195 1. 
Inactivated on 14 Mar 1951. 

Squadrons. 52^; 1945-1946. 61st: 
1945-1946. ggth: 1943-1945; 1949-1951- 
looth: 1943-1946; 1949-1951. ^oist: 1943- 

1945; 1949-1951- 3o^d: 1943-1945; 1949- 
1951. 2'^6th: 1945-1946. 

Stations. Sedalia AAFld, Mo, i Aug 
1943; Camp Mackall, NC, 18 Jan 1944; 
Baer Field, Ind, 22-29 Feb 1944; Langar, 
England, 17 Mar 1944; Merryfield, Eng- 
land, 25 Apr 1944; Villeneuve/Vetrus, 
France, 8 Sep 1944; St Marceau, France, 
2 Oct 1944; Dreux, France, 3 Nov 1944; 
Frankfurt, Germany, c. 12 Aug 1945-30 
Sep 1946. Chicago-Orchard Aprt, 111, 27 
Jun 1949-14 Mar 1951. 

Commanders. Col Theodore G Ker- 
shaw, 8 Aug 1943; Col William H Park- 
hill, 24 Nov 1944-unkn; Lt Col Roswell 
Freedman, unkn-1946; Col Hoyt L Prin- 
dle, 1946; Col James E Daniel Jr, unkn- 
Sep 1946. 

Campaigns. Rome-Arno; Normandy; 
Northern France; Southern France; 
Rhineland; Ardennes-Alsace; Central 
Europe. 



316 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Decxjrations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: France, [6-7] Jun 1944. 
Insigne. None. 

442d TROOP CARRIER GROUP 



^^U^^^^^^ 




Constituted as 442d Troop Carrier 
Group on 25 May 1943. Activated on i 
Sep 1943. Trained with C-47's and C-53's. 
Moved to England in Mar 1944 for duty 
with Ninth AF. Received additional 
training with C-47's and C-53's, and later 
used these aircraft for operations. Flew 
first missions during the invasion of the 
Continent, dropping paratroops near Ste- 
Mere-Eglise on 6 Jun 1944 and flying a re- 
supply mission on 7 Jun, being awarded a 
DUC for its part in the Normandy in- 
vasion. Hauled freight and evacuated 
casualties during the remainder of the 
summer. In Jul, however, a detachment 
flew to Italy where it transported cargo, 
evacuated casualties, and took part in the 



invasion of Southern France on 15 Aug by 
dropping paratroops in the battle area and 
releasing gliders carrying reinforcements. 
The detachment returned to England late 
in Aug, and in Sep the group took part in 
the airborne attack in Holland by trans- 
porting paratroops and towing gliders 
with reinforcements. Moved to the Conti- 
nent in Oct 1944, flying resupply missions, 
hauling freight, and evacuating casualties 
in support of the Allied effort to breach 
the Siegfried Line. Continued transport 
duties until V-E Day but also participated 
in the airborne assault across the Rhine in 
Mar 1945 by releasing gliders filled with 
troops, carried supplies to ground forces 
in Germany (Apr-May), and evacuated 
prisoners who had been liberated. Re- 
mained in the theater after the war as part 
of United States Air Forces in Europe. 
Inactivated in Germany on 30 Sep 1946. 

Redesignated ^26. Troop Carrier Group 
(Medium). Allotted to the reserve. Ac- 
tivated in the US on 27 Jun 1949. Called 
to active duty on 10 Mar 1951. Inactivated 
on 12 Mar 1951. 

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 
15 Jun 1952. 

Squadrons, ^oist: 1945. so^d: 1943- 
I946;i949-i95i;i952-. 50.^^:1943-1946; 
1949-1951; 1952-. 3o$th: 1943-1946; 1949- 
1951; 1952-1955. so^th: 1943-1946; 1949- 
1951. 

Stations. Sedalia AAFld, Mo, i Sep 
1943; Alliance AAFld, Neb, Dec 1943; 
Pope Field, NC, Jan 1944; Baer Field, Ind, 
c. 2-c. 8 Mar 1944; Fulbeck, England, c. 
29 Mar 1944; Weston Zoyland, England, 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



317 



Jun 1944; Bonnetable, France, Oct 1944; 
St-Andre-de-L'Eure, France, Nov 1944; 
Munich/Riem, Germany, Sep 1945-30 Sep 
1946. Fairfax Field, Kan, 27 Jun 1949; 
Olathe NAS, Kan, May 1950-12 Mar 195 1. 
Olathe NAS, Kan, 15 Jun 1952; Grand- 
view AFB, Mo, Apr 1955-. 

CoMMANDERS. Col Charles M Smith, 
Sep 1943; Col John C Kilborn, 25 Sep 
1945; Lt Col Paul A Jones, 4 Oct 1945- 
1946; Col Bertram C Harrison, 1946-unkn. 

Campaigns. Rome-Arno; Normandy; 
Northern France; Southern France; 
Rhineland; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: France, [6-7] Jun 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Light blue, over a sil- 
houetted parachute Air Force yellow, a 
target pattern, to base, red and white, 
charged with an elongated arrow red, 
standing on the target a silhouetted air- 
man, head uplifted toward a stylized air- 
craft surmounting the upper section of the 
parachute all black, the aircraft highlight- 
ed white. Motto: SI JEUNESSE SA- 
VAIT, SI VIELLESSE POUVAIT— If 
Youth Knew, If Age Were Able. (Ap- 
proved 6 May 1955.) 

443d TROOP CARRIER GROUP 

Constituted as 443d Troop Carrier 
Group on 25 May 1943. Activated on i 
Oct 1943. Equipped with L-3, C-53, and 
C-47 aircraft. Transferred, without per- 
sonnel and equipment, on 15 Feb 1944 to 
India, where the group was remanned and 
new squadrons were assigned. Operated 



in the CBI theater until after the war, 
using C-47's and sometimes gliders to 
transport Allied troops, evacuate wounded 
personnel, and haul supplies and materiel, 
including gasoline, oil, signal and engi- 
neering equipment, medicine, rations, and 
ammunition. The group's missions were 
concerned primarily with support for 
Allied forces that were driving southward 
through Burma, but the 443d also made 
many flights to China. It moved to China 
in Aug 1945 and received a DUC for 
transporting a Chinese army of more than 
30,000 men from Chihkiang to Nanking 
in Sep 1945. Returned to the US in Dec. 
Inactivated on 26 Dec 1945. 

Redesignated 443d Troop Carrier Group 
(Medium) and allotted to the reserve. 
Activated on 27 Jun 1949. Called to active 
duty on i May 1951. Assigned to Tactical 
Air Command. Equipped first with 
C-46's, later (in Feb 1952) with C-119's. 
Inactivated on i Feb 1953. 

Squadrons, ist: 1944-1945. 2d: 1944- 
1945. 2yth: 1944-1945. 3ogth: 1943-1944; 
1949-1953. 310th: 1943-1944; 1949-1953- 
3/5M; 1944-1945. 343^- 1949-1953- 
344th: 1949-1951. 

Stations. Sedalia AAFld, Mo, i Oct 
1943; Alliance AAFld, Neb, 19 Jan 1944- 
15 Feb 1944; Sylhet, India, 15 Feb 1944; 
Sookerating, India, 6 Jun 1944; Dinjan, 
India, 9 Jul 1944; Ledo, India, 8 Oct 1944; 
Dinjan, India, 11 May 1945; Chihkiang, 
China, 28 Aug 1945; Hankow, China, 25 
Sep-30 Nov 1945; Camp Anza, Calif, 23- 
26 Dec 1945. Hensley Field, Tex, 27 Jun 



318 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



1949; Donaldson AFB, SC, 9 Aug 195 1- 
I Feb 1953. 

Commanders. Maj Elmer F Estrumse, 
5 Oct 1943; Lt Col Charles D Farr, 13 Mar 
1944; Lt Col Loren Cornell, i6 May 1944; 
Col Thomas J Schofield, i Nov 1944; Col 
Herbert A Bott, 12 Apr 1945; Col Fred- 
erick L Moore, 11 Sep 1945; Lt Col Jack 
F Marr, Dec-c. 26 Dec 1945. Col James 
B Henson, i May 1951; Maj Clifford F 
Harris, c. 15 Dec 1952-1 Feb 1953. 

Campaigns. India-Burma; China De- 
fensive; Central Burma; China Offensive. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: China, 5-30 Sep 1945. 

Insigne. None. 

444th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 444th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 15 Feb 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Mar 1943. Redesignated 444th 
Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) in 
Nov 1943. Trained with B-17, B-24, and 
B-26 aircraft, and later with B-29's. 
Moved to India, via Africa, Mar-Apr 1944. 
Assigned to Twentieth AF on 29 Jun 1944. 
Flew supplies over the Hump to Chinese 
bases that its B-29's were to use for staging 
attacks on Japan. On 15 Jun 1944 par- 
ticipated in the first AAF strike on the 
Japanese home islands since the Doolittle 
raid in 1942. Bombed transportation cen- 
ters, naval installations, aircraft plants, 
and other targets in Burma, China, Thai- 
land, Japan, and Formosa. Conducted a 
daylight raid against iron and steel works 
at Yawata, Japan, in Aug 1944, being 



awarded a DUC for the mission. Evacu- 
ated staging fields in China in Jan 1945 
but continued operations from India, 
bombing targets in Thailand and mining 
waters around Singapore. 

Moved to Tinian in the spring of 1945 
for further operations against targets in 
Japan. Participated in bombardment of 
strategic objectives and in incendiary raids 
on urban areas for the duration of the war. 
Received a DUC for attacking oil storage 
facilities at Oshima, bombing an aircraft 
plant near Kobe, and dropping incendi- 
aries on Nagoya, in May 1945. Struck 
light metal industries at Osaka in Jul 1945, 
receiving another DUC for this action. 
Returned to the US late in 1945. Assigned 
to Strategic Air Command on 21 Mar 1946. 
Inactivated on i Oct 1946. 

Squadrons. ^4^h: 1945-1946. 4ogth: 
1946. 6y6th: 1943-1946. Sjjth: 1943- 
1946. SjSth (later loth): 1943-1946. 
6jgth: 1943-1944. 82$th: 1945. 

Stations. Davis-Monthan Field, Ariz, 
I Mar 1943; Great Bend AAFld, Kan, 29 
Jul 1943-12 Mar 1944; Charra, India, 11 
Apr 1944; Dudhkundi, India, i Jul 1944-1 
Mar 1945; West Field, Tinian, 7 Apr-28 
Sep 1945; Merced AAFld, Calif, 15 Nov 
1945; Davis-Monthan Field, Ariz, 6 May-i 
Oct 1946. 

Commanders. Maj Arthur T[.''] Snell, 
28 Mar 1943; Maj Walter W Cross, 17 Apr 
1943; Col Alva L Harvey, 5 Aug 1943; 
Col Henry R Sullivan, 22 Apr 1945; Col 
James C Selser Jr, 3 Jun 1945-1 Oct 1946. 

Campaigns. American Theater; India- 
Burma; Air Offensive, Japan; China De- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— Gi?Of/?5 



319 



fensive; Western Pacific; Central Burma. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Yawata, Japan, 20 Aug 1944; Japan, 
10-14 ^^y 19455 Japan, 24 Jul 1945. 

Insigne. None. 

445th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 445th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 20 Mar 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Apr 1943. Prepared for combat 
with B-24's. Moved to England, Oct-Dec 
1943, for service with Eighth AF. Entered 
combat on 13 Dec 1943 by attacking U- 
boat installations at Kiel. Operated pri- 
marily as a strategic bombardment or- 
ganization until the war ended, striking 
such targets as industries in Osnabruck, 
synthetic oil plants in Lutzkendorf, chemi- 
cal works in Ludwigshafen, marshalling 
yards at Hamm, an airfield at Munich, an 
ammunition plant at Duneberg, under- 
ground oil storage facilities at Ehmen, and 



factories at Munster. Participated in the 
Allied campaign against the German air- 
craft industry during Big Week, 20-25 
Feb 1944, being awarded a DUC for at- 
tacking an aircraft assembly plant at 
Gotha on 24 Feb. Occasionally flew inter- 
dictory and support missions. Helped to 
prepare for the invasion of Normandy by 
bombing airfields, V-weapon sites, and 
other targets; attacked shore installations 
on D-Day, 6 Jun 1944. Supported ground 
forces at St Lo by striking enemy defenses 
in Jul 1944. Bombed German communica- 
tions during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 
1944-Jan 1945. Early on 24 Mar 1945 
dropped food, medical supplies, and am- 
munition to troops that landed near Wesel 
during the airborne assault across the 
Rhine; that afternoon flew a bombing mis- 
sion to the same area, hitting a landing 
ground at Stormede. On occasion dropped 
propaganda leaflets and hauled gasoline to 
France. Awarded the Croix de Guerre 
widi Palm by the French government for 
operations in the theater from Dec 1943 
to Feb 1945. Flew last combat mission on 
25 Apr 1945. Returned to the US, May- 
Jun. Inactivated on 12 Sep 1945. 

Redesignated 445th Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the 
reserve. Activated on 12 Jul 1947. In- 
activated on 27 Jun 1949. 

Redesignated 445th Fighter-Bomber 
Group. Allotted to the reserve. Acti- 
vated on 8 Jul 1952. 

Squadrons. i$th: 1947-1949. yooth: 
1943-1945; 1947-1949; 1952-. 701st: 1943- 



320 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



1945; 1947-1949; 1952-. 702^: 1943-1945; 
1947-1949; 1952-. 7osd: 1943-1945; 1947- 
1948. 

Stations. Gowen Field, Idaho, i Apr 
1943; Wendover Field, Utah, 8 Jun 1943; 
Sioux City AAB, Iowa, 8 Jul-20 Oct 1943; 
Tibenham, England, 4 Nov 1943-28 May 
1945; Ft Dix AAB, NJ, 9 Jun-12 Sep 1945. 
McChord Field, Wash, 12 Jul 1947-27 Jun 
1949. Buffalo, NY, 8 Jul 1952; Niagara 
Falls Mun Aprt, NY, 15 Jun 1955-. 

CoMMANDERs, Col Robert H Terrill, i 
Apr 1943; Col William W Jones, 25 Jul 
1944-12 Sep 1945. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Gotha, Germany, 24 Feb 1944. 
French Croix de Guerre with Palm. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a snorting 
bison, proper, winged argent, with streaks 
of fire proper, issuing from his horns and 
nostrils, in base three stars of the third. 
Motto: THE BISON WING. (Ap- 
proved 7 Sep 1955.) 

446th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 446th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 20 Mar 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Apr 1943. Trained for over- 
seas duty with B-24's. Moved to England, 
Oct-Nov 1943, and assigned to Eighth AF. 
Operated chiefly against strategic objec- 
tives on the Continent from Dec 1943 until 
Apr 1945. Targets included U-boat in- 
stallations at Kiel, the port at Bremen, a 



chemical plant at Ludwigshafen, ball- 
bearing works at Berlin, aero-engine 
plants at Rostock, aircraft factories at 
Munich, marshalling yards at Coblenz, 
motor works at Ulm, and oil refineries at 
Hamburg. Besides strategic missions, the 
group often carried out support and inter- 
dictory operations. Supported the Nor- 
mandy invasion in Jun 1944 by attacking 
strong points, bridges, airfields, transpor- 
tation, and other targets in France. Aided 
ground forces at Caen and St Lo during 
Jul by hitting bridges, gun batteries, and 
enemy troops. Dropped supplies to Al- 
lied troops near Nijmegen during the 
airborne attack on Holland in Sep. 
Bombed marshalling yards, bridges, and 
road junctions during the Battle of the 
Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Dropped sup- 
plies to airborne and ground troops near 
Wesel during the Allied assault across the 
Rhine in Mar 1945. Flew last combat 
mission on 25 Apr, attacking a bridge near 
Salzburg. Returned to the US, Jun-Jul. 
Inactivated on 28 Aug 1945. 

Redesignated 446th Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the re- 
serve. Activated on 26 Mar 1948. Re- 
designated 446th Bombardment Group 
(Heavy) in Jun 1949. Ordered to active 
duty on i May 1951. Assigned to Strat- 
egic Air Command. Inactivated on 25 
Jun 1951. 

Redesignated 446th Troop Carrier 
Group (Medium). Allotted to the re- 
serve. Activated on 25 May 1955. 

Squadrons 'jo4th: 1943-1945; 1948- 
1951; 1955-- 705th: 1943-1945; 1948- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT umTS— GROUPS 



321 



1951; 1955-. 706th: 1943-1945; 1948- 

1949; I955-- 707ih: i943-i945; 1948- 
1949. 

Stations. Davis-Monthan Field, Ariz, 
I Apr 1943; Lowry Field, Colo, c. 8 Jun- 
Oct 1943; Flixton, England, c. 4 Nov 
1943-C. Jul 1945; Sioux Falls AAFld, SD, 
c. Jul-28 Aug 1945. Carswell AFB, Tex, 
26 Mar 1948-25 Jun 1951. Ellington AFB, 
Tex, 25 May 1955- 

CoMMANDERs. Lt Col Arthur Y Snell, 
25 Apr 1943 ; Col Jacob J Brogger, 28 Sep 
1943; Col Troy W Crawford, 23 Sep 1944; 
Lt Col William A Schmidt, 4 Apr 1945- 
unkn. Unkn, i May-25 Jun 1951. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes- Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

447th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 447th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 6 Apr 1943, Acti- 
vated on I May 1943. Trained for com- 
bat with B-17's. Moved to England in 
Nov 1943 and assigned to Eighth AF. 
Entered combat in Dec 1943 and operated 
chiefly as a strategic bombardment organ- 
ization. From Dec 1943 to May 1944, 
helped to prepare for the invasion of the 
Continent by attacking submarine pens, 
naval installations, and cities in Germany ; 
ports and missile sites in France; and air- 
fields and marshalling yards in France, 
Belgium, and Germany. During Big 
Week, 20-25 ^^^ i944> took part in the 



intensive campaign of heavy bombers 
against the German aircraft industry. 
Supported the invasion of Normandy in 
Jun 1944 by bombing airfields and other 
targets near the beachhead. Aided the 
breakthrough at St Lo in Jul and the effort 
to take Brest in Sep. Pounded enemy 
positions to assist the airborne invasion 
of Holland in Sep. Also dropped sup- 
plies to Free French forces during the 
summer of 1944. Turned to strategic tar- 
gets in Germany in Oct 1944, placing em- 
phasis on sources of oil production until 
mid-Dec. 2d Lt Robert E Femoyer, navi- 
gator, won the Medal of Honor for action 
on 2 Nov 1944: while on a mission over 
Germany, his B-17 was damaged by flak 
and Femoyer was severly wounded by 
shell fragments; determined to navigate 
the plane out of danger and save the crew, 
he refused a sedative and, for more than 
two hours, directed the navigation of the 
bomber so effectively that it returned to 
base without further damage; Femoyer 
died shortly after being removed from the 
plane. During the Battle of the Bulge, 
Dec 1944-Jan 1945, the group assaulted 
marshalling yards, railroad bridges, and 
communications centers in the combat 
zone. Then resumed operations against 
targets in Germany, attacking oil, trans- 
portation, communications, and other ob- 
jectives until the war ended. During this 
period, also supported the airborne assault 
across the Rhine (Mar 1945). Returned 
to the US in Aug 1945. Inactivated on 7 
Nov 1945. 



322 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Redesignated 447th Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the re- 
serve. Activated on 12 Aug 1947. Equip- 
ped with B-29's. Redesignated 447th 
Bombardment Group (Medium) in Jun 
1949. Ordered to active duty on i May 
1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Com- 
mand. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1951. 

Squadrons. joSth: 1943-1945; 1947- 

1951. 709th: 1943-1945; 1947-1949- 
yioth: 1943-1945. yiith: 1943-1945. 

Stations. Ephrata AAB, Wash, i May 
1943; Rapid City AAB, SD, c. i Jul 1943; 
Harvard AAFld, Neb, Aug-ii Nov 1943; 
Rattlesden, England, c. 29 Nov 1943-c. i 
Aug 1945; Drew Field, Fla, c. 14 Aug- 
7 Nov 1945. Bergstrom Field, Tex, 12 
Aug 1947; Castle AFB, Calif, 26 Jun 1949- 
16 Jun 1951. 

Commanders. Lt Col Robert D Mc- 
Donald, 10 May 1943; Col Hunter Harris 
Jr, 23 May 1943; Col William J Wriggles- 
worth, 25 Sep 1944; Lt Col Louis G 
Thorup, 31 Mar 1945; Lt Col Wilfred 
Beaver, i Jul 1945-unkn. Unkn, i May- 
16 Jun 1951. 

Campaigns, Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes- Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

448th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 448th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 6 Apr 1943. Activated 
on I May 1943. Prepared for duty over- 



seas with B-24's. Moved to England, 
Nov-Dec 1943, and assigned to Eighth AF. 
Entered combat on 22 Dec 1943, and until 
Apr 1945 served primarily as a strategic 
bombardment organization, hitting such 
targets as aircraft factories in Gotha, ball- 
bearing plants in Berlin, an airfield at 
Hanau, U-boat facilities at Kiel, a chemi- 
cal plant at Ludwigshafen, synthetic oil 
refineries at Politz, aircraft engine plants 
at Rostock, marshalling yards at Cologne, 
and a buzz-bomb assembly plant at Fal- 
lersleben. Took part in the intensive cam- 
paign of heavy bombers against the Ger- 
man aircraft industry during Big Week, 
20-25 Feb 1944. In addition to strategic 
operations, flew interdictory and support 
missions. Bombed V-weapon sites, air- 
fields, and transportation facilities prior 
to the Normandy invasion in Jun 1944, 
and on D-Day attacked coastal defenses 
and choke points. Struck enemy posi- 
tions to assist the Allied offensive at Caen 
and the breakthrough at St Lo in Jul. 
Dropped supplies to airborne troops near 
Nijmegen during the airborne attack on 
Holland in Sep. Bombed transportation 
and communications centers in the combat 
zone during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 
1944-Jan 1945. Dropped supplies to troops 
at Wesel during the airborne assault across 
the Rhine in Mar 1945. Flew last combat 
mission on 25 Apr, attacking a marshal- 
ling yard at Salzburg. Returned to the 
US in Jul 1945. Redesignated 448th Bom- 
bardment Group (Very Heavy) in Aug 
1945. Equipped with B-29's. Assigned to 



AIR FORCE COMBAT imiTS— GROUPS 



323 



Strategic Air Command on 21 Mar 1946. 
Inactivated on 4 Aug 1946. 

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 
19 Apr 1947. Redesignated 448th Bom- 
bardment Group (Light) in Jun 1949. 
Ordered to active duty on 17 Mar 1951. 
Inactivated on 21 Mar 195 1. 

Redesignated 448th Fighter-Bomber 
Group. Allotted to the reserve. Acti- 
vated on 18 May 1955. 

Squadrons. 41st: 1947-1949. yiith: 
1949-1951; 1955-. yi2th: 1943-1946; 
1947-1951. yi3th: 1943-1946; 1947-1951; 
I955-- yi^h: 1943-1946; 1947-1951. 
jiSth: 1943-1946. 

Stations. Gowen Field, Idaho, i May 
1943; Wendover Field, Utah, c. 3 Jul 1943; 
Sioux City AAB, Iowa, c. Sep-Nov 1943; 
Seething, England, c. i Dec 1943-c. Jul 
1945; Sioux Falls AAFld, SD, c. 15 Jul 
1945; McCook AAFld, Neb, c. 8 Sep 1945; 
Ft Worth AAFld, Tex, c. Dec 1945- 4 Aug 
1946. Long Beach Mun Aprt, Calif, 19 
Apr 1947-21 Mar 1951. Dallas NAS, Tex, 
18 May 1955-. 

Commanders. Col James M Thompson, 
c. 25 May 1943; Col Gerry L Mason, 3 Apr 
1944; Col Charles B Westover, 14 Nov 
1944; Lt Col Lester F Miller, 27 May 
1945-unkn; Col John G Ericksen, Sep 
1945-4 Aug 1946. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Air 
Offensive, Europe; Normandy; Northern 
France; Rhineland; Ardennes-Alsace; 
Central Europe. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 



449th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 449th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 6 Apr 1943. Activated 
on I May 1943. Prepared for combat with 
B-24's. Moved to Italy, Dec 1943-Jan 
1944, and assigned to Fifteenth AF. Op- 
erated primarily as a strategic bombard- 
ment organization, attacking such targets 
as oil refineries, communications centers, 
aircraft factories, and industrial areas in 
Italy, Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, 
Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, Albania, 
and Greece. Received a DUC for a mis- 
sion on 4 Apr 1944 when the group, flying 
without escort, raided marshalling yards in 
Bucharest; although heavily outnumbered 
by German fighters, the group succeeded 
not only in bombing the target but also in 
destroying many of the enemy intercep- 
tors. Received another DUC for action on 
9 Jul 1944 when the group flew through 
heavy smoke and intense enemy fire to 
attack an oil refinery at Ploesti. Other 
operations of the group included bombing 
gun emplacements in southern France in 
preparation for the invasion in Aug 1944, 
and attacking troop concentrations, 
bridges, and viaducts in Apr 1945 to assist 
Allied forces in northern Italy. Returned 
to the US in May 1945. Redesignated 
449th Bombardment Group (Very 
Heavy). Trained with B-17, B-25, and 
B-29 aircraft. Assigned to Strategic Air 
Command on 21 Mar 1946. Inactivated 
on 4 Aug 1946. 



324 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Squadrons. Ji6th: 1943-1946. yiyth: 
1943-1946. yiSth: 1943-1946. yigth: 
(later 46th): 1943-1946. 

Stations. Davis-Monthan Field, Ariz, 
I May 1943; Alamagordo AAFld, NM, 5 
Jul 1943; Bruning AAFld, Neb, 12 Sep-3 
Dec 1943; Grottaglie, Italy, c. 4 Jan 1944- 
16 May 1945; Sioux Falls AAFld, SD, 29 
May 1945; Dalhart AAFld, Tex, 24 Jul 
1945; Grand Island AAFld, Neb^Sep 
1945-4 Aug 1946. -— - " 

Commanders. Col A J Kerwin Malone, 
I May 1943; Col Darr H Alkire, 30 Jul 
1943; Col Thomas J Gent Jr, 3 Feb 1944; 
Col Jack L Randolph, Oct 1944-c. Jun 
1945; Capt Charles K Howell, c. Jul 1945; 
Maj Walter W Cross, 31 Jul 1945; Lt Col 
Leon Stann, 6 Aug 1945; Col William H 
Hanson, 15 Aug 1945; Col Richard M 
Montgomery, 16 Sep 1945-4 -^"S 1946- 

Campaigns. American Theater; Air 
Combat, FAME Theater; Air Offensive, 
Europe; Naples-Foggia; Anzio; Rome- 
Arno; Normandy; Northern France; 
Southern France; North Apennines; 
Rhineland; Central Europe; Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Bucharest, Rumania, 4 Apr 1944; 
Ploesti, Rumania, 9 Jul 1944. 

Insigne. None. 

450th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 450th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 6 Apr 1943. Activated 
on I May 1943. Trained with B-24's. 
Moved to Italy, arriving in Dec 1943. Be- 
gan operations with Fifteenth AF in 




Jan 1944 and engaged chiefly in mis- 
sions against strategic targets in Italy, 
France, Germany, Austria, Czecho- 
slovakia, Hungary, and the Balkans until 
Apr 1945. Bombed aircraft factories, as- 
sembly plants, oil refineries, storage areas, 
marshalling yards, airdromes, and other 
objectives. Contributed to the intensive 
Allied campaign against the enemy air- 
craft industry during Big Week (20-25 
Feb 1944) by attacking factories at Steyr 
and Regensburg, being awarded a DUC 
for braving the hazards of bad weather, 
enemy fighters, and flak to bombard a 
Messerschmitt factory at Regensburg on 25 
Feb. Received second DUC for a mission 
on 5 Apr 1944 when the group fought its 
way through relentless attacks by enemy 
aircraft to bomb marshalling yards at 
Ploesti. Also struck such objectives as 
enemy defenses, troop concentrations, 
bridges, and marshalling yards in support 
of the invasion of Southern France, the ad- 
vance of Russian troops in the Balkans^ 
and the Allied effort in Italy. Returned to 
the US in May 1945. Redesignated 450th 
Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



325 



Trained with B-29's. Inactivated on 15 
Oct 1945. 

Redesignated 450th Fighter-Bomber 
Group. Activated on i Jul 1954. As- 
signed to Tactical Air Command. Used 
F-86 aircraft. Redesignated 450th Fighter- 
Day Group in Mar 1955. Converted to 
F-ioo's. 

Squadrons. y2oth: 1943-1945. y2ist: 
1943-1945; 1954-. 722^; 1943-1945; 1954-. 
723d: 1943-1945; 1954-. 

Stations. Gowen Field, Idaho, i May 
1943; Clovis AAB, NM, c. 21 May 1943; 
Alamogordo AAFId, NM, c. 8 Jul-20 Nov 
1943; Manduria, Italy, 20 Dec 1943-12 May 
1945; Harvard AAFld, Neb, c. 26 Jul-15 
Oct 1945. Foster AFB, Tex, Jul 1954-. 

Commanders. Col John S Mills, 12 Jun 
1943; Col Robert R Gideon, 7 Jul 1944; 
Col Ellsworth R Jacoby, 17 Nov 1944- 
1945. Col Wallace E Hopkins, Jul 1954; 
Lt Col James P Hagerstrom, c. 17 May 

I955-- 

Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME 
Theater; Air Offensive, Europe; Naples- 
Foggia; Anzio; Rome-Arno; Normandy; 
Northern France; Southern France; North 
Apennines; Rhineland; Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Regensburg, Germany, [25] Feb 
1944; Ploesti, Rumania, 5 Apr 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Per bend sinister, 
argent and azure, a silhouetted eagle, dis- 
played wings inverted gules, fimbriated 
argent on the azure, debruised by a rib- 
bon bend sinisterwise charged with a dia- 
mond all or. (Approved 14 Sep 1955.) 



451st BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 451st Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 6 Apr 1943. Acti- 
vated on I May 1943. Prepared for com- 
bat with B-24's. Moved to the Mediter- 
ranean theater, Nov 1943-Jan 1944, with 
the air echelon training in Algeria for sev- 
eral weeks before joining the remainder of 
the group in Italy. Operated with Fif- 
teenth AF, Jan 1944-May 1945, function- 
ing primarily as a strategic bombardment 
organization. Attacked such targets as oil 
refineries, marshalling yards, aircraft fac- 
tories, bridges, and airfields in Italy, 
France, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Aus- 
tria, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, Al- 
bania, and Greece. Received a DUC for 
each of three missions: to an aircraft fac- 
tory at Regensburg on 25 Feb 1944, to oil 
refineries and marshalling yards at Ploesti 
on 5 Apr 1944, and to an airdrome at 
Vienna on 23 Aug 1944; although en- 
countering large numbers of enemy fight- 
ers and severe antiaircraft fire during each 
of these missions, the group fought its 
way through the opposition, destroyed 
many interceptors, and inflicted serious 
damage on the assigned targets. At times 
the group also flew support and interdic- 
tory missions. Helped to prepare the way 
for and participated in the invasion of 
Southern France in Aug 1944. Trans- 
ported supplies to troops in Italy during 
Sep 1944. Supported the final advances of 
Allied armies in northern Italy in Apr 
1945. Returned to die US in Jun. Inac- 
tivated on 26 Sep 1945. 



326 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Squadrons. 724th: 1943-1945. 725M; 
1943-1945. 726/AV 1943-1945. 727/A: 

1943-1945- \. ^^ 

Stations. Davis-MonthaiTFiela, Ariz, 

I May 1943; Dyersburg AAFld, Tenn, 3 

Jun 1943; Wendover Field, Utah, c. 18 Jul 

1943; Fairmont AAFld, Neb, 9 Sep-26 

Nov 1943; Gioia del CoUe, Italy, c. 20 Jan 

1944; San Pancrazio, Italy, c. 5 Mar 1944; 

Castelluccio Airfield, Italy, c. 6 Apr 1944- 

Jun 1945; Dow Field, Maine, c. 19 Jun-26 

Sep 1945. 

Commanders. Col Robert E L Eaton, c. 
I May 1943; Col James B Knapp, 19 Sep 
1944; Col Leroy L Stefonowicz, Dec 1944; 
Maj William H McGuire, unkn-26 Sep 
1945. 

Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME The- 
ater; Air Offensive, Europe; Rome-Arno; 
Normandy; Northern France; Southern 
France; North Apennines; Rhineland; 
Central Europe; Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Regensburg, Germany, 25 Feb 1944; 
Ploesti, Rumania, 5 Apr 1944; Austria, 23 
Aug 1944. 

Insigne. None. 

452d BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 452d Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 14 May 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Jun 1943. Trained with B-17's. 
Moved to England, Dec 1943-Jan 1944, 
and assigned to Eighth AF. Entered com- 
bat on 5 Feb 1944 with an attack against 
aircraft assembly plants at Brunswick. 




Throughout combat, engaged primarily in 
bombardment of strategic targets, includ- 
ing marshalling yards at Frankfurt, air- 
craft assembly plants at Regensburg, air- 
craft component works at Kassel, the ball- 
bearing industry at Schweinfurt, a syn- 
thetic rubber plant at Hannover, and oil 
installations at Bohlen. ist Lt Donald j 
Gott and 2d Lt William E Metzger Jr 
were each awarded the Medal of Honor 
for remaining with their aircraft (crippled 
during a mission over Germany on 9 Nov 
1944) in an attempt to save a wounded 
crew member who was unable to bail out; 
the men were killed when the B-17 ex- 
ploded in mid-air. In addition to strategic 
missions, the 452d supported ground forces 
and carried out interdictory operations. 
Helped prepare for the invasion of Nor- 
mandy by hitting airfields, V-weapon sites, 
bridges, and other objectives in France; 
struck coastal defenses on D-Day, 6 Jun 
1944. Bombed enemy positions in support 
of the breakthrough at St Lo in Jul and 
the offensive against Brest in Aug and Sep. 
Later in Sep, assisted the airborne attack 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VNITS— GROUPS 



327 



on Holland. Hit enemy communications 
in and near the combat zone during the 
Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. 
Bombed an airfield in support of the air- 
borne assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. 
Received a DUG for action on 7 Apr 1945 
when, despite vigorous fighter attacks and 
heavy flak, it accurately bombed a jet- 
fighter base at Kaltenkirchen. Flew last 
combat mission of World War II on 21 
Apr, striking marshalling yards at Ingol- 
stadt. Returned to the US in Aug. Inacti- 
vated on 28 Aug 1945. 

Redesignated 452d Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the re- 
serve. Activated on 19 Apr 1947. Re- 
designated 452d Bombardment Group 
(Light) in Jun 1949. Ordered to active 
duty on 10 Aug 1950. Assigned to Tactical 
Air Command. Trained with B-26 air- 
craft for duty in the Korean War. Moved 
to Japan, Oct-Nov 1950, and assigned to 
Far East Air Forces. Entered combat 
against communist forces late in Oct, op- 
erating first from Japan and later from 
Korea. Flew armed reconnaissance, in- 
truder, and interdictory missions, and 
provided support for ground troops. 
Bombed and strafed buildings, tunnels, 
rail lines, switching centers, bridges, ve- 
hicles, supply dumps, and airfields. Re- 
lieved from active duty and inactivated in 
.Korea, on 10 May 1952. 

Allotted to the reserve. Redesignated 
452d Tactical Reconnaissance Group. 
Activated in the US on 13 Jun 1952. Re- 



designated 452d Bombardment Group 
(Tactical) in May 1955. 

Squadrons, jo^d: 1948-1949. yiSth: 
1943-1945; 1947-1952; 1952-- 729^^- 
1943-1945; 1947-1952; 1952-- 730th: 
1943-1945; 1947-1952; 1952-. 731st: 1943- 

1945; 1947-1951- 

Stations. Geiger Field, Wash, i Jun 
1943; Rapid City AAB, SD, c. 15 Jun 1943; 
Pendleton Field, Ore, c. 11 Oct 1943; 
Walla Walla AAFld, Wash, c. 4 Nov-c. 
22 Dec 1943; Deopham Green, England, 
c. 3 Jan 1944-C. 6 Aug 1945; Sioux Falls 
AAFld, SD, c. 12-28 Aug 1945. Long 
Beach, Calif, 19 Apr 1947; George AFB, 
Calif, 10 Aug-Oct 1950; Itazuke, Japan, 
c. 22 Oct 1950; Miho, Japan, c. 8 Dec 1950; 
Pusan-East AB, Korea, c. 17 May 1951-10 
May 1952. Long Beach Mun Aprt, Calif, 
13 Jun 1952-. 

Commanders. Lt Col Herbert O 
Wangeman, c. 15 Jun 1943; Lt Col Robert 
B Satterwhite, 8 Feb 1944; Lt Col Marvin 
F Stalder, 28 Feb 1944; Col Thetus C 
Odom, 30 Mar 1944; Col Archibald Y 
Smith, c. 24 Jul 1944; Col William D 
Eckert, c. i Aug 1944; Lt Col Charles W 
Sherburne, 13 Sep 1944; Col Burnham L 
Batson, c. 25 Sep 1944; Col Jack E Shuck, 
c. 6 Jun 1945-unkn. Col Charles W 
Howe, 10 Aug 1950; Col Frank L Wood 
Jr, c. May 195 1 ; Lt Col John A Herrington, 
c. Jun 1951; Lt Col Harry C Mailey, c. 
Dec 1951; Col James D Kemp, c. 28 Mar 
1952-unkn. 

Campaigns. World War II: Air Offen- 
sive, Europe; Normandy; Northern 



328 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



France; Rhineland; Ardennes-Alsace; 
Central Europe. Korean War: UN Offen- 
sive; CCF Intervention; ist UN Counter- 
offensive; CCF Spring Offensive; UN 
Summer-Fall Offensive; Second Korean 
Winter; Korea Summer-Fallj 1952. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Germany, 7 Apr 1945; Korea, 9 Jul- 
27 Nov 1951 ; Korea, 28 Nov 1951-30 Apr 
1952. Republic of Korea Presidential Unit 
Citation: 27 Oct 1950-27 Oct 1951. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a bomb, point 
downward, in pale, gules, highlighted and 
fimbriated argent, superimposed over two 
lightning flashes or, shaded of the second, 
highlighted and fimbriated of the third; 
the shield edged argent, gules and or. 
Motto: LABOR AD FUTURUM-Work 
for the Future. (Approved 8 Mar 1956.) 

453d BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 453d Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 14 May 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Jun 1943. Trained with B-24's. 
Moved to England, Dec 1943-Jan 1944, 
and assigned to Eighth AF. Began com- 
bat on 5 Feb 1944 with an attack against 
an airfield at Tours. Throughout combat, 
served chiefly as a strategic bombardment 
organization. Targets included a fuel de- 
pot at Dulmen, marshalling yards at 
Paderborn, aircraft assembly plants at 
Gotha, railroad centers at Hamm, an 
ordnance depot at Glinde, oil refineries at 
Gelsenkirchen, chemical works at 
Leverkusen, an airfield at Neumunster, a 
canal at Minden, and a railroad viaduct 



at Altenbeken. Took part in the concen- 
trated attack against the German aircraft 
industry during Big Week, 20-25 Feb 

1944. Besides strategic operations, en- 
gaged in support and interdictory missions. 
Bombed V-weapon sites, airfields, and gun 
batteries in France prior to the invasion of 
Normandy in Jun 1944; on 6 Jun hit shore 
installations between Le Havre and Cher- 
bourg and other enemy positions farther 
inland. Attacked enemy troops in support 
of the Allied breakthrough at St Lo in Jul. 
Bombed German communications during 
the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. 
Ferried cargo on two occasions: hauled 
gasoline, blankets, and rations to France in 
Sep 1944; dropped ammunition, food, and 
medical supplies near Wesel during the 
airborne assault across the Rhine in Mar 

1945. Flew last combat mission in Apr. 
Returned to the US in May. Inactivated 
on 12 Sep 1945. 

Squadrons. 752^; 1943-1945. 733d: 
1943-1945. y34th: 1943-1945- 735^h: 

1943-1945- 
Stations. Wendover Field, Utah, i Jun 

1943; Pocatello AAFld, Idaho, 29 Jul 1943; 

March Field, Calif, 30 Sep-2 Dec 1943; 

Old Buckenham, England, 23 Dec 1943-9 

May 1945; New Castle AAFld, Del, 25 

May 1945; Fort Dix AAB, NJ, 18 Jun-12 

Sep 1945. 

Commanders. Col Joseph A Miller, 29 

Jun 1943; Col Ramsay D Potts Jr, 19 Mar 

1944; Col Lawrence M Thomas, 7 Jul 1944; 

Lt Col Edward F Hubbard, 25 Jan 1945- 

unkn. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VNITS— GROUPS 



329 



Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes- Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

454th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 454th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 14 May 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Jun 1943. Trained for com- 
bat with B-24's. Moved to Italy, Dec 
1943-Jan 1944, and operated with Fif- 
teenth AF until Apr 1945. Flew some 
interdictory and support missions, bomb- 
ing bridges, marshalling yards, troop con- 
centrations, and rail lines. Participated 
in the drive to Rome, the invasion of 
Southern France, and the defeat of Axis 
forces in northern Italy. Engaged pri- 
marily, however, in long-range strikes 
against enemy oil refineries, aircraft and 
munition factories, industrial areas, har- 
bors, and airfields in Italy, France, Ger- 
many, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Austria, 
Yugoslavia, Rumania, and Greece. Re- 
ceived a DUC for a raid on an airdrome at 
Bad Voslau on 12 Apr 1944. Received 
second DUC for performance on 25 Jul 
1944 when, despite severe opposition, the 
group led the wing formation in an at- 
tack against steel plants at Linz. Returned 
to the US in Jul 1945. Redesignated 454th 
Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) in 
Aug 1945. Inactivated on 17 Oct 1945. 

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 27 
Apr 1947. Redesignated 454th Bombard- 
ment Group (Medium) in Jun 1949. Or- 



dered into active service on i May 1951. 
Assigned to Strategic Air Command. In- 
activated on 16 Jun 1951. 

Redesignated 454th Troop Carrier 
Group (Medium). Allotted to the re- 
serve. Activated on 13 Jun 1952. Inacti- 
vated on I Jan 1953. 

Squadrons. 8ist: 1947-1949. y^Sth: 
1943-1945; 1947-1951; 1952-1953- 737th: 
1943-1945; 1947-1949; 1952-1953- 73^th: 
1943-1945; 1947-1949; 1952-1953- 739th: 

1943-1945; 1947-1949- 
Stations. Alamogordo AAFld, NM, i 

Jun 1943; Davis-Monthan Field, Ariz, i 
Jul 1943; McCook AAFld, Neb, c. 31 Jul 
1943; Charleston AAFld, SC, 3 Oct-Dec 
1943; San Giovanni, Italy, Jan 1944-Jul 
1945; Sioux Falls AAFld, SD, i Aug 1945; 
Pyote AAFld, Tex, 17 Aug-17 Oct 1945. 
McChord Field, Wash, 27 Apr 1947; Spo- 
kane AFB, Wash, 27 Jun 1949-16 Jun 
195 1. Portland Intl Aprt, Ore, 13 Jun 
1952-1 Jan 1953. 

Commanders. Col Horace D Aynes- 
worth, c. Jun 1943; Col John A Way, 22 
Mar 1945; Lt Col William R Large Jr, 
21 May 1945; Lt Col Edward R Casey, 24 
May 1945-unkn. Unkn, i May-i6 Jun 

1951- 

Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME Thea- 
ter; Air Offensive, Europe; Rome-Arno; 
Normandy; Northern France; Southern 
France; North Apennines; Rhineland; 
Central Europe; Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Bad Voslau, Austria, 12 Apr 1944; 
Linz, Austria, 25 Jul 1944. 

Insigne. None. 



330 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



455th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 455th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 14 May 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Jun 1943. Trained with B-24's. 
Moved to Italy, arriving in Jan and Feb 
1944. Served in combat vf'iih. Fifteenth 
AF from Feb 1944 to Apr 1945. Engaged 
primarily in bombardment of strategic 
targets such as factories, marshalling yards, 
oil refineries, storage areas, harbors, and 
airdromes in Italy, France, Germany, Po- 
land, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Austria, 
and the Balkans. Received a DUG for a 
mission on 2 Apr 1944 v^^hen the group 
contributed to Fifteenth AF's campaign 
against enemy industry by attacking a 
ball-bearing plant at Steyr. Although 
meeting severe fighter opposition and los- 
ing several of its bombers on 26 Jun 1944, 
the group proceeded to attack an oil 
refinery at Moosbierbaum, receiving an- 
other DUG for this performance. In 
addition to strategic missions in the Bal- 
kans, the group bombed troop concentra- 
tions, bridges, marshalling yards, and 
airdromes during the fall of 1944 to ham- 
per the enemy's withdrawal from the 
region. The group also supported ground 
forces at Anzio and Gassino in Mar 1944; 
knocked out gun positions in preparation 
for the invasion of Southern France in 
Aug 1944; and assisted the final Allied 
drive through Italy in Apr 1945 by hitting 
such targets as bridges, gun positions, and 
troop concentrations. Inactivated in Italy 
on 9 Sep 1945. 



Redesignated 455th Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the 
reserve. Activated in the US on 25 Mar 
1947. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949. 

Redesignated 455th Fighter-Day Group. 
Activated on 25 Jul 1956. Assigned to 
Tactical Air Command. 

Squadrons. •J40th: 1943-1945; 1947- 
1949; 1956-. 741st: 1943-1945; 1947-1949; 
1956-. 742d: 1943-1945; 1947-1949; 
1956-. 743d: 1943-1945; 1947-1949- 

Stations. Alamogordo AAFld, NM, i 
Jun 1943; Kearns, Utah, c. 6 Sep 1943; 
Langley Field, Va, c. 5 Oct-2 Dec 1943; 
San Giovanni, Italy, 15 Jan 1944-9 Sep 
1945. Hensley Field, Tex, 25 Mar 1947- 
27 Jun 1949. Myrtle Beach AFB, SC, 25 
Jul 1956-. 

Commanders. Col Kenneth A Cool, c. 
Jul 1943; Col William L Snowden, c. 26 
Sep 1944; Lt Col William R Boutz, May 
1945; Maj Jerome Hoss, Jul 1945-unkn. 
Maj John C Smith, 25 Jul 1956-. 

Campaigns. Air Combat, FAME The- 
ater; Air Offensive, Europe; Anzio; 
Rome-Arno ; Normandy ; Northern 
France; Southern France; North Apen- 
nines; Rhineland; Central Europe; Po 
Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Steyr, Austria, 2 Apr 1944; Austria, 
26 Jun 1944. 

Insigne. None. 

456th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 456th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 14 May 1943. Acti- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



331 




vated on i Jun 1943. Trained with B-24's 
for duty overseas. Moved to Italy, Dec 
1943-Jan 1944. Began combat with Fif- 
teenth AF in Feb 1944, operating chiefly 
against strategic targets until late in Apr 
1945. Early operations included attacks 
against such objectives as marshalling 
yards, aircraft factories, railroad bridges, 
and airdromes in Italy, Austria, and Ru- 
mania. Received a DUG for performance 
at Wiener Neustadt on 10 May 1944: when 
other groups turned back because of ad- 
verse weather, the 456th proceeded to the 
target and, withstanding repeated attacks 
by enemy interceptors, bombed the manu- 
facturing center. Helped to prepare the 
way for and supported the invasion of 
Southern France during Jul and Aug 1944. 
At the same time, expanded previous op- 
erations to include attacks on oil refineries 
and storage facilities, locomotive works, 
and viaducts in France, Germany, Czecho- 
slovakia, Hungary, Austria, and the Bal- 
kans. Received second DUG for a mission 
in Hungary on 2 Jul 1944 when the group 



braved severe fighter attacks and antiair- 
craft fire to bomb oil facilities at Budapest. 
In Apr 1945 bombed gun positions, 
bridges, roads, depots, and rail lines to 
support US Fifth and British Eighth Army 
in their advance through Italy. Trans- 
ported supplies to airfields in northern 
Italy after V-E Day. Returned to the US 
in Jul 1945. Redesignated 456th Bom- 
bardment Group (Very Heavy) in Aug. 
Inactivated on 17 Oct 1945. 

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 12 
Jul 1947. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949. 

Redesignated 456th Troop Carrier 
Group (Medium). Activated on i Dec 
1952. Assigned to Tactical Air Com- 
mand and equipped with C-119's. Inac- 
tivated on I Mar 1955. 

Squadrons. J 44th: 1943-1945; 1947- 
1949; 1952-1955. 74Sth: 1943-1945; 1947- 
1949; 1952-1955. 74^^^: 1943-1945J 1947- 
1949; 1952-1955- 747tfi' 1943-1945; 1947- 
1949. 

Stations. Wendover Field, Utah, i Jun 
1943; Gowen Field, Idaho, 14 Jul 1943; 
Bruning AAFld, Neb, c. 30 Jul 1943; 
Kearns, Utah, c. 11 Sep 1943; Muroc AAB, 
Calif, Oct-Dec 1943; Cerignola, Italy, Jan 
1944; Stornara, Italy, Jan 1944- Jul 1945; 
Sioux Falls AAFld, SD, i Aug 1945; 
Smoky Hill AAFld, Kan, 17 Aug-17 Oct 
1945. McChord Field, Wash, 12 Jul 1947- 
27 Jun 1949. Miami Intl Aprt, Fla, i Dec 
1952; Charleston AFB, SC, 15 Aug 1953- 
I Mar 1955, 

Commanders. Unkn, i Jun-14 Jul 
1943; Col Thomas W Steed, 14 Jul 1943; 



332 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Lt Col Joseph G Russell, i6 Jul 1944; Col 
Thomas W Steed, Oct 1944; Lt Col Robert 
C Whipple, c. 19 May 1945-unkn; Col 
George E Henry, 31 Aug 1945; Col John 
W White, 4 Sep 1945-unkn. Col Leonard 
J Barrow Jr, c. Dec 1952; Lt Col Malcolm 
P Hooker, c. Feb 1953; Col Jay D Bogue, 
1953-1 Mar 1955. 

Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME 
Theater; Air Offensive, Europe; Rome- 
Arno; Normandy; Northern France; 
Southern France; North Apennines; 
Rhineland; Central Europe; Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Wiener Neustadt, Austria, 10 May 
1944; Budapest, Hungary, 2 Jul 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, a bar gemel de- 
based argent over-all on a pile quarterly 
of the second and gules four stylized birds 
counterchanged. (Approved 7 Jul 1953.) 

457th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 457th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 19 May 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Jul 1943. Trained for combat 
with B-17's. Moved to England, Jan-Feb 
1944, and assigned to Eighth AF. Flew 
first mission on 21 Feb 1944 during Big 
Week, taking part in the concentrated at- 
tacks of heavy bombers on the German air- 
craft industry. Until Jun 1944, engaged 
primarily in bombardment of strategic 
targets, such as ball-bearing plants, aircraft 
factories, and oil refineries in Germany. 
Bombed targets in France during the first 
week of Jun 1944 in preparation for the 



Normandy invasion, and attacked coastal 
defenses along the Cherbourg peninsula 
on D-Day. Struck airfields, railroads, fuel 
depots, and other interdictory targets be- 
hind the invasion beaches throughout the 
remainder of the month. Resumed bom- 
bardment of strategic objectives in Jul 
1944 and engaged chiefly in such opera- 
tions until Apr 1945. Sometimes flew 
support and interdictory missions, aiding 
the advance of ground forces during the 
St Lo breakthrough in Jul 1944 and the 
landing of British i Airborne Division 
during the airborne attack on Holland in 
Sep 1944; and participating in the Battle of 
the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945, and the as- 
sault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Flew 
last combat mission on 20 Apr 1945. 
Transported prisoners of war from Austria 
to France after V-E Day. Returned to 
the US in Jun 1945. Inactivated on 28 
Aug 1945. 
Squadrons. y48th: 1943-1945. 'J4gth: 

1943-1945- 7Soth: 1943-1945- 75^^^' 
1943-1945. 

Stations. Geiger Field, Wash, i Jul 
1943; Rapid City AAB, SD, 9 Jul 1943; 
Ephrata AAB, Wash, 28 Oct 1943; Wend- 
over Field, Utah, 4 Dec 1943-1 Jan 1944; 
Glatton, England, 22 Jan 1944-1 Jun 1945; 
Sioux Falls AAFld, SD, 20 Jul-28 Aug 
1945. 

Commanders. Col Herbert E Rice, 24 
Jul 1943; Lt Col Hugh D Wallace, 3 Sep 
1943; Col James R Luper, 4 Jan 1944; Col 
Harris E Rogner, 11 Oct 1944-Aug 1945. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GR0C7PS 



333 



Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

458th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 458th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 19 May 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Jul 1943. Prepared for combat 
with B-24's. Moved to England, Jan-Feb 
1944, and assigned to Eighth AF. V\tw 
diversionary missions on 24 and 25 Feb 
1944 to draw^ enemy fighters from German 
targets being attacked by other AAF 
bombers. Began bombardment on 2 Mar 
1944, and afterward operated primarily 
against strategic objectives in Germany. 
Hit such targets as the industrial area of 
Saarbrucken, oil refineries at Hamburg, an 
airfield at Brunswick, aircraft factories at 
Oschersleben, a fuel depot at Dulmen, a 
canal at Minden, aircraft works at Bran- 
denburg, marshalling yards at Hamm, 
and an aircraft engine plant at Magdeburg. 
Carried out some interdictory and support 
operations in addition to the strategic mis- 
sions. Helped to prepare for the invasion 
of Normandy by striking gun batteries, 
V-weapon sites, and airfields in France; hit 
coastal defenses in support of the assault 
on 6 Jun 1944; afterward, bombed bridges 
and highways to prevent the movement of 
enemy materiel to the beachhead. At- 
tacked enemy troops to aid the Allied 



breakthrough at St Lo in Jul. Ceased 
bombardment during Sep 1944 to haul 
gasoline to airfields in France. Struck 
transportation lines during the Battle of 
the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Attacked 
enemy airfields to assist the Allied assault 
across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Flew last 
combat mission on 25 Apr 1945. Re- 
turned to the US, Jun-Jul 1945. Redesig- 
nated 458th Bombardment Group (Very 
Heavy) in Aug 1945. Trained with 
B-29's. Inactivated on 17 Oct 1945. 

Squadrons. 752^: 1943-1945. y^^d: 
1943-1945. 7^^h: 1943-1945. 7S5th: 
1943-1945. 

Stations. Wendover Field, Utah, i Jul 
1943; Gowen Field, Idaho, 28 Jul 1943; 
Kearns, Utah, 11 Sep 1943; Wendover 
Field, Utah, 15 Sep 1943; Tonopah AAFld, 
Nev, 31 Oct-29 Dec 1943; Horsham St 
Faith, England, Jan 1944-14 Jun 1945; 
Sioux Falls AAFld, SD, 12 Jul 1945; 
Walker AAFld, Kan, 25 Jul 1945; March 
Field, Calif, 21 Aug-17 Oct 1945. 

Commanders. Lt Col Robert F Hardy, 
28 Jul 1943; Col James H Isbell, 16 Dec 
1943; Col Allen F Herzberg, 10 Mar 1945; 
Capt Patrick Hays, 13 Aug 1945; Maj Ber- 
nard Carlos, 17 Aug 1945; Maj V R Wood- 
ward, 22 Aug 1945; Lt Col Wilmer C 
Hardesty, 3 Sep-17 Oct 1945. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 



334 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



459th B0MBARI>MENT GROUP 



A - '^ J 




Constituted as 459th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 19 May 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Jul 1943. Trained for combat 
with B-24's. Moved to Italy, Jan-Feb 
1944, and assigned to Fifteenth AF. En- 
gaged primarily in strategic bombardment, 
Mar 1944-Apr 1945, attacking such targets 
as oil refineries, munitions and aircraft 
factories, industrial areas, airfields, and 
communications centers in Italy, France, 
Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hun- 
gary, Austria, Rumania, Bulgaria, Yugo- 
slavia, and Greece. " Received a DUG for 
leading the 304th Wing through enemy 
interceptors and intense flak to raid an air- 
field and aircraft assembly plant at Bad 
Voslau on 23 Apr 1944. During combat 
the group also flew some support and in- 
terdictory missions. Struck railroads in 
Mar 1944 to cut enemy supply lines lead- 
ing to the Anzio beachhead. Participated 
in the preinvasion bombing of southern 
France in Aug 1944. Hit railroad bridges. 



depots, and marshalling yards during Apr 
1945 to assist Allied forces in northern 
Italy. Returned to the US in Aug. Inac- 
tivated on 28 Aug 1945. 

Redesignated 459th Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the re- 
serve. Activated on 19 Apr 1947. Re- 
designated 459th Bombardment Group 
(Medium) in Jun 1949. Ordered to active 
duty on i May 1951. Assigned to Strategic 
Air Command. Inactivated on i6 Jun 
1951. 

Redesignated 459th Troop Carrier 
Group (Medium) . Allotted to the reserve. 
Activated on 26 Jan 1955. 

Squadrons, ^jth: 1947-1949. y^Sth: 
1943-1945; 1947-1949; I955-- 757th: 
1943-1945; 1947-1949; 1955-. 7sSth: 
1943-1945; 1947-1949- 759th: 1943-1945; 
1947-1951. 

Stations. Alamogordo AAFld, NM, 
I Jul 1943; Kearns, Utah, c. 31 Aug 1943; 
Davis-Monthan Field, Ariz, c. 20 Sep 1943; 
Westover Field, Mass, c. i Nov 1943-2 Jan 
1944; Giulia Airfield, Italy, Feb 1944-c. 
Jul 1945; Sioux Falls AAFld, SD, c. 16-28 
Aug 1945. Long Beach AAFld, Calif, 19 
Apr 1947; Davis-Monthan AFB, Ariz, 27 
Jun 1949-16 Jun 1951. Andrews AFB, 
Md, 26 Jan 1955-. 

CoMMANDERs. Col Mardcn M Munn, 28 
Jul 1943; Col Henry K Mooney, 13 Aug 
1944; Lt Col William R Boutz, 19 May 
1945; Lt Col J C Bailey, 30 May 1945- 
unkn. Unkn, i May-i6 Jun 1951. 

Campaigns. Air Combat, FAME 
Theater; Air Offensive, Europe; Rome- 
Arno; Normandy; Northern France; 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



335 



Southern France; North Apennines; 
Rhineland; Central Europe; Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion : Bad Voslau, Austria, 23 Apr 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, an American 
eagle proper flying over clouds in the base 
argent between two parachutes, one in 
chief transporting an airman, one in base 
transporting supplies all of the last; in 
chief a canton argent charged with the 
Capitol dome of the second. Motto: IN 
HONOR OF CONGRESS. (Approved 
17 Jan 1956.) 

460th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 460th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 19 May 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Jul 1943. Trained for combat 
with B-24's. Moved to Italy, Jan-Feb 
1944, and became part of Fifteenth AF. 
Entered combat in Mar 1944 and operated 
primarily as a strategic bombardment or- 
ganization until Apr 1945. Attacked oil 
refineries, oil storage facilities, aircraft fac- 
tories, railroad centers, industrial areas, 
and other objectives in Italy, France, Ger- 
many, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, 
Austria, Rumania, Yugoslavia, and Greece. 
Received a DUG for leading the wing for- 
mation through adverse weather and heavy 
enemy fire to attack an airdrome and air- 
craft facilities in Zwolfaxing on 26 Jul 
1944. Also flew some interdictory and sup- 
port missions. Participated in the invasion 
of Southern France in Aug 1944 by strik- 
ing submarine pens, marshalling yards, 
and gun positions in the assault area. Hit 



bridges, viaducts^ ammunition dumps, 
railroads, and other targets to aid the ad- 
vance of AUied forces in northern Italy. 
Moved to Trinidad and then to Brazil in 
Jun 1945, being assigned to Air Transport 
Command to assist in moving redeployed 
personnel from Europe to the US. Inacti- 
vated in Brazil on 26 Sep 1945. 

Squadrons. ySoth: 1943-1945. 'j6ist: 
1943-1945. 762^: 1943-1945. 763d: 1943- 
1945. 

Stations. Alamogordo AAFld, NM, i 
Jul 1943; Kearns, Utah, 31 Aug 1943; 
Chatham AAFld, Ga, Oct 1943-3 J*^ ^^9445 
Spinazzola, Italy, Feb 1944- Jun 1945; Wal- 
ler Field, Trinidad, 15 Jun 1945; Natal, 
Brazil, 30 Jun-26 Sep 1945. 

Commanders. Unkn, i Jul-12 Aug 
1943; Col Robert T Crowder, 12 Aug 1943; 
Lt Col Bertram C Harrison, 16 Apr 1944; 
Lt Col Harold T Babb, Sep 1944; Col John 
M Price, 18 Oct 1944-1945. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Air 
Combat, EAME Theater; Air Offensive, 
Europe; Rome-Arno; Normandy; North- 
ern France; Southern France; North 
Apennines; Rhineland; Central Europe; 
Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Austria, 26 Jul 1944. 

Insigne. None. 

461st BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 461st Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 19 May 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Jul 1943. Moved to the Medi- 
terranean theater, Jan-Feb 1944, the air 



336 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 




echelon flying B-24's via the South Atlan- 
tic and stopping in North Africa before 
joining the ground echelon in Italy. Be- 
gan combat with Fifteenth AF in Apr 
1944. Engaged chiefly in bombardment of 
communications, industries, and other 
strategic objectives in Italy, France, Ger- 
many, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Austria, 
Rumania, Yugoslavia, and Greece. Sup- 
ported Fifteenth AF's counter-air opera- 
tions by bombing enemy airdromes and 
aircraft centers, receiving a DUG for a 
mission on 13 Apr 1944 when the group 
battled its way through enemy defenses 
to attack an aircraft components plant in 
Budapest. Participated in the effort 
against the enemy's oil supply by flying 
missions to such oil centers as Brux, Blech- 
hammer, Moosbierbaum, Vienna, and 
Ploesti. Received second DUG for a mis- 
sion against oil facilities at Ploesti in Jul 
1944 when, despite flak, clouds, smoke, 
and fighter attacks, the group bombed its 
objective. Also operated in support of 
ground forces and flew some interdictory 
missions. Hit artillery positions in sup- 



port of the invasion of Southern France 
in Aug 1944 and flew supply missions to 
France in Sep. Aided the Allied offensive 
in Italy in Apr 1945 by attacking gun em- 
placements and troop concentrations. 
Dropped supplies to prisoner-of-war 
camps in Austria during May 1945. Re- 
turned to the US in Jul. Inactivated on 
28 Aug 1945. 

Redesignated 461st Bombardment 
Group (Light). Activated on 23 Dec 
1953. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. 
Trained with B-26's and later converted to 
B-57's. Redesignated 461st Bombard- 
ment Group (Tactical) in Oct 1955. 

Squadrons. y6^h: 1943-1945; 1953-. 
je^th: 1943-1945; 1953- 7^th: 1943- 
1945; I953-- 7^7th: i943-i945-. 

Stations. Wendover Field, Utah, i Jul 
1943; Gowen Field, Idaho, 29 Jul 1943; 
Kearns, Utah, 11 Sep 1943; Wendover 
Field, Utah, 30 Sep 1943; Hammer Field, 
Calif, 30 Oct 1943-Jan 1944; Torretto Air- 
field, Italy, c. 20 Feb 1944-Jul 1945; Sioux 
Falls AAFld, SD, 22 Jul-28 Aug 1945. 
Hill AFB, Utah, 23 Dec 1953-. 

Commanders. Unkn, i Jul-12 Aug 
1943; Lt Col WilUs G Carter, 12 Aug 1943; 
Col Frederic E Glantzberg, c. 25 Oct 1943; 
Col Philip R Hawes, 22 Sep 1944; Col 
Brooks A Lawhon, 20 Dec 1944; Col 
Craven C Rogers, 16 Apr 1945-unkn. Maj 
Gordon Baker, c. Dec 1953; Lt Col Donald 
F Blake, 4 Feb 1954; Lt Col Robert F Price, 
20 Feb 1954; Col Maxwell W Roman, c. 14 
Jul 1954,- Lt Col John A McVey, c. 16 May 
1955; Lt Col William F Furman, c. i Aug 
I955-- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UTSITS— GROUPS 



337 



Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME The- 
ater; Air Offensive, Europe; Rome-Arno; 
Normandy; Northern France; Southern 
France; North Apennines; Rhineland; 
Central Europe; Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Budapest, Hungary, 13 Apr 1944; 
Ploesti, Rumania, 15 Jul 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Per bend azure and 
light blue, superimposed over the bend a 
thunderbolt, bendwise, or, piercing 
through a cloud formation proper, over 
an increscent moon to the sinister chief, 
and a sun to the dexter base of the third; 
on a chief argent, over a bar to base of 
chief, embattled gules, an olive branch and 
seven arrows in saltire, between two 
spheres all proper. (Approved 4 Aug 

I955-) 

462d BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 462d Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 19 May 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Jul 1943. Redesignated 4626. 
Bombardment Group (Ver'y Heavy) in 
Nov 1943. Prepared for combat with 
B-29's. Moved to the CBI theater, via 
Africa, Mar-Jun 1944. Assigned to Twen- 
tieth AF in Jun 1944. Transported sup- 
plies over the Hump to staging fields in 
China before entering combat with an 
attack on railroad shops at Bangkok, Thai- 
land, on 5 Jun 1944. On 15 Jun 1944 took 
part in the first AAF strike on the Japa- 
nese home islands since the Doolittle raid 
in 1942. Operating from India and China, 
bombed transportation centers, naval in- 



stallations, iron works, aircraft plants, and 
other targets in Japan, Thailand, Burma, 
China, Formosa, and Indonesia. From a 
staging base in Ceylon, mined the Moesi 
River on Sumatra in Aug 1944. Received 
a DUC for a daylight attack on iron and 
steel works at Yawata, Japan, in Aug 1944. 

Moved to Tinian in the spring of 1945 
for further operations against targets in 
Japan. Participated in mining operations, 
bombardment of strategic targets, and in- 
cendiary raids on urban areas. Bombed 
industrial areas in Tokyo and Yokohama 
in May 1945, being awarded a DUC for 
the action. Received another DUC for 
a daylight attack on an aircraft plant at 
Takarazuka on 24 Jul 1945. Returned to 
the US late in 1945. Assigned to Strategic 
Air Command on 21 Mar 1946. Inacti- 
vated on 31 Mar 1946. 

Squadrons. 34Sth: 1945-1946. jSSth: 
1943-1946. 769^*^: 1943-1946. yjoth: 

1943-1946. 771st- 1943-1944- 

Stations. Smoky Hill AAFld, Kan, i 
Jul 1943; Walker AAFld, Kan, 28 Jul 
1943-12 Mar 1944; Piardoba, India, 7 Apr 
1944-26 Feb 1945; West Field, Tinian, 4 
Apr-5 Nov 1945; MacDill Field, Fla, Nov 
1945-31 Mar 1946. 

Commanders. Unkn, i Jul-5 Aug 1943; 
Col Alan D Clark, 5 Aug 1943; Col Rich- 
ard H Carmichael, 26 Aug 1943; Col 
Alfred F Kalberer, 20 Aug 1944-unkn. 

Campaigns. American Theater; India- 
Burma; Air Offensive, Japan; China De- 
fensive; Western Pacific; Central Burma. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Yawata, Japan, 20 Aug 1944; Tokyo 



338 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



and Yokohama, Japan, 23, 25, and 29 May 
1945; Takarazuka, Japan, 24 Jul 1945. 
Insigne. None. 

463d BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 463d Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 19 May 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Aug 1943. Trained with B-17's 
for duty overseas. Moved to Italy, Feb- 
Mar 1944, and assigned to Fifteenth AF. 
Entered combat on 30 Mar 1944 and op- 
erated chiefly against strategic objectives. 
Attacked such targets as marshalling yards, 
oil refineries, and aircraft factories in Italy, 
Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Ru- 
mania, Yugoslavia, and Greece. Received 
a DUG for bombing oil refineries at Ploesti 
on 18 May 1944: when clouds hmited visi- 
bility to such an extent that other groups 
turned back, the 463d proceeded to Ploesti 
and, though crippled by opposition from 
interceptors and flak, rendered destructive 



blows to both the target and the enemy 
fighters. Received second DUG for lead- 
ing the wing through three damaging 
enemy attacks to bomb tank factories in 
Berlin on 24 Mar 1945. Also engaged in 
interdictory and support missions. 
Bombed bridges during May and Jun 1944 
in the campaign for the liberation of 
Rome. Participated in the invasion of 
Southern France in Aug 1944 by striking 
bridges, gun positions, and other targets. 
Hit communications such as railroad 
bridges, marshalling yards, and airdromes 
in the Balkans. Operated primarily 
against communications in northern Italy 
during Mar and Apr 1945. After V-E 
Day, transported personnel from Italy to 
Casablanca for return to the US. Inacti- 
vated in Italy on 25 Sep 1945. 

Redesignated 463d Troop Carrier 
Group (Medium). Activated in the US 
on 16 Jan 1953. Assigned to Tactical Air 
Command and equipped with C-119's. 

Squadrons. 772^; 1943-1945; 1953-. 
77 3d-- 1943-1945; I953-- 774^^: i943-i945; 
I953-- 775th: 1943-1945; 1955-. 

Stations. Geiger Field, Wash, i Aug 
1943; Rapid City AAB, SD, Aug 1943; 
MacDill Field, Fla, 5 Nov 1943; Lakeland 
AAFld, Fla, 3 Jan-2 Feb 1944; Celone 
Airfield, Italy, 9 Mar 1944-25 Sep 1945. 
Memphis Mun Aprt, Tenn, 16 Jan 1953; 
Ardmore AFB, Okla, 24 Aug 1954-. 

CoMMANDERS. Lt Col Elmer H Stam- 
baugh, 9 Aug 1943; Col Frank A Kurtz, 
27 Aug 1943; Col George W McGregor, 
II Sep 1944; Col Ephraim M Hampton, 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



339 



Apr-c. Sep 1945. Col John R Roche, 16 
Jan 1953; Col Woodrow T Merrill, 10 Aug 
1953; Col Benjamin M Tarver Jr, 12 Aug 
1954-. 

Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME Thea- 
ter; Air Offensive, Europe; Rome-Arno; 
Normandy; Northern France; Southern 
France; North Apennines; Rhineland; 
Central Europe; Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Ploesti, Rumania, 18 May 1944; Ger- 
many, 24 Mar 1945. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, on a represen- 
tation of a cloud argent a silhouette of 
mythical Pegasus drawing a chariot driven 
by Mars, the mythical Roman God of 
War, all sable. (Approved 30 Aug 1954.) 

464th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 464th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 19 May 1943. Acti- 




vated on I Aug 1943. Trained for combat 
with B-24's. Moved to the Mediterranean 
theater, Feb-Apr 1944, with the air eche- 
lon training for a few weeks in Tunisia 
before joining the remainder of the group 
in Italy. Served with Fifteenth AF, Apr 
1944-May 1945, operating primarily as 
part of the strategic bombardment force 
that disrupted German industry and com- 
munications. Flew long-range missions to 
attack such objectives as marshalling yards, 
oil refineries, oil storage facilities, aircraft 
factories, and chemical plants in Italy, 
France, Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, 
Hungary, Austria, Rumania, Yugoslavia, 
and Greece. Received a DUC for leading 
the 55th Wing in compact formation 
through heavy opposition to bomb mar- 
shalling yards and an oil refinery at Vienna 
on 8 Jul 1944. Received another DUC 
for a mission on 24 Aug 1944 when the 
group scored hits not only on the target, 
an oil refinery at Pardubice, but also on 
nearby railroad tracks. Sometimes en- 
gaged in support and interdictory opera- 
tions. Supported Allied forces during the 
invasion of Southern France in Aug 1944. 
Hit railroad centers to assist the advance 
of Russian troops in southeastern Europe 
in Mar 1945. Bombed enemy supply lines 
to assist the advance of US Fifth and Brit- 
ish Eighth Army in northern Italy in Apr 
1945. Moved to Trinidad in Jun 1945. 
Assigned to Air Transport Command. 
Inactivated on 31 Jul 1945. 

Redesignated 464th Troop Carrier 
Group (Medium). Activated in the US 



340 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



on I Feb 1953. Assigned to Tactical Air 
Command. Used C-46 and C-119 air- 
craft. 

Squadrons. ']']6th: 1943-1945; 1953-. 
mth: 1943-1945; I953-- n^th: 1943- 
1945; I953-- n9th: i943-i945; I955-- 

Stations. Wendover Field, Utah, i 
Aug 1943; Gowen Field, Idaho, 22 Aug 
1943; Pocatello AAFld, Idaho, 2 Oct 1943- 
9 Feb 1944; Pantanella Airfield, Italy, Mar 
1944; Gioia, Italy, 21 Apr 1944; Pantanella 
Airfield, Italy, c. i Jun 1944-c. May 1945; 
Waller Field, Trinidad, Jun-31 Jul 1945. 
Lawson AFB, Ga, i Feb 1953; Pope AFB, 
NC, 16 Sep 1954-. 

Commanders. Unkn, i Aug-2 Sep 
1943; Col Marshall Bonner, 2 Sep 1943; 
Col Arnold L Schroeder, 30 Jun 1944; Col 
A J Bird Jr, 13 Mar 1945-unkn. Col James 
A Evans, c. I Feb 1953; Col Charles F 
Franklin, 1954; Lt Col Adam A Reaves, 

I955-- 

Campaigns. American Theater; Air 
Combat, EAME Theater; Air Offensive, 
Europe; Rome-Arno; Normandy; North- 
ern France; Southern France; North 
Apennines; Rhineland; Central Europe; 
Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Vienna, Austria, 8 Jul 1944; Par- 
dubice, Czechoslovakia, [24] Aug 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, surmounting 
a cloud argent, an American eagle de- 
scendant, wings, endorsed proper, between 
his beak four lightning streaks, two and 
two gules, speed lines of the first all in- 
closed by two bendlets sinister vert, edged 



or. Motto: CERTISSIMUS IN IN- 
CERTIS— Most Certain (in the sense of 
unerring or dependable) in Uncertainties. 
(Approved 15 Apr 1954.) 

465th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 465th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 19 May 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Aug 1943. Prepared for duty 
overseas with B-24's. Moved to the Medi- 
terranean theater, Feb-Apr 1944; the air 
echelon received additional training in 
Tunisia before joining the ground echelon 
in Italy. Assigned to Fifteenth AF. 
Entered combat on 5 May 1944 and served 
primarily as a strategic bombardment or- 
ganization until late in Apr 1945. At- 
tacked marshalling yards, dock facilities, 
oil refineries, oil storage plants, aircraft 
factories, and other objectives in Italy, 
France, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Aus- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VNITS— GROUPS 



341 



tria, Hungary, and the Balkans. On two 
different missions — to marshalling yards 
and an oil refinery at Vienna on 8 Jul 1944 
and to steel plants at Friedrichshafen on 3 
Aug 1944 — the group bombed its targets 
despite antiaircraft fire and fighter oppo- 
sition, being awarded a DUG for each of 
these attacks. Other operations included 
bombing troop concentrations and bivouac 
areas in May 1944 to aid the Partisans in 
Yugoslavia; attacking enemy troops and 
supply Unes to assist the drive toward 
Rome, May-Jun 1944; striking bridges, rail 
lines, and gun emplacements prior to the 
invasion of Southern France in Aug 1944; 
bombing rail facilities and rolling stock in 
Oct 1944 to support the advance of Rus- 
sian and Rumanian forces in the Balkans; 
and hitting troops, gun positions, bridges, 
and supply lines during Apr 1945 in sup- 
port of Allied forces in northern Italy. 
Moved to the Caribbean area in Jun 1945. 
Assigned to Air Transport Command. 
Inactivated in Trinidad on 31 Jul 1945. 

Redesignated 465th Troop Carrier 
Group (Medium). Activated in the US 
on I Feb 1953. Trained with G-119's. 
Moved to France in Dec 1953 to become 
part of United States Air Forces in Europe. 

Squadrons. ySoth: 1943-1945; 1953-. 
781st: 1943-1945; 1953- 752^: 1943-1945; 

I953-- 783d: 1943-1945- 

Stations. Alamogordo AAFld, NM, i 
Aug 1943; Kearns, Utah, Sep 1943; 
McCook AAFld, Neb, c. 5 Oct 1943-1 Feb 
1944; Pantanella Airfield, Italy, Apr 1944- 
Jun 1945; Waller Field, Trinidad, 15 Jun- 



31 Jul 1945. Donaldson AFB, SC, i Feb- 
30 Nov 1953; Toul/Rosiere AB, France, 
Dec 1953; Evreux AB, France, c. 20 May 

I955-- 

Commanders. Col Elmer J Rogers Jr, 
24 Aug 1943; Col Charles A Clark Jr, 13 
Mar 1944; Lt Col Joshua H Foster, i Dec 
1944; Lt Col William F Day Jr, 26 Apr 
1945-unkn. Maj Clifford F Harris, Feb 
1953; Col Earl W Worley, c. Mar 1953; 
Lt Col James D Barlow, 10 May 1954; Col 
James A Evans Jr, 19 Sep 1954; Col James 
D Barlow, 7 Apr 1955- 

Campaigns. American Theater; Air 
Combat, EAME Theater; Air Offensive, 
Europe; Rome-Arno; Normandy; North- 
ern France; Southern France; North 
Apennines; Rhineland; Central Europe; 
Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Vienna, Austria, 8 Jul 1944; Ger- 
many, 3 Aug 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Per bend gules and 
vert, a bend argent charged with a bendlet 
azure, between a wing of the third and a 
compass proper (bezant, with diapering 
green, bordered argent, thereover a four- 
pointed star compass, gules and azure). 
Motto: ONUS FERENS VITAM— Cargo 
Carrying Life. (Approved i Jun 1955.) 

466th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 466th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 19 May 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Aug 1943. Prepared for duty 
overseas with B-24's. Moved to England, 



342 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Feb-Mar 1944, and assigned to Eighth AF. 
Entered combat on 22 Mar 1944 by par- 
ticipating in a dayhght raid on Berlin. 
Operated primarily as a strategic bombard- 
ment organization, attacking such targets 
as marshalling yards at Liege, an airfield 
at St Trond, a repair and assembly plant 
at Reims, an airdrome at Chartres, fac- 
tories at Brunswick, oil refineries at Boh- 
len, aircraft plants at Kempten, mineral 
works at Hamburg, marshalling yards at 
Saarbrucken, a synthetic oil plant at Mis- 
burg, a fuel depot at Dulmen, and aero- 
engine works at Eisenach. Other opera- 
tions included attacking pillboxes along 
the coast of Normandy on D-Day (6 Jun 
1944), and afterward striking interdictory 
targets behind the beachhead; bombing 
enemy positions at St Lo during the Allied 
breakthrough in Jul 1944; hauling oil and 
gasoline to Allied forces advancing across 
France in Sep; hitting German communi- 
cations and transportation during the 
Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945; 
and bombing the airfield at Nordhorn in 
support of the airborne assault across the 
Rhine on 24 Mar 1945. Flew last combat 
mission on 25 Apr 1945, striking a trans- 
former station at Traunstein. Returned 
to the US in Jul. Redesignated 466th 
Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) in 
Aug 1945. Trained with B-29's. Inacti- 
vated on 17 Oct 1945. 

Squadrons. yS^h: 1943-1945. j8^th: 
1943-1945- 7^6M; 1943-1945. ySyth: 

1943-1945- 
Stations. Alamogordo AAFld, NM, i 

Aug 1943; Kearns, Utah, 31 Aug 1943; 



Alamogordo AAFld, NM, 24 Nov 1943; 
Topeka AAFld, Kan, 5-13 Feb 1944; At- 
tlebridge, England, 7 Mar 1944-6 Jul 1945; 
Sioux Falls AAFld, SD, 15 Jul 1945; 
Pueblo AAB, Colo, 25 Jul 1945; Davis- 
Monthan Field, Ariz, 15 Aug-17 Oct 1945. 

Commanders. Maj Beverly E Stead- 
man, 23 Aug 1943; Maj Walter A Smith 
Jr, 29 Aug 1943; Col Walter G Bryte Jr, 2 
Sep 1943; Col Arthur J Pierce, 17 Dec 1943; 
Col Luther J Fairbanks, i Aug 1944; Col 
William H Cleveland, i Nov 1944-1945. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

467th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 467th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 19 May 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Aug 1943. Prepared for com- 
bat with B-24's. Moved to England, Feb- 
Mar 1944, and assigned to Eighth AF. 
Began operations on 10 Apr 1944 with an 
attack on an airfield at Bourges. Served 
chiefly as a strategic bombardment organ- 
ization, attacking the harbor at Kiel, 
chemical plants at Bonn, textile factories at 
Stuttgart, power plants at Hamm, steel 
works at Osnabruck, the aircraft industry 
at Brunswick, and other objectives. In 
addition to strategic operations, engaged 
occasionally in support and interdictory 
missions. Bombed shore installations and 
bridges near Cherbourg on D-Day, 6 Jun 
1944. Struck enemy troop and supply con- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



343 



centrations near Montreuil on 25 Jul 1944 
to assist the Allied drive across France. 
Hauled gasoline to France in Sep for mech- 
anized forces. Attacked German com- 
munications and fortifications during the 
Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. 
Hit enemy transportation to assist the 
Allied assault across the Rhine in Mar 

1945. Flew last combat mission on 25 Apr. 
Returned to the US, Jun-Jul. Redesig- 
nated 467th Bombardment Group (Very 
Heavy) in Aug 1945. Assigned to Strate- 
gic Air Command on 21 Mar 1946. 
Trained with B-17 and B-29 aircraft. In- 
activated on 4 Aug 1946. 

Squadrons. y88th: 1943-1944, 1944- 

1946. ySgth: 1943-1946. ygoth: 1943- 
1946. 79/^/; 1943-1946. 

Stations. Wendover Field, Utah, i Aug 
1943; Mountain Home AAFld, Idaho, 8 
Sep 1943; Kearns, Utah, c. 17 Oct 1943; 
Wendover Field, Utah, i Nov 1943-12 Feb 
1944; Rackheath, England, 11 Mar 1944-12 
Jun 1945; Sioux Falls AAFld, SD, c. 15 Jul 
1945; Fairmont AAFld, Neb, c. 25 Jul 
1945; Alamogordo AAFld, NM, 25 Aug 
1945; Harvard AAFld, Neb, 8 Sep 1945; 
Clovis AAFld, NM, Dec 1945-4 Aug 1946. 

Commanders. Capt Garnet B Palmer, 
9 Sep 1943 ; Col Frederic E Glantzberg, 17 
Sep 1943; Col Albert H Shower, 25 Oct 
1943-1945; Maj Frank E McCarthy, 10 Sep 
1945; Col Audrin R Walker, 16 Sep 1945; 
Lt Col William W Amorous, Mar 1946; 
Lt Col Kenneth S Steele, Apr 1946; Col 
Thomas J Gent Jr, 21 Jun-Aug 1946. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Air 
Offensive, Europe; Normandy; Northern 



France; Rhineland; Ardennes-Alsace; 
Central Europe. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

468th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 468th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 19 May 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Aug 1943. Redesignated 468th 
Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) in 
Nov 1943. Equipped with B-29's. Moved, 
via Africa, to the CBI theater, Mar-Jun 
1944. Assigned to Twentieth AF in Jun 
1944. Flew over the Hump to carry sup- 
plies from India to staging fields in China 
before entering combat with an attack on 
railroad shops at Bangkok, Thailand, on 5 
Jun 1944. On 15 Jun participated in the 
first AAF attack on Japan since the Doo- 
little raid in 1942. From bases in India, 
China, and Ceylon, mined shipping lanes 
near Saigon, French Indochina, and 
Shanghai, China, and struck Japanese in- 
stallations in Burma, Thailand, French 
Indochina, Indonesia, Formosa, China, 
and Japan. Targets included iron works, 
aircraft factories, transportation centers, 
and naval installations. Received a DUC 
for participation in a daylight raid on the 
iron and steel works at Yawata, Japan, in 
Aug 1944. Evacuated advanced bases in 
China in Jan 1945 but continued opera- 
tions from India, bombing storage areas in 
Rangoon, Burma, a railroad bridge at 
Bangkok, Thailand, railroad shops at 
Kuala Lumpur, Malaya, and the drydock 
in Singapore harbor. Flew additional 



344 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



missions against Japan after moving to 
Tinian during Feb-May 1945. Took part 
in mining operations, incendiary raids on 
area targets, and high-altitude missions 
against strategic objectives. Dropped in- 
cendiaries on Tokyo and Yokohama in 
May 1945, being awarded a DUG for the 
attacks. Received another DUG for a day- 
Hght strike on an aircraft plant at 
Takarazuka, Japan, in Jul 1945. After the 
w^ar, dropped food and supplies to Allied 
prisoners and participated in show-of- 
force missions over Japan. Returned to the 
US in Nov 1945. Assigned to Strategic 
Air Gommand on 21 Mar 1946. Inacti- 
vated on 31 Mar 1946. 

Squadrons. $i2th: 1945-1946. 792^; 
1943-1946. jgsd: 1943-1946. 7g4th (later 
6th): 1943-1946. ygsth: 1943-1946. 

Stations. Smoky Hill AAFld, Kan, i 
Aug 1943-12 Mar 1944; Kharagpur, India, 
13 Apr 1944-24 Feb 1945; West Field, 
Tinian, 6 Apr-15 Nov 1945; Ft Worth 
AAFld, Tex, i Dec 1945; Roswell AAFld, 
NM, 12 Jan-31 Mar 1946. 

GoMMANDERs. Col Howard E Engler, 8 
Sep 1943 ; Gol Ted S Faulkner, 3 Aug 1944 ; 
Gol James V Edmundson, 5 Nov 1944-31 
Mar 1946. 

Gampaigns. India-Burma; Air Offen- 
sive, Japan; Ghina Defensive; Western 
Pacific; Gentral Burma. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Yawata, Japan, 20 Aug 1944; Tokyo 
and Yokohama, Japan, 23-29 May 1945; 
Takarasuka, Japan, 24 Jul 1945. 

Insigne. None. 



469th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 469th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 22 Apr 1943. Acti- 
vated on I May 1943. Assigned to Second 
AF. Equipped w^ith B-17's. Served as 
a replacement training unit. Disbanded 
on I Apr 1944. 

Squadrons. 'jg6th: 1943-1944. 797th: 

1943-1944- 79^th: 1943-1944. 7ggth: 

1943-1944- 
Stations. Pueblo AAB, Golo, i May 

1943; Alexandria, La, 7 May 1943-1 Apr 

1944. 

GoMMANDERs. Maj Walter E Ghambers, 
7 May 1943; Lt Gol William I Marsalis, 
17 May 1943; Lt Gol William E Greer, 21 
Aug 1943; Lt Gol Marshall R Gray, 5 
Sep 1943; Lt Col Quentin T Quick, 12 
Nov 1943-unkn. 

Campaigns. None. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

470th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 470th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 22 Apr 1943. Acti- 
vated on I May 1943. Assigned to Second 
AF; reassigned to Fourth AF in Jan 1944. 
Equipped with B-24's. Served first as an 
operational training and later as a replace- 
ment training unit. Disbanded on 31 Mar 
1944. 

Squadrons. Sooth: 1943-1944. 801st: 
1943-1944. 8o2d: 1943-1944. 803d: 1943- 
1944. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS—GROUPS 



345 



Stations. Mountain Home AAFld, 
Idaho, I May 1943; Tonopah AAFld, Nev, 
6 Jan-31 Mar 1944. 

Commanders. Maj Henry H Coving- 
ton Jr, 7 Jul 1943; Lt Col Roland J Barnick, 
12 Nov 1943-unkn. 

Campaigns. None. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

471st BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 471st Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 22 Apr 1943. Acti- 
vated on I May 1943. Assigned to Second 
AF and later (Jan 1944) to First AF. 
Served as a replacement training unit, 
using B-24 aircraft. Disbanded on 10 Apr 
1944. 

Squadrons. 804th: 1943-1944. 805th: 
1943-1944. 806th: 1943-1944. 8oyth: 
1943-1944. 

Stations. Alexandria, La, i May 1943; 
Pueblo AAB, Colo, 7 May 1943; West- 
over Field, Mass, 28 Jan-io Apr 1944. 

Commanders. Lt Col Raymond L 
Cobb, I Jun 1943; Lt Col Wilson H Banks, 
16 Oct 1943-unkn. 

Campaigns. None. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

472d BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 472d Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 19 May 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Sep 1943. Assigned to Second 



AF. Redesignated ^yid Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy) on i Dec 1943. 
Trained crews for combat vs^ith B-29's. 
Disbanded on i Apr 1944. 

Squadrons. 808th: 1943-1944. 8ogth: 
1943-1944. 8ioth: 1943-1944. 8iith: 

1943-1944- 
Stations. Smoky Hill AAFld, Kan, i 

Sep 1943; Clovis AAFld, NM, 7 Dec 1943- 

I Apr 1944. 

Commanders. Maj Conrad H Diehl, 6 
Oct 1943; Col Thomas H Chapman, 22 
Oct 1943-unkn. 

Campaigns. None. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

473d FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 473d Fighter Group on 
12 Oct 1943. Activated on i Nov 1943. 
Assigned to Fourth AF. Equipped pri- 
marily with P-38 aircraft. Operated as a 
replacement training unit. Disbanded on 
31 Mar 1944. 

Reconstituted and redesignated 473d 
Fighter Group (Air Defense), on 8 Jul 
1955. Activated on 8 Apr 1956. Assigned 
to Air Defense Command. Had no com- 
bat squadrons assigned. 

Squadrons. 451st: 1943-1944. 482d: 
1943-1944- 4^3^'- 1943-1944- 4^4^h: 
1943-1944- 

Stations. Grand Central Air Terminal, 

Calif, I Nov 1943; Ephrata AAB, Wash, 
28-31 Mar 1944. K I Sawyer Mun Aprt, 
Mich, 8 Apr 1956-. 



346 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Commanders. Lt Col Robert L Johns- 
ton, Nov 1943; Col Romulus W Puryear, 
27 Nov 1943; Lt Col Milton H Ashkins, 
20 Dec 1943-31 Mar 1944. Lt Col Robert 
L Brocklehurst, 1956-. 

Campaigns. None. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

474th FIGHTER GROUP 



^^^ 




Constituted as 474th Fighter Group on 
26 May 1943. Activated on i Aug 1943. 
Trained for combat with P-38's. Moved 
to England, Feb-Mar 1944. Assigned to 
Ninth AF. Flew first combat mission, an 
area patrol along the coast of France, on 
25 Apr 1944. Attacked bridges and rail- 
roads in France in preparation for the 
Normandy invasion. Provided cover for 
the invasion force that was crossing the 
Channel on the night of 5/6 Jun and flew 
bombing missions to support the landings 
on the following day. Began armed re- 



connaissance missions after D-Day to as- 
sist ground forces, and attacked highways 
and tiooips to aid the Allied breakthrough 
at St Lo, 25 Jul. Moved to the Continent 
in Aug 1944 for continued operations in 
support of ground forces. Bombed and 
strafed such targets as airfields, hangars, 
railroads, bridges, highways, barges, fuel 
dumps, ammunition depots, gun emplace- 
ments, and troop concentrations until the 
end of the war; also escorted bombers that 
struck marshalling yards, factories, cities, 
and other objectives. Received a DUC for 
a mission in France on 23 Aug 1944: par- 
ticipating in a joint air-ground attack 
against retreating enemy forces in the 
Falaise-Argentan area, the group dis- 
covered an immense quantity of enemy 
equipment massed along the Seine River; 
despite severe fire from small arms and 
from antiaircraft guns that the Germans 
had placed at two bridges to protect the 
materiel and cover the retreat, the group 
repeatedly bombed and strafed the enemy, 
knocking out motor transports, barges, 
bridges, and other objectives, thereby dis- 
rupting the evacuation and enabling Allied 
ground forces to capture German troops 
and equipment. Other operations in- 
cluded bombardment of flak positions near 
Eindhoven in advance of British i Air- 
borne Division during the attack on Hol- 
land in Sep 1944; participation in the 
Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945; 
and patrols along the route of the airborne 
assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. 
Continued operations until V-E Day. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



347 



Returned to the US, Nov-Dec 1945. Inac- 
tivated on 8 Dec 1945. 

Redesignated 474th Fighter-Bomber 
Group. Activated in Japan on 10 Jul 1952. 
Assigned to Tactical Air Command but at- 
tached to Far East Air Forces for duty in 
the Korean War. Served in combat from 
Aug 1952 until the armistice in Jul 1953, 
operating from Korea and using F-84 air- 
craft. Bombed and strafed such targets 
as bunkers, troops, artillery positions, 
bridges, vehicles, airfields, and power 
plants, and sometimes escorted bombers 
that attacked munitions factories and other 
objectives. After the armistice, trained 
with F-84 ^nd F-86 aircraft. Moved to the 
US, Nov-Dec 1954, and continued training 
with F-86's. 

Squadrons. 428th: 1943-1945; 1952-. 
^29^; 1943-1945; 1952-. 4soth: 1943- 
1945; 1952-. 

Stations. Glendale, Calif, i Aug 1943; 
Van Nuys Metropolitan Aprt, Calif, 11 Oct 
1943; Oxnard Flight Strip, Calif, 5 Jan-6 
Feb 1944; Moreton, England, 12 Mar 1944; 
Neuilly, France, 6 Aug 1944; St Marceau, 
France, 29 Aug 1944; Peronne, France, 6 
Sep 1944; Florennes, Belgium, i Oct 1944; 
Strassf eld, Germany, 22 Mar 1945 ; Langen- 
salza, Germany, 22 Apr 1945; Schweinfurt, 
Germany, 16 Jun 1945; Stuttgart, Ger- 
many, 25 Oct-2i Nov 1945; Camp Kilmer, 
NJ, 6-8 Dec 1945. Misawa, Japan, 10 Jul 
1952; Kunsan, Korea, 10 Jul 1952; Taegu, 
Korea, i Apr 1953-22 Nov 1954; Clovis 
AFB, NM, 13 Dec 1954-. 

Commanders. Col Clinton C Wasem, i 
Aug 1943; Lt Col Earl C Hedlund, c. 17 



Feb 1945; Lt Col David L Lewis, Apr 
1945-unkn. Lt Col William L Jacobsen, 
10 Jul 1952; Lt Col Francis J Vetort, 29 
Aug 1952; Col Joseph Davis Jr, 16 Dec 
1952; Col Richard N Ellis, 1953; Col John 
S Loisel, May 1953-unkn; Col Franklin H 
Scott, May 1954-. 

Campaigns. World War II: Air Of- 
fensive, Europe; Normandy; Northern 
France; Rhineland; Ardennes- Alsace; 
Central Europe. Korean War: Korea 
Summer-Fall, 1952; Third Korean Winter; 
Korea Summer-Fall, 1953. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: France, 23 Aug 1944; Korea, i Dec 
1952-30 Apr 1953. Cited in the Order of 
the Day, Belgian Army: 6 Jun-30 Sep 
1944; 16 Dec 1944-25 Jan 1945. Belgian 
Fourragere. Republic of Korea Presi- 
dential Unit Citation: 10 Jul 1952-30 Mar 

1953- 

Insigne. Shield: Per bend azure and or, 
in bend a lightning bolt throughout bend- 
wise gules, fimbriated or, between a sphere 
argent, grid lines sable, and a stylized jet 
tail pipe vert, emitting eight fire blasts 
gules, the pipe charged with an annulet of 
the first, fimbriated or, a semee of stars of 
the fourth on the azure field. (Approved 
22 Jun 1955.) 

475th FIGHTER GROUP 

Activated in Australia on 14 May 1943 
by special authority granted to Fifth AF 
prior to constitution as 475th Fighter 
Group on 15 May 1943. Equipped with 
P-38's and trained to provide long-range 



348 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 




escort for bombers during daylight raids 
on Japanese airfields and strongholds in 
the Netherlands Indies and the Bismarck 
Archipelago. Moved to New Guinea and 
began operations in Aug 1943. Received 
a DUG for missions in Aug 1943 when 
the group not only protected B-25's that 
were engaged in strafing attacks on air- 
dromes at Wewak but also destroyed a 
number of the enemy fighter planes that 
attacked the formation. Received second 
DUG for intercepting and destroying 
many of the planes the Japanese sent 
against American shipping in Oro Bay 
on 15 and 17 Oct 1943. Govered landings 
in New Guinea, New Britain, and the 
Schouten Islands. After moving to Biak 
in Jul 1944, flew escort missions and fighter 
sweeps to the southern Philippines, Cele- 
bes, Halmahera, and Borneo. Moved to 
the Philippines in Oct 1944 and received 
another DUG for bombing and strafing 
enemy airfields and installations, escorting 
bombers, and engaging in aerial combat 



during the first stages of the Allied cam- 
paign to recover the Philippines, Oct-Dec 
1944. Maj Thomas B McGuire Jr was 
awarded the Medal of Honor: while volun- 
tarily leading flights of P-38's escorting 
bombers that struck Mabalacat Airdrome 
on 25 Dec 1944 and Glark Field the fol- 
lowing day, he shot down seven Japanese 
fighters; on 7 Jan 1944, while attempting 
to save a fellow flyer from attack during 
a fighter sweep over Los Negroes Island, 
Maj McGuire risked a hazardous maneu- 
ver at low altitude, crashed, and was 
killed. The group flew many missions to 
support ground forces on Luzon during 
the first part of 1945. Also flew escort 
missions to Ghina and attacked railways 
on Formosa. Began moving to le Shima 
in Aug but the war ended before the 
movement was completed. Moved to 
Korea in Sep 1945 for occupation duty 
as part of Far East Air Forces. Convert- 
ed to P-51's in 1946. Moved to Japan in 
1948. Inactivated on i Apr 1949. 

Redesignated 475th Fighter Group (Air 
Defense). Activated in the US on 18 Aug 
1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command 
and equipped with F-89's. 

Squadrons. 4^ist: 1943-1949. 4pd: 

1943-1949; 1955- 433d •■ 1943-1949- 

Stations. Amberley Field, Australia, 
14 May 1943 ; Dobodura, New Guinea, 14 
Aug 1943; Nadzab, New Guinea, 24 Mar 
1944; HoUandia, New Guinea, 15 May 
1944; Biak, c. 14 Jul 1944; Dulag, Leyte, 28 
Oct 1944; San Jose, Mindoro, 5 Feb 1945; 
Glark Field, Luzon, 28 Feb 1945; Lin- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



349 



gayen, Luzon, c. 20 Apr 1945; le Shima, 8 
Aug 1945; Kimpo, Korea, c. 23 Sep 1945; 
Itazuke, Japan, 28 Aug 1948; Ashiya, 
Japan, 25 Mar-i Apr 1949. Minneapolis- 
St Paul Intl Aprt, Minn, 18 Aug 1955-. 

CoMMANDERS. Lt Col Gcorgc W Pren- 
tice, 21 May 1943; Col Charles H MacDon- 
ald, 26 Nov 1943; Lt Col Meryl M Smith, 
Aug 1944; Col Charles H MacDonald, 13 
Oct 1944; Lt Col John S Loisel, 15 Jul 1945; 
Col Henry G Thorne Jr, 18 Apr 1946; 
Col Ashley B Packard, 20 Jul 1946; Col 
Leland S Stranathan, c. 22 Mar 1947; Col 
Carl W Pyle, 7 Jun 1947; Col William O 
Moore, 19 Sep 1947; Lt Col Woodrow W 
Ramsey, 28 Aug 1948-25 Mar 1949. Col 
David Gould, Aug 1955-. 

Campaigns. China Defensive; New 
Guinea; Bismarck Archipelago; Western 
Pacific; Leyte; Luzon; China Offensive. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: New Guinea, 18 and 21 Aug 1943; 
New Guinea, 15 and 17 Oct 1943; Philip- 
pine Islands, 25 Oct-25 Dec 1944. Philip- 
pine Presidential Unit Citation. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, over a cross- 
bow or, string argent, bow striped red and 
silver; a lightning bolt gules, highlighted 
of the third, surmounting the stock; a pair 
of wings argent, issuing from the end of 
the stock; between four seven-pointed 
stars and one five-pointed star, spattered 
over the field ; all within a diminutive bor- 
der per pale argent and gules. Motto: IN 
PROELIO GAUDETE— Be Joyful in 
Battle. (Approved 26 Nov 1956.) 



476th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 476th Fighter Group on 
20 Apr 1943. Assigned to Fourteenth AF. 
Activated in China on 19 May 1943 with 
no squadrons assigned. Disbanded in 
China on 31 Jul 1943. 

Reconstituted on 11 Oct 1943. Acti- 
vated in the US on i Dec 1943. Assigned 
to First AF as a replacement training unit. 
Disbanded on i Apr 1944. 

Reconstituted and redesignated 476th 
Fighter Group (Air Defense), on 11 Dec 
1956. Activated on 8 Feb 1957. As- 
signed, without combat squadrons, to Air 
Defense Command. 

Squadrons. 453d: 1943-1944. $4ist: 
1943-1944- 5'/2i.- 1943-1944- 543d- 

1943-1944- 
Stations. Kunming, China, 19 May- 

31 Jul 1943. Richmond AAB, Va, i Dec 

1943; Pocatello AAFld, Idaho, 26 Mar-i 

Apr 1944. Glasgow AFB, Mont, 8 Feb 

I957-- 
Commanders. Unkn. 
Campaigns. Asiatic-Pacific Theater. 
Decorations. None. 
Insigne. None. 

477th COMPOSITE GROUP 

Constituted as 477th Bombardment 
Group (Medium) on 13 May 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Jun 1943. Assigned to Third 
AF. Trained with B-26 aircraft. Inacti- 
vated on 25 Aug 1943. 



350 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Activated on 15 Jan 1944. Assigned to 
First AF. Trained with B-25's. Redes- 
ignated 477th Composite Group in Jun 
1945. Equipped with B-25's and P-47's. 
Inactivated on i Jul 1947. 

Squadrons, ggth Fighter: 1945-1947. 
6i6th Bombardment: 1943; 1944-1945. 
Siyth Bombardment: 1943; 1944-1947. 
6i8th Bombardment: 1943; 1944-1945. 
6igth Bombardment: 1943; 1944-1945. 

Stations. MacDill Field, Fla, i Jun- 
25 Aug 1943. Selfridge Field, Mich, 15 
Jan 1944; Godman Field, Ky, 6 May 1944; 
Lockbourne AAB, Ohio, 13 Mar 1946-1 
Jul 1947. 

Commanders. Lt Col Andrew O 
Lerche, 1943. Col Robert R Selway Jr, 21 
Jan 1944; Col Benjamin O Davis Jr, 21 
Jun 1945-1 Jul 1947. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

478th FIGHTER GROT 

Constituted as 478th Fighter Group 
on 12 Oct 1943. Activated on i Dec 1943. 
Assigned to Fourth AF. After a delay 
in obtaining personnel and equipment, the 
group began operations in Mar 1944 as a 
replacement training unit, using P-39 air- 
craft. Disbanded on 31 Mar 1944. 

Reconstituted and redesignated 478th 
Fighter Group (Air Defense), on 11 Dec 
1956. Activated on 8 Feb 1957. Assigned 
to Air Defense Command. 



Squadrons. i8th: 1957-. 4^4th: 1943- 
1944. S44th: 1943-1944. $4$th: 1943- 
1944. S46th: 1943-1944. 

Stations. Hamilton Field, Calif, i Dec 
1943; Santa Rosa AAFld, Calif, 12 Dec 
1943; Redmond AAFld, Ore, 3 Feb-31 
Mar 1944. Grand Forks AFB, ND, 8 
Feb 1957-. 

Commanders. Col John W Weltman, 7 
Dec 1943; Lt Col Ernest C Young, 31 
Jan-31 Mar 1944. Unkn, 1957. 

Campaigns. None. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

479th ANTISUBMARINE 
GROUP 

Constituted as 479th Antisubmarine 
Group on i Jul 1943 and activated in Eng- 
land on 8 Jul. Assigned to AAF Anti- 
submarine Command. Began operations 
with B-24 aircraft on 13 Jul. The 479th's 
most effective antisubmarine patrols were 
in the Bay of Biscay from 18 Jul to 2 Aug 
1943, the period in which the group made 
nearly all of its attacks on enemy U-boats. 
After that time the enemy avoided surfac- 
ing during daylight and adopted a policy 
of evasion, but the group continued its 
patrols, often engaging enemy aircraft in 
combat. Ended operations in Oct 1943. 
Disbanded in England on 11 Nov 1943. 

Squadrons. 4th: 1943. 6th: 1943. 
igth: 1943. 22^.' 1943. 

Stations. St Eval, England, 8 Jul 1943; 
Dunkeswell, England, 6 Aug 1943; Pod- 
ington, England, Nov-ii Nov 1943. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



351 



Commanders. Col Howard Moore, 8 
Jul-c. Nov 1943. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, EAME 
Theater; Air Offensive, Europe. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

479th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 479th Fighter Group on 
12 Oct 1943 and activated on 15 Oct. 
Equipped with P-38's.' Trained for com- 
bat and served as an air defense organiza- 
tion. Moved to England, Apr-May 1944, 
and assigned to Eighth AF. From May 
1944 to Apr 1945, escorted heavy bombers 
during operations against targets on the 
Continent, strafed targets of opportunity, 
and flew fighter-bomber, counter-air, and 
area-patrol missions. Engaged primarily 
in escort activities and fighter sweeps until 
the Normandy invasion in June 1944. Pa- 
trolled the beachhead during the invasion. 
Strafed and dive-bombed troops, bridges, 
locomotives, railway cars, barges, vehicles, 
airfields, gun emplacements, flak towers. 



ammunition dumps, power stations, and 
radar sites while on escort or fighter- 
bomber missions as the AUies drove across 
France during the summer and fall of 
1944; flew area patrols to support the 
breakthrough at St Lo in Jul and the air- 
borne attack on Holland in Sep. Received 
a DUC for the destruction of numerous 
aircraft on airfields in France on 18 Aug 
and 5 Sep and during rn aerial battle near 
Munster on 26 Sep. Continued escort and 
fighter-bomber activities from Oct to mid- 
Dec 1944, converting to P-51's during this 
period. Participated in the Battle of the 
Bulge (Dec 1944-Jan 1945) by escorting 
bombers to and from targets in the battle 
area and by strafing transportation targets 
while on escort duty. Flew escort missions 
from Feb to Apr 1945, but also provided 
area patrols to support the airborne at- 
tack across the Rhine in Mar. Returned 
to the US in Nov 1945. Inactivated on i 
Dec 1945. 

Redesignated 479th Fighter-Bomber 
Group. Activated on i Dec 1952. As- 
signed to Tactical Air Command. 
Equipped successively with F-51, F-86, 
and F-ioo aircraft. Redesignated 479th 
Fighter-Day Group in Feb 1954. 

Squadrons. 4^4th: 1943-1945; 1952-. 
435th: 1943-1945; 1952-. 4^6th: 1943- 
1945; 1952-. 

Stations. Grand Central Air Terminal, 
Calif, 15 Oct 1943; Lomita Flight Strip, 
Calif, c. 6 Feb 1944; Santa Maria AAFld, 
Calif, c. 8-c. 12 Apr 1944; Wattisham, 
England, c. 15 May 1944-c. 23 Nov 1945; 



352 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Camp Kilmer, NJ, c. 29 Nov-i Dec 1945. 
George AFB, Calif, i Dec 1952-. 

Commanders. Lt Col Leo F Dusard Jr, 
c. 28 Oct 1943; Maj Francis J Pope, c. 14 
Nov 1943; Lt Col Kyle L Riddle, c. 26 Dec 
1943; Col Hubert Zemke, 12 Aug 1944; 
Col Kyle L Riddle, i Nov 1944-unkn. 
Col Woodrow W Ramsey, 1952-unkn; 
Lt Col Verl D Luehring, 1953; Col 
Jacob W Dixon, c. 19 Aug 1953; Col Wil- 
liam B Harris, c. 31 May 1955-. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy ; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: ETO, 18 Aug, 5 and 26 Sep 1944. 
French Croix de Guerre with Palm. 

Insigne. Shield: Or, a broad sword 
gules in bend piercing a cloud proper, be- 
tween a point sinister pointed gules, 
charged with six stars argent three, two 
and one, and a point in base vert, all within 
a diminutive border azure. Motto: PRO- 
TECTORES LIBERTATIS— Defenders 
of Liberty. (Approved lO^Sep 1954.) 

480th ANTISUBMARINE 
GROUP 

Constituted as 480th Antisubmarine 
Group on 19 Jun 1943 and activated in 
North Africa on 21 Jun. Assigned to AAF 
Antisubmarine Command. Using B-24's, 
the group had the primary mission of car- 
rying out antisubmarine patrols in an area 
of the Atlantic extending north and west 
from Morocco. Its antisubmarine activity 
reached a peak in Jul 1943 when enemy 



U-boats concentrated off the coast of Por- 
tugal to intercept convoys bound for the 
Mediterranean; by destroying and dam- 
aging several submarines during the 
month, the group aided in protecting sup- 
ply lines to forces involved in the campaign 
for Sicily. The group also covered con- 
voys and engaged numerous enemy air- 
craft in combat. In Sep 1943 part of the 
group moved temporarily to Tunisia and 
operated in connection with the assault 
on Italy; missions included searching for 
enemy submarines, covering Allied con- 
voys, and protecting the Italian fleet after 
the surrender of Italy. The group was 
awarded a DUC for actions that contrib- 
uted to the winning of the Battle of the 
Atlantic. Moved to the US in Nov and 
Dec 1943. Disbanded on 29 Jan 1944. 

Squadrons, ist: 1943-1944. 2d: 1943- 
1944. 

Stations. Port Lyautey, French Mo- 
rocco, 21 Jun-Nov 1943; Langley Field, 
Va, c. 18 Nov 1943; Clovis AAFld, NM, c. 
1-29 Jan 1944. 

Commanders. Col Jack Roberts, 21 Jun 
1943-unkn. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, EAME 
Theater; Air Combat, EAME Theater. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: North African Theater of Opera- 
tions [1943]. 

Insigne. None. 

482d BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 482d Bombardment 
Group (Pathfinder) on 10 Aug 1943 and 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VNITS—GROUPS 



353 



activated in England on 20 Aug. Assigned 
to Eighth AF. Provided a pathfinder 
force of radar-equipped aircraft to precede 
bomber formations and indicate targets ob- 
scured by weather. Flew its first mission 
on 27 Sep 1943, leading bombers of ist and 
3d Bombardment Divisions to attack the 
port at Emden. Operated chiefly as a 
pathfinder organization until Mar 1944, 
detaching its B-17 and B-24 aircraft, with 
crews, to other stations in England to lead 
Eighth AF elements on specific missions 
to the Continent. Led attacks on factories 
at Gotha, Brunswick, Schweinfurt, and 
other industrial centers during Big Week, 
20-25 Feb 1944. Also served as the path- 
finder force for bombers attacking air- 
fields, submarine installations, cities, mar- 
shalling yards, and other targets, primarily 
in Germany. Received a DUG for a mis- 
sion on II Jan 1944 when it led organi- 
zations of Eighth AF into central Ger- 
many to attack aircraft industries; 
although weather conditions prevented ef- 
fective fighter protection against severe at- 
tack by enemy aircraft, the group not only 
bombed the assigned targets, but also de- 
stroyed a number of enemy planes. Re- 
moved from combat status in Mar 1944 and 
after that operated a school for pathfinder 
crews with the objective of training a path- 
finder squadron for each Eighth AF bom- 
bardment group; made radarscope photo- 
graphs of France^ the Low Countries, and 
Germany for use in training and briefing 
combat crews; and tested radar and other 
navigational equipment. Often bombed 
such targets as bridges, fuel depots, power 



plants, and railroad stations while on ex- 
perimental flights; flew a pathfinder mis- 
sion to assist the bombardment of coastal 
defenses in Normandy on 6 Jun 1944 and 
later that day led attacks on traffic centers 
behind the beachhead ; sometimes dropped 
propaganda leaflets. Redesignated 482d 
Bombardment Group (Heavy) in Nov 
1944. Continued its training and exf>eri- 
mental work until V-E Day. Moved to 
the US, May-Jun 1945. Inactivated on i 
Sep 1945. 

Redesignated 482d Bombardment Group 
(Very Heavy). Allotted to the reserve. 
Activated on 26 Jun 1947. Inactivated 
on 27 Jun 1949. 

Redesignated 482d Troop Carrier 
Group (Medium). Allotted to the re- 
serve. Activated on 14 Jun 1952. Inac- 
tivated on I Dec 1952. 

Redesignated 482d Fighter-Bomber 
Group. Allotted to the reserve. Activated 
on 18 May 1955. 

Squadrons. 6th: 1947-1949. 812th: 
1943-1945; 1947-1949; 1952; 1955-. 813th: 
1943-1945; 1947-1949; 1952. 814th: 1943- 

1945; 1947-1949; 1952- 

Stations. Alconbury, England, 20 Aug 
1943-21 May 1945; Victorville AAFld, 
Calif, c. 5 Jul-i Sep 1945. New Orleans 
Mun Aprt, La, 26 Jun 1947-27 Jun 1949. 
Miami Intl Aprt, Fla, 14 Jun-i Dec 1952. 
Dobbins AFB, Ga, 18 May 1955-. 

CoMMANDERs. Col Baskiu R Lawrence 
Jr, 20 Aug 1943 ; Col Howard Moore, i Dec 
1943; Lt Col Clement W Bird, 15 Dec 
1944-1945. 



354 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Germany, ii Jan 1944. 

Insigne. None. 

483d BOMBARDMENT GROUP 




Constituted as 483d Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 14 Sep 1943 and ac- 
tivated on 20 Sep. Trained with B-17's. 
Moved to Italy, Mar-Apr 1944, and as- 
signed to Fifteenth AF. Began operations 
in Apr 1944 and served in combat until 
late in Apr 1945, hitting such targets as 
factories, oil refineries, marshalling yards, 
storage areas, airdromes, bridges, gun posi- 
tions, and troop concentrations in Italy, 
France, Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, 
Austria, Hungary, Rumania, Yugoslavia, 



and Greece. Received a DUC for action 
on 18 Jul 1944 vv^hen, without fighter es- 
cort, the group engaged numerous enemy 
aircraft in the target area and also bombed 
the objective, an airdrome and installa- 
tions at Memmingen. Assisting the stra- 
tegic bombardment of enemy industry, 
the group received another DUC for brav- 
ing fighter assaults and antiaircraft fire to 
bomb tank factories at Berlin on 24 Mar 
1945. Struck targets in southern France 
in preparation for the invasion in Aug 
1944. Operated in suport of ground forces 
in northern Italy during the Allied offen- 
sive in Apr 1945. After V-E Day, trans- 
ported personnel from Italy to North Afri- 
ca for movement to the US. Inactivated 
in Italy on 25 Sep 1945. 

Redesignated 483d Troop Carrier Group 
(Medium). Activated in Japan on i Jan 
1953. Assigned to Tactical Air Command 
but attached to Far East Air Forces for 
duty in the Korean War. Used C-119's 
to transport personnel and supplies to 
Korea, receiving a Korean PUC for the 
missions. Received an AFOUA for oper- 
ations during 1953-1954: while transport- 
ing supplies to UN forces in Korea and 
training with airborne troops, the group 
also assisted the French in Indochina by 
hauling supplies and training personnel 
for airlift operations in C-119's. Assigned 
to Far East Air Forces in 1954. 

Squadrons. 81 ^th: 1943-1945; 1953- 
8i6th: 1943-1945; 1953-. Siyth: 1943- 
1945; 1953-. 840th (formerly 8i8th): 
1943-1945. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS—GROUPS 



355 



Stations. Ephrata AAB, Wash, 20 Sep 
1943; MacDill Field, Fla, 7 Nov 1943-2 
Mar 1944; Tortorella, Italy, 30 Mar 1944; 
Sterparone Airfield, Italy, 22 Apr 1944; 
Pisa, Italy 15 May-25 Sep 1945. Ashiya 
AB, Japan, i Jan 1953-. 

Commanders. Col Paul L Barton, c. 
26 Sep 1943; Col Joseph B Stanley, 8 May- 
c. Sep 1945. Lt Col Ernest W Burton, i 
Jan 1953; Col George M Foster, i Mar 
1953; Lt Col Kenneth C Jacobs, Jul 1955; 
Col Horace W Patch, c. Aug 1955-. 

Campaigns. World War II: Air Com- 
bat, FAME Theater; Air Offensive, Eu- 
rope; Rome-Arno; Normandy; Northern 
France; Southern France; North Apen- 
nines; Rhineland; Central Europe; Po 
Valley. Korean War: Third Korean Win- 
ter; Korea Summer-Fall, 1953. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Germany, 18 Jul 1944; Germany, 
24 Mar 1945. Republic of Korea Presi- 
dential Unit Citation: [Jan]-27 Jul 1953. 
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award: 6 
May 1953-10 Sep 1954. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure (sky blue), a 
sphere encircled with an orbit all or, lati- 
tude and longitude lines azure (deep 
blue), over the sphere a hand proper sup- 
porting a parachute proper, an aircraft 
proper, and artillery proper; encircling the 
upper section of the sphere, three clouds 
proper and an increscent moon and four 
stars of the second color; on a chief of the 
third, thirteen stars argent, the chief 
fimbriated or. Motto: EFFECTIVE AIR- 
LIFT SUPPORT. (Approved 2 Feb 
1956.) 



484th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 484th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 14 Sep 1943 and acti- 
vated on 20 Sep. Trained for combat 
with B-24's. Moved to Italy, Mar-Apr 
1944. Assigned to Fifteenth AF. Redes- 
ignated 484th Bombardment Group (Path- 
finder) in May 1944 but did not perform 
pathfinder functions. Redesignated 484th 
Bombardment Group (Heavy) in Nov 
1944. Operated primarily as a strategic 
bombardment organization, Apr 1944- 
Apr 1945. Attacked such targets as oil 
refineries, oil storage plants, aircraft fac- 
tories, heavy industry, and communica- 
tions in Italy, France, Germany, Austria, 
Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Rumania, and 
Yugoslavia. On 13 Jun 1944 a heavy 
smoke screen prevented the group from 
bombing marshalling yards at Munich; 
however, in spite of severe damage from 
flak and interceptors, and despite heavy 
gunfire encountered at the alternate target, 
the group bombed marshalling yards at 
Innsbruck and received a DUC for its per- 
sistent action. Received second DUC for 
performance on 21 Aug 1944 when, un- 
escorted, the organization fought its way 
through intense opposition to attack un- 
derground oil storage installations in 
Vienna. In addition to strategic missions, 
the 484th participated in the drive toward 
Rome by bombing bridges, supply dumps, 
viaducts, and marshalling yards, Apr-Jun 
1944; ferried gasoline and oil to Allied 
forces in southern France, Sep 1944; and 
supported the final advance through 



356 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



northern Italy, Apr 1945. Moved to 
Casablanca in May 1945. Assigned to Air 
Transport Command. Inactivated in 
French Morocco on 25 Jul 1945. 

Squadrons. 824th: 1943-1945. Si^th: 
1943-1945. 826th: 1943-1945. 82ph: 

1943-1945- 
Stations. Harvard AAFld, Neb, 20 Sep 

1943-2 Mar 1944; Torretto Airfield, Italy, 

Apr 1944; Casablanca, French Morocco, c. 

25 May-25 Jul 1945. 

Commanders. Col William B Keese, 
Oct 1943; Lt Col Chester C Busch, Apr 
1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME Thea- 
ter; Air Offensive, Europe; Rome-Arno; 
Normandy; Northern France; Southern 
France; North Apennines; Rhineland; 
Central Europe; Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Munich, Germany, and Innsbruck, 
Austria, 13 Jun 1944; Vienna, Austria, 21 
Aug 1944. 

Insigne. None. 

485th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 485th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 14 Sep 1943 and ac- 
tivated on 20 Sep. Trained with B-24's. 
Moved to the Mediterranean theater, Mar- 
Apr 1944, with the air echelon receiving 
additional training in Tunisia before join- 
ing the ground echelon in Italy. Assigned 
to Fifteenth AF. Entered combat in May 
1944 and engaged primarily in flying long- 
range missions to targets in Italy, France, 
Germany, Austria, Hungary, Rumania, 



and Yugoslavia, bombing marshalling 
yards, oil refineries, airdrome installations, 
heavy industry, and other strategic objec- 
tives. Received a DUC for combating in- 
tense fighter opposition and attacking an 
oil refinery at Vienna on 26 Jun 1944. Also 
carried out some support and interdictory 
operations. Struck bridges, harbors, and 
troop concentrations in Aug 1944 to aid 
the invasion of Southern France. Hit 
communications lines and other targets 
during Mar and Apr 1945 to support the 
advance of British Eighth Army in north- 
ern Italy. Returned to the US in May 

1945. Redesignated 485th Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy) in Aug 1945. 
Equipped with B-29's. Assigned to Stra- 
tegic Air Command on 21 Mar 1946. In- 
activated on 4 Aug 1946. 

Squadrons. ^o6th: 1946. 828th: 1943- 

1946. 82gth: 1943-1946. 830th: 1943- 
1946. 8sist: 1943-1945. 

Stations. Fairmont AAFld, Neb, 20 
Sep 1943-11 Mar 1944; Venosa, Italy, Apr 
1944-15 May 1945; Sioux Falls AAFld, 
SD, 30 May 1945; Sioux City AAB, Iowa, 
24 Jul 1945; Smoky Hill AAFld, Kan, 8 
Sep 1945-4 Aug 1946. 

Commanders. Col Walter E Arnold 
Jr, 27 Sep 1943; Col John P Tomhave, 
c. 29 Aug 1944; Col John B Cornett, 17 
Feb 1945; Lt Col Douglas M Cairns, 23 
Mar 1945-unkn; Lt Col Richard T Live- 
ly, 6 Aug 1945; Col John W White, 15 
Sep 1945; Col Walter S Lee, 1946-Aug 
1946. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Air 
Combat, EAME Theater; Air Offensive, 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



357 



Europe; Rome-Arno; Normandy; North- 
ern France; Southern France; North 
Apennines; Rhineland; Central Europe; 
Po Valley. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Vienna, Austria, 26 Jun 1944. 

Insigne. None. 

486th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 486th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 14 Sep 1943 and acti- 
vated on 20 Sep. Moved to England in Mar 
1944 and assigned to Eighth AF. Entered 
combat in May 1944 with B-24 aircraft 
but soon converted to B-17's. Operated 
chiefly against strategic objectives in Ger- 
many until May 1945. Targets included 
marshalling yards in Stuttgart, Cologne, 
and Mainz; airfields in Kassel and Muns- 
ter; oil refineries and storage plants in 
Merseburg, Dollbergen, and Hamburg; 
harbors in Bremen and Kiel; and factories 
in Mannheim and Weimar. Other mis- 
sions included bombing airfields, gun posi- 
tions, V-weapon sites, and railroad bridges 
in France in preparation for or in support 
of the invasion of Normandy in Jun 1944; 
striking road junctions and troop concen- 
trations in support of ground forces push- 
ing across France, Jul- Aug 1944; hitting 
gun emplacements near Arnheim to mini- 
mize transport and glider losses during the 
airborne invasion of Holland in Sep 1944; 
and bombing enemy installations in sup- 
port of ground troops during the Battle of 
the Bulge (Dec 1944-Jan 1945) and the 
assault across the Rhine (Mar- Apr 1945). 



Returned to the US in Aug 1945. Inacti- 
vated on 7 Nov 1945. 

Squadrons. 8^2d: 1943-1945. 8^^d: 
1943-1945- 834th: 1943-1945. 83Sth: 
1943-1945. 

Stations. McCook AAFld, Neb, 20 Sep 
1943; Davis-Monthan Field, Ariz, 9 Nov 
1943-Mar 1944; Sudbury, England, Mar 
1944-Aug 1945; Drew Field, Fla, 3 Sep-7 
Nov 1945. 

Commanders. Col Glendon P Overing, 
20 Sep 1943; Col William B Kieflfer, c. 13 
Apr 1945; Lt Col James J Grater, Jul 1945- 
unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes- Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

487th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 487th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 14 Sep 1943 and acti- 
vated on 20 Sep. Prepared for overseas 
duty with B-24's. Moved to England, 
Mar-Apr 1944, and assigned to Eighth AF. 
Began combat in May 1944, bombing air- 
fields in France in preparation for the in- 
vasion of Normandy; then pounded 
coastal defenses, road junctions, bridges, 
and locomotives during the invasion. At- 
tacked German troops and artillery posi- 
tions to assist British forces near Caen in 
Jul; struck gun emplacements to support 
the Allied effort at Brest in Aug and to 
cover the airborne attack on Holland in 
Sep 1944. Flew a few missions against 



358 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



German industries, refineries, and com- 
munications during the period May-Aug 

1944, but operated almost solely against 
strategic targets from Aug 1944, when con- 
version to B-17's was completed, until Mar 

1945. Attacked oil refineries in Merse- 
burg, Mannheim, and Dulmen; factories 
in Nurnberg, Hannover, and Berlin; and 
marshalling yards in Cologne, Munster, 
Hamm, and Neumunster. Aided ground 
forces during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 
1944-Jan 1945, and turned again to support 
and interdictory operations in Mar 1945 as 
the Allies crossed the Rhine and made the 
final thrust into Germany. Returned to 
the US, Aug-Sep 1945. Inactivated on 7 
Nov 1945. 

Squadrons. 8^6th: 1943-1945. S^jth: 
1943-1945. 8^8th: 1943-1945. S^gth: 

1943-1945- 
Stations. Bruning AAFld, Neb, 20 

Sep 1943; Alamogordo AAFld, NM, 15 
Dec 1943-C. 13 Mar 1944; Lavenham, Eng- 
land, 5 Apr 1944-C. 26 Aug 1945; Drew 
Field, Fla, 3 Sep-7 Nov 1945. 

Commanders. Lt Col Charles E Lan- 
caster, 4 Oct 1943; Lt Col Beirne Lay Jr, 28 
Feb 1944; Col Robert Taylor III, 12 May 
1944; Col William K Martin, 28 Dec 1944; 
Lt Col Howard C Todt, May 1945; Col 
Nicholas T Perkins, 3 Jun 1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy ; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 



488th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 488th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 14 Sep 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Oct 1943. Assigned to Second 
AF; reassigned to Third AF in Nov 1943. 
Equipped with B-17's. Served as a re- 
placement training unit. Disbanded on 
I May 1944. 

Squadrons. 8i8th (formerly 840th): 

1943-1944- ^41^^' 1943-1944- ^4^d: 1943- 
1944. 84sd: 1943-1944. 

Stations. Geiger Field, Wash, i Oct 
1943; MacDill Field, Fla, i Nov 1943-1 
May 1944. 

Commanders. Lt Col Rudolph B 
Robeck, i Oct 1943; Maj George H Goody, 
12 Oct 1943; Lt Col Ansley Watson, 25 
Oct 1943; Col Gerry L Mason, 11 Dec 
1943; Lt Col Ansley Watson, 11 Feb 1944; 
Lt Col Robert K Martin, 15 Mar-i May 
1944. 

Campaigns. None. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

489th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 489th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 14 Sep 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Oct 1943. Trained with B-24's. 
Moved to England, Apr-May 1944, and 
assigned to Eighth AF. Entered combat 
on 30 May 1944, and during the next few 
days concentrated on targets in France in 
preparation for the Normandy invasion. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNirS— GROUPS 



359 



In an attack against coastal defenses near 
Wimereaux on 5 Jun 1944, the group's 
lead plane was seriously crippled by enemy 
fire, its pilot was killed, and the deputy 
group commander, Lt Col Leon R Vance 
Jr, who was commanding the formation, 
was severely wounded; although his right 
foot was practically severed, Vance took 
control of the plane, led the group to a 
successful bombing of the target, and man- 
aged to fly the damaged aircraft to the 
coast of England, where he ordered the 
crew to bail out; believing a wounded man 
had been unable to jump, he ditched the 
plane in the Channel and was rescued. 
For his' action during this mission, Vance 
was awarded the Medal of Honor. The 
group supported the landings in Nor- 
mandy on 6 Jun 1944, and afterward 
bombed coastal defenses, airfields, bridges, 
railroads, and V-weapon sites in the cam- 
paign for France. Began flying missions 
into Germany in Jul, and engaged pri- 
marily in bombing strategic targets such as 
factories, oil refineries and storage plants, 
marshalling yards, and airfields in 
Ludwigshafen, Magdeburg, Brunswick, 
Saarbrucken, and other cities until Nov 
1944. Other operations included partici- 
pating in the saturation bombing of Ger- 
man lines just before the breakthrough at 
St Lo in Jul, dropping food to the liberated 
French and to Allied forces in France dur- 
ing Aug and Sep, and carrying food and 
ammunition to Holland later in Sep. Re- 
turned to the US, Nov-Dec 1944, to pre- 
pare for redeployment to the Pacific 



theater. Redesignated 489th Bombard- 
ment Group (Very Heavy) in Mar 1945. 
Equipped with B-29's. Alerted for move- 
ment overseas in the summer of 1945, but 
war with Japan ended before the group 
left the US. Inactivated on 17 Oct 1945. 
Squadrons. 844th: 1943-1945. 84ph: 
1943-1945. 846th: 1943-1945. 84yth: 

1943-1945- 
Stations. Wendover Field, Utah, i Oct 

1943-3 Apr 1944; Halesworth, England, c. 

I May-Nov 1944; Bradley Field, Conn, 12 

Dec 1944; Lincoln AAFld, Neb, c. 17 Dec 

1944; Great Bend AAFld, Kan, c. 28 Feb 

1945; Davis-Monthan Field, Ariz, 3 Apr 

1945; Fairmont AAFld, Neb, c. 13 Jul 

1945; Ft Lawton, Wash, 23 Aug 1945; 

March Field, Calif, 2 Sep-17 Oct 1945. 

Commanders. Col Ezekiel W Napier, 
20 Oct 1943; Lt Col Robert E Kollimer, 5 
Feb 1945; Col Paul C Ash worth, 11 Apr 
1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Air 
Offensive, Europe; Normandy; Northern 
France; Rhineland. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

490th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 490th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 14 Sep 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Oct 1943. Trained for combat 
with B-24's. Moved to England in Apr 
1944 for operations with Eighth AF. 
Entered combat in Jun 1944, bombing air- 
fields and coastal defenses in France 



360 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



immediately preceding and during the in- 
vasion of Normandy. Then struck 
bridges, rail lines, vehicles, road junctions, 
and troop concentrations in France. 
Supported ground forces near Caen in Jul 
and near Brest in Sep 1944. After that, 
converted to B-17's and operated primarily 
against strategic targets until the end of 
Feb 1945. Mounted attacks against 
enemy oil plants, tank factories, marshal- 
ling yards, aircraft plants, and airfields in 
such cities as Berlin, Hamburg, Merse- 
burg, Munster, Kassel, Hannover, and 
Cologne. Interrupted strategic missions 
to attack supply lines and military instal- 
lations during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 
1944-Jan 1945. Beginning in Mar 1945, 
attacked interdictory targets and sup- 
ported advancing ground forces. After 
V-E Day, carried food to flood-stricken 
areas of Holland and transported French, 
Spanish, and Belgian prisoners of war 
from Austria to Allied centers. Returned 
to the US, Aug-Sep 1945. Inactivated on 
7 Nov 1945. 

Squadrons. 848th: 1943-1945. 84gth: 
1943-1945. 8$oth: 1943-1945. 8^1 St: 
1943-1945. 

Stations. Salt Lake City AAB, Utah, 
I Oct 1943; Mountain Home AAFld, 
Idaho, 4 Dec 1943- Apr 1944; Eye, Eng- 
land, c. I May 1944-Aug 1945; Drew^ Field, 
Fla, 3 Sep-7 Nov 1945. 

Commanders, Maj LyleEHalstead, ii 
Oct 1943; Lt Col Beirne Lay Jr, 28 Oct 
1943; Lt Col James H Isbell, Nov 1943; 
Col Lloyd H Watnee, 30 Dec 1943; Col 
Frank P Bostrom, 26 Jun 1944; Col Gene 



H Tibbets, c. 10 Jun 1945; Lt Col Clarence 
J Adams, c. 9 Jul 1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

491st BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 491st Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 14 Sep 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Oct 1943. Trained for combat 
with B-24's. On I Jan 1944 the group, 
less the air echelon, was transferred with- 
out personnel and equipment to England, 
where personnel were assigned later. The 
air echelon continued to train in the US 
until it joined the group in England in 
May 1944. Served in combat with Eighth 
AF until the end of Apr 1945. Began 
operations early in Jun 1944 and attacked 
airfields, bridges, and coastal defenses 
both preceding and during the invasion 
of Normandy. Then concentrated its 
attacks on strategic objectives in Germany, 
striking communications centers, oil re- 
fineries, storage depots, industrial areas, 
shipyards, and other targets in such places 
as Berlin, Hamburg, Kassel, Cologne, 
Gelsenkirchen, Bielefeld, Hannover, and 
Magdeburg; on one occasion attacked the 
headquarters of the German General Staff 
at Zossen, Germany. While on a mission 
to bomb an oil refinery at Misburg on 26 
Nov 1944, the group was attacked by large 
numbers of enemy fighters; although 
about one-half of its planes were de- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GjROf/P^ 



361 



stroyed, the remainder fought off the 
interceptors, successfully bombed the tar- 
get, and won for the group a DUG. 
Although engaged primarily in strategic 
bombardment, the group also supported 
ground forces at St Lo in Jul 1944; as- 
saulted V-weapon sites and communica- 
tions lines in France during the summer 
of 1944; dropped supplies to paratroops on 
18 Sep 1944 during the airborne attack in 
Holland; bombed German supply lines 
and fortifications during the Battle of the 
Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945; supported 
Allied forces in the airborne drop across 
the Rhine in Mar 1945; and interdicted 
enemy communications during the Allied 
drive across Germany in Apr 1945. Re- 
turned to the US in Jul. Inactivated on 8 
Sep 1945. 

Squadrons. Spd: 1943-1945. 8^^d: 
1943-1945- 854th: 1943-1945- 8ssth: 
1943-1945- 

Stations. Davis-Monthan Field, Ariz, 
I Oct 1943; El Paso, Tex, 11 Nov 1943; 
England, i Jan 1944; North Pickenham, 
England, Feb 1944; Metfield, England, 
Mar 1944; North Pickenham, England, 15 
Aug 1944- Jun 1945; McChord Field, 
Wash, 17 Jul-8 Sep 1945.. 

Commanders. Col Dwight O Morteith, 
10 Oct 1943; Maj Jack G Merrell, 20 Dec 
1943; Col Wilson H Banks, 5 Jan 1944; 
Maj Alex E Burleigh, 19 Jan 1944; Lt Col 
Jack G Merrell, 29 Jan 1944; Lt Col Carl 
T Goldenburg, 12 Feb 1944; Col F H 
Miller, 26 Jun 1944; Col Allen W Reed, 
c. 20 Oct 1944-1945. 



Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy ; Northern France ; Rhineland ; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Misburg, Germany, 26 Nov 1944. 

Insigne. None. 

492d BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 492d Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 14 Sep 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Oct 1943. Trained for combat 
with B-24's. Moved to England in Apr 
1944 and assigned to Eighth AF. Entered 
combat on 11 May 1944, and throughout 
the month operated primarily against in- 
dustrial targets in central Germany. At- 
tacked airfields and V-weapon launching 
sites in France during the first week in 
Jun. Bombed coastal defenses in Nor- 
mandy on 6 Jun 1944 and attacked bridges, 
railroads, and other interdiction targets 
in France until the middle of the month. 
Resumed bombardment of strategic tar- 
gets in Germany and, except for support 
of the infantry during the St Lo break- 
through on 25 Jul 1944, continued such 
operations until Aug 1944. Transferred, 
less personnel and equipment, to another 
station in England on 5 Aug 1944 and 
assumed personnel, equipment, and the 
CARPETBAGGER mission of a provi- 
sional group that was discontinued. Oper- 
ated chiefly over southern France with B- 
24's and C-47's, engaging in CARPET- 
BAGGER operations, that is, transporting 
agents, supplies, and propaganda leaflets 
to patriots. Ceased these missions on 16 



362 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Sep 1944 to haul gasoline to advancing 
mechanized forces in France and Belgium. 
Intermittently attacked airfields, oil re- 
fineries, seaports, and other targets in 
France, the Low Countries, and Germany 
until Feb 1945. Meanwhile, in Oct 1944, 
began training for night bombardment 
operations; concentrated on night bomb- 
ing of marshalling yards and goods depots 
in Germany, Feb-Mar 1945. Ceased these 
missions on 18 Mar 1945 to engage in 
CARPETBAGGER operations over Ger- 
many and German-occupied territory, us- 
ing B-24, A-26, and British Mosquito air- 
craft to drop leaflets, demolition equip- 
ment, and agents. Received a DUC for 
these operations, performed at night de- 
spite adverse weather and vigorous opposi- 
tion from enemy ground forces, 20 Mar- 
25 Apr 1945. Also cited by the French 
government for similar operations over 
France in 1944. Flew its last CARPET- 
BAGGER mission in Apr 1945 and then 
ferried personnel and equipment to and 
from the Continent until Jul. Returned 
to the US, Jul-Aug 1945. Redesignated 
492d Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) 
in Aug 1945. Inactivated on 17 Oct 1945. 

Squadrons. 406th: 1945. 8$6th: 1943- 
1945. 8s7th: 1943-1945. 8s8th: 1943- 
1944, 1944-1945. 8sgth: 1943-1945. 

Stations. Alamogordo AAFld, NM, i 
Oct 1943-1 Apr 1944; North Pickenham, 
England, 18 Apr 1944; Harrington, Eng- 
land, 5 Aug 1944-8 Jul 1945; Sioux Falls 
AAFld, SD, 14 Aug 1945; Kirdand Field, 
NM, 17 Aug-17 Oct 1945. 



Commanders. Col Arthur J Pierce, 19 
Oct 1943; Maj Louis C Adams, 17 Dec 
1943; Col Eugene H Suavely, 26 Jan 1944; 
Col Clifford J Heflin, 13 Aug 1944; Lt Col 
Robert W Fish, 26 Aug 1944; Col Hudson 
H Upham, 17 Dec 1944; Lt Col Jack M 
Dickerson, c. 7 Jun 1945; Lt Col Dalson 
E Crawford, 30 Aug-Oct 1945. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Southern 
France; Rhineland; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Germany and German-occupied ter- 
ritory, 20 Mar-25 Apr 1945. French Croix 
de Guerre with Palm. 

Insigne. None. 

493d BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 493d Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 14 Sep 1943. Activated 
on I Nov 1943. On i Jan 1944 trans- 
ferred, less the air echelon and without per- 
sonnel and equipment, to England where 
personnel were assigned. Joined by the air 
echelon in May 1944. Served in combat 
with Eighth AF, May 1944-Apr 1945, 
using B-24's until they were replaced with 
B-17's in Sep 1944. Operated chiefly 
against industrial and military installa- 
tions in Germany, attacking an ordnance 
depot at Magdeburg, marshalling yards at 
Cologne, synthetic oil plants at Merseburg, 
a railroad tunnel at Ahrweiler, bridges at 
Irlich, factories at Frankfurt, and other 
strategic objectives. Additional operations 
included striking airfields, bridges, and 
gun batteries prior to and during the in- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



363 



vasion of Normandy in Jun 1944; hitting 
enemy positions to assist ground forces 
south of Caen and at St Lo in Jul 1944; 
bombing German fortifications to cover 
the airborne attack on Holland in Sep 
1944; attacking enemy communications 
during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944- 
Jan 1945; and assisting the airborne as- 
sault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Flew 
last combat mission, an attack on mar- 
shalling yards at Nauen, on 20 Apr 1945. 
Returned to the US in Aug. Inactivated 
on 28 Aug 1945. 

Squadrons. 860th: 1943-1945. 86ist: 
1943-1945- 862d: 1943-1945. 863d: 1943- 
1945. 

Stations. McCook AAFld, Neb, i Nov 
1943; Elveden Hall, England, i Jan 1944; 
Debach, England, Apr 1944-6 Aug 1945; 
Sioux Falls AAFld, SD, 12-28 Aug 1945. 

Commanders. Col Elbert Helton, i 
Nov 1943; Col Robert B Landry, 16 Feb 
1945; Lt Col Shepler W Fitzgerald Jr, 5 
Jun-28 Aug 1945. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

« 

494th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 494th Bombardment 
Group (Heavy) on 14 Sep 1943. Acti- 
vated on I Dec 1943. Trained for com- 
bat with B-24's. Moved to Hawaii in Jun 
1944 for additional training. Assigned to 
Seventh AF and moved to Palau late in 



Sep. Helped to construct a base of opera- 
tions on Angaur, then entered combat on 
3 Nov 1944 with attacks against Japanese 
airfields on Yap and Koror. Conducted 
strikes on other bypassed enemy installa- 
tions in the Pacific and against the Japa- 
nese in the Philippines. Late in 1944 hit 
gun -emplacements, personnel areas, and 
storage depots on Corregidor and Caballo 
at the entrance to Manila Bay; bombed 
radio installations and power plants at 
Japanese bases in the Philippines; and at- 
tacked enemy-held airfields, including 
Clark Field on Luzon. Early in 1945 
struck airfields on Mindanao and ammu- 
nition and supply dumps in the Davao 
Gulf and lUana Bay areas. Moved to 
Okinawa in Jun 1945. Engaged pri- 
marily in attacks against enemy airfields 
on Kyushu until V-J Day. Also partici- 
pated in incendiary raids, dropped propa- 
ganda leaflets over urban areas of Kyushu, 
and struck airfields in China, in southern 
Korea, and around the Inland Sea of 
Japan. Transported personnel and sup- 
plies from Manila to Tokyo after the war. 
Returned to the US in Dec 1945. Inacti- 
vated on 4 Jan 1946. 

Squadrons. 864th: 1943-1946. 86$th: 
1943-1946. 866th: 1943-1946. 86yth: 
1944-1946. 

Stations. Wendover Field, Utah, i Dec 
1943; Mountain Home AAFld, Idaho, 15 
Apr-i June 1944; Barking Sands, TH, 15 
Jun 1944; Angaur, 30 Sep 1944; Yon tan, 
Okinawa, 24 Jun-8 Dec 1945; Ft Lawton, 
Wash, 2-4 Jan 1946. 



364 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Commanders. Unkn, Dec 1943-Feb 
1944; Col Laurence B Kelly, 24 Feb 1944- 
unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Japan; 
Eastern Mandates; Western Pacific; Lu- 
zon; Southern Philippines; Ryukyus; 
China Offensive. 

Decorations. Philippine Presidential 
Unit Citation. 

Insigne. None. 

497th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 497th Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy) on 19 Nov 1943 and 
activated on 20 Nov. Prepared for over- 
.seas duty with B-29's. Moved to Saipan, 
Jul-Oct 1944, and assigned to Twentieth 
AF. Began operations in Oct 1944 with 
attacks against Iwo Jima and the Truk 
Islands. Took part in the first attack (24 
Nov 1944) on Japan by AAF planes based 
in the Marianas. Flew many missions 
against strategic objectives in Japan; on 
numerous raids, made its attacks in day- 
light and from high altitude. Received a 
DUC for a mission on 27 Jan 1945: 
although weather conditions prevented the 
group from bombing its primary objective, 
the unescorted B-29's withstood severe 
enemy attacks to strike an alternate tar- 
get, the industrial area of Hamamatsu. 
Awarded second DUC for attacking 
strategic centers in Japan during Jul and 
Aug 1945. Assisted the assault on Okina- 
wa in Apr 1945 by bombing enemy air- 
fields to cut down air attacks against the 
invasion force. Beginning in Mar 1945 



and continuing until the end of the war 
the group made incendiary raids against 
Japan, flying at night and at low altitude 
to bomb area targets. Returned to the US 
in Nov 1945. Assigned to Strategic Air 
Command on 21 Mar 1946. Inactivated on 
31 Mar 1946. 

Squadrons, pph: 1945-1946. 86gth: 
1943-1946. Syoth: 1943-1946. Spst: 
1943-1946. 8y2d: 1943-1946. 

Stations. El Paso Mun Aprt, Tex, 20 
Nov 1943; Clovis AAFld, NM, i Dec 1943; 
Pratt AAFld, Kan, 13 Apr-i8 Jul 1944; 
Isley Field, Saipan, 17 Oct 1944-1 Nov 
1945; Camp Stoneman, Calif, 14 Nov 1945; 
March Field, Calif, 26 Nov 1945; MacDill 
Field, Fla, 5 Jan-31 Mar 1946. 

Commanders. Lt Col John P Veerling, 
10 Dec 1943; Col Karl Truesdell Jr, 6 Mar 
1944; Col Stuart P Wright, 26 Apr 1944; 
Col Arnold T Johnson, 26 Feb 1945-31 Mar 
1946. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Japan; East- 
ern Mandates; Western Pacific. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Japan, 27 Jan 1945; Japan, 26 Jul-2 
Aug 1945. 

Insigne. None. 

498th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 498th Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy) on 19 Nov 1943 and 
activated on 20 Nov. Equipped with 
B-29's. Moved to Saipan, Jul-Nov 1944, 
for duty with Twentieth AF. Flew its 
first combat missions against Iwo Jima and 
the Truk Islands. On 24 Nov 1944 par- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



365 



ticipated in the first assault on Japan by 
B-29's operating from the Marianas. Con- 
ducted numerous attacks against industrial 
targets in Japan, flying in daylight and at 
high altitude to carry out these missions. 
Received a DUG for striking an aircraft 
engine plant at Nagoya on 13 Dec 1944. 
Began flying missions at night in Mar 
1945, operating from low altitude to drop 
incendaries on area targets in Japan; 
received second DUG for incendiary 
raids- on urban industries near Kobe and 
Osaka during Jun 1945. Operations also 
included strikes against Japanese airfields 
during the Allied invasion of Okinawa in 
Apr 1945. Returned to the US in Nov 
1945. Assigned to Strategic Air Gommand 
on 21 Mar 1946. Inactivated on 4 Aug 
1946. 

Squadrons, ^i^h: 1945-1946. Sj^d: 
1943-1946. 8'j4th: 1943-1946. 8j$th: 
1943-1946. SySth: 1943-1944. 

Stations. Clovis AAFld, NM, 20 Nov 
1943; Great Bend AAFld^ Kan, 13 Apr- 
13 Jul 1944; Isley Field, Saipan, 6 Sep 
1944-2 Nov 1945; March Field, Galif, Dec 
1945; MacDill Field, Fla, 5 Jan-4 Aug 
1946. 

Commanders. Lt Col Joseph H West, 
II Dec 1943; Maj Crocker Snow, 20 Jan 
1944; Col Wiley D Ganey, 14 Mar 1944; 
Col Donald W Saunders, 10 Aug 1945- 
unkn ; Col Richard T King Jr, unkn-4 Aug 
1946. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Air 
Offensive, Japan; Eastern Mandates; 
Western Pacific. 



Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Japan, 13 Dec 1944; Japan, 1-7 Jun 
1945. 

Insigne. None. 

499th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 499th Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy) on 19 Nov 1943 and 
activated on 20 Nov. Trained for combat 
with B-29's. Moved to Saipan, Jul-Nov 

1944, and assigned to Twentieth AF. 
Began operations with attacks in the Truk 
Islands and on Iwo Jima, and took part on 
24 Nov 1944 in the first strike against Japan 
by AAF planes stationed in the Marianas. 
Flew numerous missions in daylight, oper- 
ating from high altitude to bomb strategic 
targets in Japan. Received a DUG for 
striking the Mitsubishi aircraft engine 
plant at Nagoya on 23 Jan 1945. In Mar 
1945 began to conduct night attacks, flying 
at low altitude to drop incendiaries on area 
targets in Japan. Completed a series of 
attacks against enemy airfields on Kyushu 
to aid the Allied assault on Okinawa in 
Apr 1945 and received another DUG for 
this action. Also dropped propaganda 
leaflets on Japan, and after the war 
dropped food and supplies to Allied pris- 
oners of war. Returned to the US in Nov 

1945. Inactivated on 16 Feb 1946. 
Squadrons. Sjyth: 1943-1946. SjSth: 

1943-1946. 8ygth: 1943-1946. 880th: 
1943-1944. 

Stations. Davis-Monthan Field, Ariz, 
20 Nov 1943; Smoky Hill AAFld, Kan, i 



366 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Dec 1943-22 Jul 1944; Isley Field, Saipan, 
18 Sep 1944-9 Nov 1945; March Field, 
Calif, c. 25 Nov 1945-16 Feb 1946. 

Commanders. Unkn, Nov 1943-Jan 
1944; Maj Douglas C Northrup, 22 Jan 
1944; Col Thomas C Musgrave, i Feb 
1944; Col Samuel R Harris, 4 Apr 1944; 
Col Morris J Lee, 17 Mar 1945; Lt Col Wal- 
ter E Chambers, 13 Aug 1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Japan; East- 
ern Mandates; Western Pacific. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Nagoya, Japan, 23 Jan 1945; Japan, 
22-28 Apr 1945. 

Jnsigne. None. 

500th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 500th Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy) on 19 Nov 1943 and 
activated on 20 Nov. Equipped first with 
B-17's; later trained for combat with B- 
29's. Moved to Saipan, Jul-Nov 1944, for 
service with Twentieth AF. Entered com- 
bat on 1 1 Nov 1944 with an attack against 
a submarine base in the Truk Islands. On 
24 Nov participated in the first attack on 
Japan by B-29's based in the Marianas. 
After that, conducted many daylight raids, 
operating from high altitude to bomb 
strategic targets in Japan. Struck the Mit- 
subishi aircraft engine plant at Nagoya 
in Jan 1945 and received a DUC for the 
mission. Bombed enemy airfields and 
other installations on Kyushu in support 
of the Allied assault on Okinawa in Apr 
1945. Beginning in Mar 1945, flew mis- 



sions at night and at low altitude to drop 
incendiaries on area targets in Japan. Re- 
ceived second DUC for incendiary attacks 
on the urban-industrial section of Osaka, 
feeder industries at Hamamatsu, and 
shipping and rail targets on Kyushu, in 
Jun 1945. Released propaganda leaflets 
over the Japanese home islands, Jul-Aug 
1945. Dropped food and supplies to Al- 
lied prisoners in Japan, Korea, China, and 
Formosa after the war. Returned to the 
US in Oct 1945. Inactivated on 17 Jan 
1946. 

Squadrons. 88ist: 1943-1946. SSid: 
1943-1946. SS^d: 1943-1946. 884th: 1943- 
1944. 

Stations. Gowen Field, Idaho, 20 Nov 
1943; Clovis AAFld, NM, 12 Jan 1944; 
Walker AAFld, Kan, 16 Apr-23 Jul 1944; 
Isley Field, Saipan, 18 Sep 1944-21 Oct 
1945; March Field, Calif, 24 Oct 1945-17 
Jan 1946. 

Commanders. Unkn, Nov 1943-Jan 
1944; Maj Ralph A Reeve, 28 Jan 1944; 
Maj John E Gay, 7 Feb 1944; Lt Col John 
E Dougherty, 8 Mar 1944; Col Richard T 
King Jr, 5 May 1944; Col John E Dough- 
erty, 5 Dec 1944; Lt Col William L Mc- 
Dowell Jr, 4 Dec 1945; Maj James H 
Coats, 19 Dec 1945-17 Jan 1946. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Japan; 
Eastern Mandates; Western Pacific. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Nagoya, Japan, 23 Jan 1945; Japan, 
15-20 Jun 1945. 

Insigne. None. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 367 

501st BOMBARDMENT GROUP 502d BOMBARDMENT GROUP 



Constituted as 501st Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy) on 25 May 1944. 
Activated on i Jun 1944. Moved to Guam, 
Mar-Apr 1945, and assigned to Twentieth 
AF. Entered combat on 19 Jun 1945 when 
its B-29's bombed Japanese fortifications 
in the Truk Islands. Flew its first mission 
against Japan on 27 Jun 1945, and after- 
ward operated principally against the 
enemy's petroleum industry on Honshu. 
Received a DUG for attacks on the 
Maruzen oil refinery at Shimotsu, the 
Utsubo oil refinery at Yokkaichi, and the 
petroleum center at Kawasaki, in Jul 1945. 
After the war, dropped food and supplies 
to Allied prisoners in Japan, China, Korea, 
and Manchuria. Inactivated on Guam on 
10 Jun 1946. 

Squadrons. 21st: 1944-1946. 41st: 
1944-1946. 48 ^th: 1944-1946. 

Stations. Dalhart AAFld, Tex, i Jun 
1944; Harvard AAFld, Neb, 22 Aug 1944- 
7 Mar 1945; Northwest Field, Guam, 14 
Apr 1945-10 Jun 1946. 

Commanders. Capt Harry L Young, c. 
27 Jun 1944; Lt Col Arch G Campbell Jr, 6 
Jul 1944; Col Boyd Hubbard Jr, 11 Aug 
1944; Col Vincent M Miles Jr, 15 Apr-20 
May 1946. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Japan; 
Eastern Mandates; Western Pacific. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Japan, 6-13 Jul 1945. 

Insigne. None. 



Constituted as 502d Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy) on 25 May 1944. 
Activated on i Jun 1944. Trained for com- 
bat with B-29's. Moved to Guam, Apr- 
Jun 1945, and assigned to Twentieth AF. 
Entered combat on 30 Jun 1945 when the 
group bombed enemy installations on Rota. 
Bombed Japanese-held Truk early in Jul 
1945. Flew its first mission against the 
Japanese home islands on 15 Jul 1945, and 
afterward operated principally against the 
enemy's petroleum industry. Awarded a 
DUG for attacks on the coal liquefaction 
plant at Ube, the tank farm at Amagasaki, 
and the Nippon oil refinery at Tsuchizaki, 
in Aug 1945. After the war, dropped food 
and supplies to Allied prisoners in Japan 
and participated in several show-of-force 
missions over Japan. Inactivated on 
Guam on 15 Apr 1946. 

Squadrons. 402d: 1944-1946. 411th'. 
1944-1946. 420th: 1944-1946. 

Stations. Davis-Monthan Field, Ariz, 
I Jun 1944; Dalhart AAFld, Tex, 5 Jun 
1944; Grand Island AAFld, Neb, 26 Sep 
1944-7 Apr 1945; Northwest Field, Guam, 
12 May 1945-15 Apr 1946. 

Commanders. Lt Col Estley R Farley, 
9 Jul 1944; Lt Col Robert C McBride, i 
Aug 1944; Col Kenneth O Sanborn, 6 Oct 
1944-15 Apr 1946. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Japan; East- 
ern Mandates; Western Pacific. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Japan, 5-15 Aug 1945. 

Insigne. None. 



368 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



504th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 504th Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy) on 28 Feb 1944. 
Activated on 11 Mar 1944. Equipped first 
with B-17's; later trained for combat with 
B-29's. Moved to the Asiatic-Pacific Thea- 
ter late in 1944 for service with Twentieth 
AF. Began combat operations from 
Tinian in Jan 1945 with attacks on Japa- 
nese airfields and other installations on 
Maug and Two Jima and in the Truk 
Islands. Flew its first mission against the 
Japanese home islands early in Feb 1945 
when the group bombed the industrial 
area of Kobe. Continued to attack stra- 
tegic targets in Japan, operating in day- 
light and at high altitude to bomb such 
objectives as aircraft factories, chemical 
plants, harbors, and arsenals. Received a 
DUG for striking the industrial center at 
Yokohama late in May 1945. Began in- 
cendiary raids in Mar 1945, flying at night 
and at low altitude to strike area targets 
in Japan. Started mining operations 
against enemy shipping late in Mar, re- 
ceiving a DUG for mining Korean ship- 
ping lanes, the Shimonoseki Strait, and 
harbors of the Inland Sea, Jul-Aug 1945. 
In Apr and May 1945 the group hit air- 
fields from which the Japanese launched 
kamikaze planes against the invasion force 
during the assault on Okinawa. After the 
war it dropped food and supplies to Allied 
prisoners, participated in show-of-force 
missions, and flew over Japan to evaluate 
damage inflicted by bombardment opera- 
tions. Moved to the Philippines in Mar 



1946. Inactivated on Luzon on 15 Jun 
1946. 

Squadrons. 393d: 1944. 3g8th: 1944- 
1946. 421st: 1944-1946. pjth: 1944. 
680th: 1944-1946. 

Stations. Dalhart AAFld, Tex, 11 Mar 
1944; Fairmont AAFld, Neb, 12 Mar- 
5 Nov 1944; North Field, Tinian, 23 Dec 
1944; Clark Field, Luzon, 6 Mar-15 Jun 
1946. 

Commanders. Capt Basil D Murray, 
Mar 1944; Col James T Connally, 6 Apr 
1944; Col Glen W Martin, 6 Feb 1945; 
Col Charles B Root, 18 Sep 1945; Col John 
P Kenny, 2 Apr-15 Jun 1946. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Japan; 
Eastern Mandates; Western Pacific. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Yokohama, Japan, 28 May 1945; 
Japan and Korea, 27 Jul-14 Aug 1945. 

Insigne. None. 

505th BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

Constituted as 505th Bombardment 
Group (Very Heavy) on 28 Feb 1944. 
Activated on 11 Mar 1944. Equipped first 
with B-17's; later trained for overseas duty 
with B-29's. Moved to Tinian late in 1944. 
Assigned to Twentieth AF. Entered com- 
bat in Feb 1945 with strikes on Iwo Jima 
and the Truk Islands. Then began day- 
light missions against Japan, operating at 
high altitude to bomb strategic objectives. 
Received a DUG for a strike against the 
Nakajima aircraft factory at Ota in Feb 
1945. Conducted incendiary raids on 
area targets in Japan, carrying out these 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— GROUPS 



369 



missions at night and at low altitude. 
Bombed in support of the Allied assault on 
Okinawa in Apr 1945. Engaged in min- 
ing operations against Japanese shipping, 
receiving second DUG for mining the 
Shimonoseki Strait and harbors of the In- 
land Sea, Jun-Jul 1945. After V-J Day, 
dropped supplies to Allied prisoners, par- 
ticipated in show-of-force missions, and 
flew over Japan to evaluate bombardment 
damage. Moved to the Philippine Islands 
in Mar 1946. Inactivated on Luzon on 30 
Jun 1946. 

Squadrons. 482d: 1944-1946. /jS^d: 
1944-1946. ^4th: 1944-1946. ^^th: 
1944. 

Stations. Dalhart AAFld, Tex, 11 Mar 
1944; Harvard AAFld, Neb, i Apr-6 Nov 
1944; North Field, Tinian, 19 Dec 1944-5 
Mar 1946; Clark Field, Luzon, 14 Mar-30 
Jun 1946. 

Commanders. Maj George D Roberts, 
15 Apr 1944; Col Robert A Ping, 3 May 
1944; Lt Col Charles M Eisenhart, i Jul 
1945; Col John P Kenny, c. Sep 1945-1946. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Japan ; East- 
ern Mandates; Western Pacific. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tions: Ota, Japan, 10 Feb 1945; Japan, 17 
Jun-i Jul 1945. 

Insigne. None. 

506th FIGHTER GROUP 

Constituted as 506th Fighter Group on 
•5 Oct 1944 and activated on 21 Oct. 
Equipped with P-51 aircraft. Moved to 
the Asiatic-Pacific Theater, Feb-Apr 1945, 




the air echelon flying patrols from Tinian 
before joining the rest of the group on 
Iwo Jima. The group, assigned to Twen- 
tieth AF, flew its first mission from Iwo on 
18 May when it bombed and strafed an 
airfield in the Bonin Islands. Afterward, 
attacked airfields, antiaircraft emplace- 
ments, shipping, barracks, radio and radar 
stations, railway cars, and other targets in 
the Bonin Islands or Japan. Also pro- 
vided air defense for Iwo and escorted 
B-29's during bombardment missions 
from the Marianas to Japan. Received a 
DUC for defending B-29's against attacks 
by fighter aircraft during the period 7-10 
Jun 1945. Returned to the US in Dec 
1945. Inactivated on 16 Dec 1945. 

Squadrons, /f^yth: 1944-1945. 4^8th: 
1944-1945. 462d: 1944-1945. 

Stations. Lakeland AAFld, Fla, 21 
Oct 1944-16 Feb 1945; North Field, Iwo 
Jima, 24 Apr-3 Dec 1945; Camp Anza, 
Calif, 15-16 Dec 1945. 



370 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Commanders. Col Bryan B Harper, 25 
Oct 1944-1945. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Japan. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Japan, 7-10 Jun 1945. 

Insigne. Shield: On a barry wavy of 
four argent and azure, second bar semee of 
stars of the first, over-all an escutcheon, per 
pale argent and or, a crest of a stylized 
wing of the first, fimbriated of the second, 
the escutcheon surmounting a sword 
bendwise, hilt and pommel or, blade of 
the last, shaded gules; on a chief of the 
second, a sphere argent, land areas vert, 
over two lightning flashes in saltire gules, 
fimbriated of the first. (Approved 21 Jul 

I955-) 

507th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 507th Fighter Group on 
5 Oct 1944 and activated on 12 Oct. Moved 
to the Asiatic-Pacific Theater, Apr-Jun 
1945. Assigned to Twentieth AF; reas- 



signed to Eighth AF in Aug 1945. En- 
tered combat on i Jul 1945, operating from 
le Shima with P-47's. Flew missions to 
Japan, Korea, and China to attack such 
targets as shipping, railroad bridges, air- 
fields, factories, and barracks. Met little 
fighter opposition until 8 Aug 1945 when 
the group, flying its only B-29 escort mis- 
sion of the war, encountered many enemy 
planes over Yawata, Japan. Received a 
DUC for its performance on 13 Aug 1945: 
while flying a long-range sweep to Korea, 
the group engaged a host of interceptors 
and destroyed a number of them. Moved 
to Okinawa in Jan 1946. Inactivated on 
27 May 1946. 

Redesignated 507th Fighter Group (Air 
Defense). Activated on 18 Aug 1955. As- 
signed to Air Defense Command and 
equipped with F-89's. 

Squadrons. 4^8th: 1955-. 46^d: 1944- 
1946. 464th: 1944-1946. 46$th: 1944- 
1946. 

Stations. Peterson Field, Colo, 12 Oct 
1944; Bruning AAFld, Neb, 20 Oct 1944; 
Dalhart AAFld, Tex, 15 Dec 1944-24 Apr 
1945; le Shima, 24 Jun 1945; Yontan, Oki- 
nawa, 29 Jan-27 May 1946. Kinross AFB, 
Mich, 18 Aug 1955-. 

Commanders. Col Loring F Stetson Jr, 
27 Oct 1944; Lt Col Woodrow W Korges, 
12 Sep 1945; Maj Byron H Foreman, 2 
Nov 1945; Capt Franklin L Fisher, 20 Nov 
1945-unkn. Col John L Locke, 1955- 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Japan; West- 
ern Pacific; Ryukyus; China Offensive. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Korea, 13 Aug 1945. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT VNITS— GROUPS 



371 



Insigne. Shield: Azure, edged argent, 
over a point pointed in point bendwise and 
arched gules, fimbriated of the second, a 
falcon flying downward per bend argent; 
between two planets and a star in sinister 
chief, and the Great Dipper in dexter base 
all proper. MoUo: DEFENDIMUS US- 
QUE AD ASTRA— We Defend Even to 
the Stars. (Approved 17 Aug 1956.) 

508th FIGHTER GROUP 




Constituted as 508th Fighter Group on 
5 Oct 1944 and activated on 12 Oct. 
Trained with P-47 aircraft to provide very- 
long-range escort for bombardment units. 
Moved to Hawaii in Jan 1945 and served 
as part of the defense force for the islands. 
Also trained replacement pilots for other 
organizations, repaired P-47's and P-51's 
received from combat units, and ferried 
aircraft to forward areas. Inactivated in 
Hawaii on 25 Nov 1945. 

Squadrons. 466th: 1944-1945. 46'jth: 
1944-1945. 468th: 1944-1945. 



Stations. Peterson Field, Colo, 12 Oct 
1944; Pocatello AAFld, Idaho, 25 Oct 
1944; Bruning AAFld, Neb, 15 Nov-i8 
Dec 1944; Kahuku, TH, 6 Jan 1945; 
Mokuleia, TH, 25 Feb 1945; Bellows Field, 
TH, 16 Sep-25 Nov 1945. 

Commanders. Col Henry G Thorne Jr, 
9 Nov 1944; Col Frank H Mears, 27 Nov 
1944; Col Oswald W Lunde, 4 May-25 
Nov 1945. 

Campaigns. Asiatic-Pacific Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Per bend engrailed 
azure and gules, in bend a chain or and 
in chief an atomic cloud argent issuing 
from a base gray, over-all three figures 
representing the "Spirit of '76" sable fim- 
briated of the fourth. Motto: KNOWL- 
EDGE AND COURAGE. (Approved 
14 Sep 1953.) 

509th COMPOSITE GROUP 

Constituted as 509th Composite Group 
on 9 Dec 1944 and activated on 17 Dec. 
Became the first AAF group to be or- 
ganized, equipped, and trained for atomic 
warfare. Moved to Tinian, Apr-Jun 1945. 
Assigned to Twentieth AF. Flew practice 
missions in Jun and Jul. On 6 Aug 1945 
one of the group's B-29's, the "Enola 
Gay," piloted by the group commander. 
Col Paul W Tibbets Jr, dropped an atomic 
bomb on Hiroshima, Japan. Three days 
later a B-29, "Bock's Car," piloted by Maj 
Charles W Sweeney, dropped an atoffiic 
bomb on Nagasaki. These two bombs, 
the first atomic weapons ever employed. 



372 



AIK FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 




7TMP^0^ 



. ^PJBjSffioia. V 



quickly brought the war to an end. The 
group returned to the US, Oct-Nov 1945. 
Assigned to Strategic Air Command on 21 
Mar 1946, providing the nucleus for the 
command's atomic striking force. Re- 
designated 509th Bombardment Group 
(Very Heavy) in Jul 1946. Participated 
in atomic tests (Operation CROSS- 
ROADS) in the Marshall Islands in 1946. 
Redesignated 509th Bombardment Group 



(Medium) in Jul 1948. Converted from 
B-29 to B-50 aircraft, 194^1950. Inacti- 
vated on 16 Jun 1952. 

Squadrons. 520/A Troop Carrier: 1944- 
1946. 593^ Bombardment: 1944-1952. 
7/5M: 1946-1952. 830th: 1946-1952. 

Stations. Wendover Field, Utah, 17 
Dec 1944-26 Apr 1945; North Field, 
Tinian, 29 May-17 Oct 1945; Roswell 
AAFld, NM, 6 Nov 1945-16 Jun 1952. 

Commanders. Col Paul W Tibbets Jr, 
17 Dec 1944; Col William H Blanchard, 
22 Jan 1946; Col John D Ryan, 15 Sep 
1948; Col William H Blanchard, 21 Jul 
1951-16 Jun 1952. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Japan; East- 
ern Mandates; Western Pacific. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Or, in base a label of 
three points gules, surmounted by an 
atomic cloud proper, between a pair of 
wings conjoined in base azure. Crest: On 
a wreath of the colors, or and azure, an 
atomic cloud or, with broken pattern 
gules, between two lightning bolts gules. 
Motto: DEFENSOR VINDEX— De- 
fender Avenger. (Approved 10 Jul 1952.) 



WINGS 



1st BOMBARDMENT WING 

Organized as ist Pursuit Wing in France 
on 6 Jul :9i8. Served in combat, Jul-Nov 
1918. Operated first in the defensive sec- 
tor near Toul. During the St Mihiel of- 
fensive in Sep, flew reconnaissance sorties, 
protected observation aircraft, attacked 
enemy observation balloons, strafed enemy 
troops, flew counter-air patrols, and 
bombed towns, bridges, and railroad sta- 
tions behind the enemy's lines. During 
the Meuse-Argonne offensive (26 Sep-ii 
Nov 1918) bombardment aircraft con- 
tinued their attacks behind the lines while 
pursuit ships concentrated mainly on 
large-scale counter-air patrols. Demobi- 
lized in France in Dec 1918. 

Reconstituted and consolidated (1936) 
with ist Wing, which was organized in 
the US on 16 Aug 1919 and was engaged 
in border patrol activities until it became 
an advanced flying training wing in 1922. 
Inactivated on 26 Jun 1924. 

Redesignated ist Bombardment Wing 
in 1929. Activated on i Apr 1931. Re- 
designated ist Pursuit Wing in 1933, ist 
Wing in 1935, and ist Bombardment Wing 
in 1940. Became one of the original wings 
of GHQAF in 1935 and conducted much 
of the Army's pursuit, bombardment, at- 



tack, and observation activities in the 
western part of the US until 1941. Moved 
to England, Jul-Aug 1942, and became a 
heavy bombardment wing of Eighth AF. 
Redesignated ist Combat Bombardment 
Wing (Heavy) in Aug 1943, and ist Bom- 
bardment Wing (Heavy) in Jun 1945. 
Served in combat in the European theater 
from Aug 1942 until 25 Apr 1945, receiv- 
ing a DUG for an attack on aircraft 
factories in Germany on 11 Jan 1944. Re- 
turned to the US in Aug 1945. Inactivated 
on 7 Nov 1945. 

Groups, ist Pursuit: 1919-1922; 1933- 
1935. 2d (formerly ist) Bombardment: 
1918; 1919-1922. 2d Pursuit: 1918. ^d 
Pursuit: 1918. ^d Attack (formerly ist 
Surveillance): 1919-1924. ph Bombard- 
ment: 1931-1933, 1935-1941. 8th Pursuit: 
1933-1935. lyth Bombardment: 1931- 

1941. igth Bombardment: 1935-1941. 
20th Pursuit: 1939-1941. ^$th Pursuit: 
1940-1941. 41st Bombardment: 1941. 
gist Bombardment: 1942-1945. 921^ Bom- 
bardment: 1942, 1943. 95^ Bombardment: 

1942. gyth Bombardment: 1942. ^oist 
Bombardment: 1942. 503^ Bombard- 
ment: 1942-1943. s^S^h Bombardment: 
1942-1943. ^o6th Bombardment: 1942- 

1943. ^$ist Bombardment: 1943. 37gth 

373 



374 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Bombardment: 1943. s^ist Bombard- 
ment: 1943-1945. jS^th Bombardment: 
1943. 59SM Bombardment: 1944-1945. 
^2d Bombardment: 1943. 

Stations. Toul, France, 6 Jul 1918; 
Chaumont-Sur-Aire, France, c. 24 Sep 
1918-unkn. Kelly Field, Tex, 16 Aug 
1919-26 Jun 1924. March Field, Calif, i 
Apr 1931; Tucson, Ariz, 27 May 1941-Jul 
1942; Brampton Grange, England, c. 19 
Aug 1942; Bassingbourn, England, Sep 
1943; Alconbury, England, c. 26 Jun-c. 26 
Aug 1945; McChord Field, Wash, c. 6 
Sep-7 Nov 1945. 

Commanders. Lt Col Thomas DeW 
Milling, c. 6 Jul 1918; Lt Col Bert M At- 
kinson, c. 20 Aug 1918-unkn. Lt Col 
Henry B Clagett, 1919-unkn; Col Henry 
C Pratt, c. I Jun-<. i Sep 1920. Maj Carl 
Spaatz, c. I Nov 1931-c. Jun 1933; Brig 
Gen Henry H Arnold, Nov 1933-Jan 1936; 
Brig Gen Henry B Clagett, c. i Mar 1936; 
Brig Gen Delos C Emmons, 17 Jul 1936; 
Brig Gen Jacob E Fickel, c. 31 Mar 1939; 
Brig Gen Frank D Lackland, i Feb 1940- 
unkn; Maj Woodrow W Dunlop, Jul 
1942-unkn; Col Claude E Duncan, c. 19 
Aug 1942; Brig Gen Newton Longfellow, 
21 Aug 1942; Brig Gen Laurence S Kuter, 
I Dec 1942; Brig Gen Haywood S Hansell 
Jr, 2 Jan 1943; Brig Gen Frank A Arm- 
strong Jr, 15 Jun 1943; Brig Gen Robert 
B Williams, i Aug 1943; Brig Gen William 
M Gross, 17 Sep 1943-c. Oct 1945. 

Campaigns. World War I: Lorraine; 
St Mihiel; Meuse-Argonne. World War 
II: Air Offensive, Europe; Normandy; 



Northern France; Rhineland; Ardennes- 
Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Germany, 11 Jan 1944. 

Insigne. None. 

2d BOMBARDMENT WING 




Organized as 2d Wing on 4 Sep 1919. 
Served as an observation organization. 
Inactivated on 30 Sep 1921. 

Activated on 8 Aug 1922. Redesignated 
2d Bombardment Wing in 1929, 2d Wing 
in 1935, and 2d Bombardment Wing in 
1940. Engaged primarily in bombardment 
activities for more than a decade. Became 
one of the original wings of GHQAF in 
1935 and conducted much of the Army's 
pursuit, bombardment, and observation 
operations in the eastern part of the US. 
Inactivated on 5 Sep 1941. 

Activated on 7 June 1942. Moved to 
England, Aug-Sep 1942, and became a 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— WINGS 



375 



heavy bombardment wing of Eighth AF. 
In the fall of 1942, helped to train bom- 
bardment groups assigned to Twelfth AF. 
Served in combat in the European theater 
from Nov 1942 to June 1943. Ceased 
combat temporarily during Jul-Aug 1943 
when its groups were on detached duty 
in the Mediterranean theater. Redesig- 
nated 2d Combat Bombardment Wing 
(Heavy) in Aug. Served on detached 
duty in the Mediterranean theater during 
Sep-Oct 1943. Resumed combat in the 
European theater in Oct 1943 and con- 
tinued operations until Apr 1945. Re- 
designated id Bombardment Wing 
(Heavy) in Jun 1945. Returned to the 
US in Aug. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945. 

Groups, ist Pursuit: 1935-1941. 2d 
Bombardment: 1922-1941. 'jth Bombard- 
ment (formerly ist Army Observation) : 
1919-1921 ; 1933-1935. 8th Pursuit : 1932- 
1933, 1935-1941. gth Bombardment: 1935- 
1940. 22^ Bombardment: 1940-1941. 
^ist Pursuit: 1940-1941. 4/ith Bombard- 
ment: 1942-1943, 1943. g^d Bombard- 
ment: 1942-1943. ^8gth Bombardment: 
1943-1945. 592(5? Bombardment: 1943. 
44$th Bombardment: 1943-1945. ^55^ 
Bombardment: 1944-1945. 

Stations. Langley Field, Va, 4 Sep 
1919-30 Sep 1921. Langley Field, Va, 8 
Aug 1922-5 Sep 1941. Detrick Field, Md, 
7 Jun-15 Aug 1942; Old Catton, England, 
c. 7 Sep 1942; Hethel, England, 14 Sep 
1943; Alconbury, England, c. 12 Jun-c. 
25 Aug 1945; McChord Field, Wash, 6 
Sep-7 Nov 1945. 



Commanders. Col Townsend F Dodd, 
4 Sep-c. 5 Oct 1919; unkn, 1919-1921. 
Unkn, 1922-1924; Maj Oscar Westover, c. 
Sep 1924-C. Sep 1926; Lt Col Clarence C 
Culver, c. Sep 1926-unkn; Col Roy T 
Kirtland, Jul 1930-Jul 1932; Maj Byron 
Q Jones, 1934-unkn; Brig Gen Henry C 
Pratt, I Mar 1935; Brig Gen Gerald C 
Brant, 15 Mar 1937; Brig Gen Arnold N 
Krogstad, 31 Mar 1938-5 Sep 1941. Maj 
Justus K Hetsch, c. 13 Jul 1942; Col Harold 
D Smith, c. 10 Aug 1942; Brig Gen James 
P Hodges, 7 Sep 1942; Col Edward J Tim- 
berlake Jr, c. 15 Sep 1943; Brig Gen James 
P Hodges, 16 Sep 1943; Brig Gen Edward 
J Timberlake Jr, 4 Oct 1943; Col Milton 
J Arnold, 7 Aug 1944; Col James M Stew- 
art, 10 May 1945; Col Eugene A Romig, 
15 Jun 1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Naples-Foggia; Normandy; Northern 
France; Rhineland; Ardennes- Alsace ; 
Central Europe. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: On a hurt a griffin 
segreant within a diminished border 
argent. (Approved 5 Jan 1933.) 

4th BOMBARDMENT WING 

Constituted as 4th Bombardment Wing 
on 19 Oct 1940. Activated on 18 Dec 1940. 
Inactivated on i Oct 1941. 

Activated on 7 Jun 1942. Moved to Eng- 
land, Aug-Sep 1942. Assigned to Eighth 
AF. Redesignated 4th Combat Bombard- 
ment Wing (Heavy) in Aug 1943. Had 



376 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 




no groups assigned until the spring of 1943 
and was not manned from 29 Sep 1942 to 
19 Jan 1943. Began combat in May 1943 
and received a DUG for a mission on 17 
Aug 1943 when the wing attacked an air- 
craft factory at Regensburg. Brig Gen 
Frederick W Castle, wing commander, 
was posthumously awarded the Medal of 
Honor for action on 24 Dec 1944 when he 
kept a burning B-17 from crashing until 
other members of the crew had parachuted 
to safety. The wing remained in combat 
until Apr 1945. Disbanded in England on 
18 Jun 1945. 

Reconstituted, redesignated 4th Bom- 
bardment Wing (Light), and allotted to 
the reserve. Activated in the US on 20 
Dec 1946. Redesignated 4th Air Division 
(Bombardment) in Apr 1948. Inactivated 
on 27 Jun 1949. 

Redesignated 4th Air Division. Or- 
ganized on 10 Feb 1951. Assigned to 
Strategic Air Gommand. 



Components. Groups. 34ih: 1941. 
43d: 1941. g4ik: 1943-1945. gstA: 1943. 
g6th: 1943. looth: 1943. ^igtk: 1946- 
1949. 320th: 1947-1949. 38stA: 1943- 
1945. 388th: 1943. 3goth: 1943. 44ph: 
1943-1945. 486th: 1945. 48ph: 1945. 
Wings, p/x? Reconnaissance: 195 1. 301st 
Bombardment: 195 1- 376th Bombard- 
ment: 195 1-. 

Stations. Mitchel Field, NY, 18 Dec 
1940; Westover Field, Mass, 20 Mar-i Oct 
1941. Westover Field, Mass, 7 Jun 1942; 
Boiling Field, DC, c. 28 Jul-c. 28 Aug 
1942; Camp Lynn, England, 12 Sep 1942; 
Marks Hall, England, 18 Jan 1943; Camp 
Blainey, England, Jun 1943; Bury St Ed- 
munds, England, 13 Sep 1943-18 Jun 1945. 
Mitchel Field, NY, 20 Dec 1946-27 Jun 
1949. Barksdale AFB, La, 10 Feb 1951-. 

CoMMANDERs. Brig Gcn John B Brooks, 
c. 18 Dec 1940-C. 31 Jul 1941. Brig Gen 
James H Doolittle, c. Jun 1942; Col 
Charles T Phillips, c. i Aug 1942-unkn; 
Lt Col Thomas L Dawson, c. 19 Jan 1943; 
Lt Col Charles C Bye Jr, c. 27 Jan 1943; 
Brig Gen Frederick L Anderson, 19 Apr 
1943; Col Curtis E LeMay, 18 Jun 1943; 
Brig Gen Russell A Wilson, 14 Sep 1943; 
Brig Gen Frederick W Castle, c. 6 Mar 
1944; Col Charles B Dougher, 25 Dec 
1944; Col Robert W Burns, 29 Jan 1945- 
unkn. Col Thomas W Steed, 10 Feb 
195 1 ; Brig Gen Henry K Mooney, 22 May 
1951 ; Brig Gen Fay R Upthegrove, 22 Oct 
1952; Maj Gen Frederic E Glantzberg, 6 
Jan 1953 ; Brig Gen Maurice A Preston, 14 
Jan 1954-. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— IF/NGS 



377 



Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy ; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes- Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Germany, 17 Aug 1943. 

Insigne, Shield: Per bend, or and azure 
a terrestrial globe sable, markings argent, 
winged proper, enfiled and interfretted 
with a chain of twelve hnks of the third; 
a hand bendwise, proper issuing from the 
sinister base grasping the chain. (Ap- 
proved 18 Jun 1954.) 

5th BOMBARDMENT WING 



• •*•• 




Constituted as 5th Bombardment Wing 
on 19 Oct 1940. Activated on 18 Dec 1940. 
Assigned to Second AF. Inactivated on 5 
Sep 194 1. 

Activated on 10 Jul 1942. Moved to 
North Africa, Oct-Dec 1942, and began 
operations with Twelfth AF. Assigned 



to Fifteenth AF in Nov 1943. Redesig- 
nated 5th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) 
in Jan 1945. Served in combat until May 
1945. Inactivated in Italy on 2 Nov 1945. 

Redesignated 5th Air Division. Acti- 
vated in the US on 14 Jan 1951. Assigned 
to Strategic Air Command. Transferred, 
without personnel and equipment, to 
French Morocco in May 1951. Had no 
combat elements assigned but operated 
with bombardment wings temporarily de- 
ployed from the US and attached for 
short periods of duty. 

Groups, ist Fighter: 1943, 1943-1944. 
2d Bombardment: 1943-1945. nth Bom- 
bardment: 1941. i4ih Fighter: 1943-1944. 
lyth Bombardment: 194 1. 59M Bombard- 
ment: 1941. 4'jth Bombardment: 1942- 
1943. 68th Reconnaissance: 1942-1943. 
82d Fighter: 1944. gjth Bombardment: 
1943-1945. gSth Bombardment: 1943. 
ggth Bombardment: 1943-1945. 50/rf 
Bombardment: 1943-1945. J25/A Fighter: 
1943-1944. S7^th Bombardment: 1943. 
46^d Bombardment: 1944-1945. 48 ^d 
Bombardment: 1944-1945. 

Stations. McChord Field, Wash, 18 
Dec 1940; Ft George Wright, Wash, 9 
Jan-5 Sep 1941. Boiling Field, DC, 10 
Jul 1942; Westover Field, Mass, c. 31 Jul- 
Oct 1942; Casablanca, French Morocco, 
Nov 1942; Oujda, French Morocco, Dec 
1942; Biskra, Algeria, c. Jan 1943; Cha- 
teaudun, Algeria, c. Mar 1943; Depienne, 
Tunisia, Aug 1943; Foggia, Italy, Dec 
1943-2 Nov 1945. Oflutt AFB, Neb, 14 
Jan 1951; Rabat/Sale Airfield, French 



378 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Morocco, 25 May 1951; Sidi Slimane, 
French Morocco, 29 May 1954-. 

CoMMANDERS . Brig Gcn Carlyle H 
Wash, c. Dec 1940-1941. Maj Charles R 
Simpson, 28 Jul 1942; Col John W Mona- 
han, II Sep 1942; Brig Gen Joseph H At- 
kinson, 5 Jan 1943; Brig Gen Charles W 
Lawrence, 24 Jan 1944; Col Wallace E 
Whitson, c. 22 May 1945-unkn. Maj Gen 
Archie J Old Jr, 25 May 1951; Maj Gen 
David W Hutchison, 15 Jan 1953; Brig 
Gen Charles B Dougher, 5 Mar 1954; Brig 
Gen Joseph J Nazzaro, 6 Jul 1955-. 

Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME Thea- 
ter; Air Offensive, Europe; Tunisia; Si- 
cily; Naples-Foggia; Rome-Arno; Nor- 
mandy; Northern France; Southern 
France; North Apennines; Rhineland; 
Central Europe; Po Valley. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Gules, a stylized sil- 
houetted aircraft volant, nose to the chief 
argent; on a chief per fess gules and ar- 
gent, five stars argent in chief, and a rib- 
bon of the firmament, sky blue, in base 
charged with semee of stars of the second. 
(Approved 3 Nov 1954.) 

6th FIGHTER WING 

Constituted as 6th Pursuit Wing on 19 
Oct 1940. Activated on 18 Dec 1940. 
Inactivated on 7 Dec 1941. 

Redesignated 6th Fighter Wing. Acti- 
vated on 7 Jun 1942. No combat groups 
were assigned. Moved to England in Aug 
1942 for duty with Eighth AF. Trained 
replacement pilots for fighter organiza- 




tions. Disbanded in England in 13 Sep 

1943- 

Reconstituted on 5 Aug 1946 and acti- 
vated in the Panama Canal Zone on 25 
Aug. Inactivated in the Canal Zone on 28 
Jul 1948. 

Redesignated 6th Air Division. Or- 
ganized in the US on 10 Feb 195 1. As- 
signed to Strategic Air Command. 

Components. Groups, ist Pursuit: 
1940-1941. 5/ J/ Pursuit: 1940-1941. ^6th 
Fighter: 1946-1948. $2d Pursuit: 1941. 
Wings. soph Bombardment: 1951- 
306 th Bombardment: 195 1-. 307th Bom- 
bardment: 1951-1953. 

Stations. Selfridge Field, Mich, 18 Dec 
1940-7 Dec 1941. Harrisburg Mun Aprt, 
Pa, 7 Jun-c. 4 Aug 1942; Bushey Hall, 
England, c. 16 Aug 1942; Atcham, Eng- 
land, c. 24 Aug 1942-13 Sep 1943. How- 
ard Field, CZ, 25 Aug 1946-28 Jul 1948. 
MacDill AFB, Fla, 10 Feb 1951-. 

Commanders. Brig Gen Henry B 
Clagett, c. 16 Jan 1941-unkn; Col Law- 
rence P Hickey, c. 8 Apr-c. 7 Dec 1941. Lt 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— r/NGS 



379 



Col Paul M Jacobs, 13 Jul-14 Sep 1942; 
Lt Col John W Ranson, c. 17 Sep 1942; 
Lt Col Jack W Hickman, 13 Mar 1943; 
Col Ross G Hoyt, 18 Mar 1943; Col Jack 
W Hickman, c. 4 Jun 1943-unkn. Brig 
Gen Morris R Nelson, Aug 1946; Col 
William R Morgan, 29 Dec 1947; Col 
Murray C Woodbury, 17 Feb 1948-unkn. 
Col Thayer S Olds, 10 Feb 1951; Maj Gen 
Frank A Armstrong Jr, May 1951; Brig 
Gen Henry K Mooney, 16 Nov 1952; 
Brig Gen Kenneth O Sanborn, 31 Jul 
1954-. 

Campaigns. European-African-Middle 
Eastern Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Per chevron argent 
and gules, in chief, a stylized silhouetted 
jet aircraft, issuing from chief, nose toward 
base azure; in base a sphere with land 
areas of the first and water areas of the 
third, grid lines black, over a branch of 
olive or, between two lightning bolts 
argent; super-imposed over-all and flank- 
ing the dexter and sinister, two stylized 
arrows or. Motto: POWER FOR 
PEACE. (Approved 5 Oct 1955.) 

7th FIGHTER WING 

Constituted as 7th Fighter Wing on 31 
Mar 1944. Activated in Hawaii on 21 Apr 
1944. Assigned to Seventh AF to provide 
air defense for the Hawaiian Islands. Re- 
designated 7th Air Division in Dec 1947. 
Inactivated in Hawaii on i May 1948. 




Activated in England on 20 Mar 195 1. 
Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Op- 
erated with components of Strategic Air 
Command temporarily deployed to the 
United Kingdom. 

Groups, i^th Fighter: 1945-1946. 21st 
Fighter: 1944. 50M Bombardment: 1945- 
1946. 81 St Fighter: 1946-1948. $o8th 
Fighter: 1945. 

Stations. Ft Shafter, TH, 21 Apr 1944; 
Wheeler Field, TH, 18 Nov 1946-1 May 
1948. South Ruislip, England, 20 Mar 
1951-. 

Commanders. Col John M Weikert, i 
Jul 1944; Col Orrin L Grover, 24 Nov 1944; 
Brig Gen John W Weikert, 15 Dec 1944; 
Col Richard A Grussendorf, 22 Apr 1946; 
Col Earl H Jacobsen, 10 Jun 1947; Col 
Thomas W Blackburn, 26 Aug 1947-1 May 
1948. Maj Gen Archie J Old Jr, 26 Apr 
195 1 ; Maj Gen John P McConnell, 23 May 
1951 ; Maj Gen James C Selser Jr, 14 Mar 
1953; Brig Gen Thomas C Musgrave Jr, 



380 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



20 Jul 1954; Brig Gen James H Walsh, 10 
Jul 1955-. 

Campaigns. Asiatic-Pacific Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Blue within a narrow 
yellow border, a vertical white sword par- 
tially sheathed, point down, the hilt in the 
shape of wings, the handle diagonally 
striped blue and yellow, the sword inter- 
laced with a red seven terminating in a 
pointed foot between two smaller red 
flashes, all three outlined in white; inter- 
laced with the flashes and behind the sword 
a spray of yellow laurel leaves. (Ap- 
proved 16 Sep 1954.) 

9th FIGHTER WING 

Constituted as 9th Pursuit Wing on 19 
Oct 1940. Activated on 18 Dec 1940. In- 
activated on I Oct 1941. 

Redesignated 9th Fighter Wing. Acti- 
vated on 24 Jul 1942. Moved to the Mid- 
dle East, Dec 1942-Feb 1943. Assigned 
to Ninth AF. Apparently no combat 
groups were assigned to the wing during 
1942-1943. Inactivated on 31 Mar 1943. 

Groups. 14th: 1941. $ist: 1941. 

Stations. March Field, Calif, 18 Dec 
1940-1 Oct 1941. Drew Field, Fla, 24 Jul- 
13 Dec 1942; El Kabrit, Egypt, i Feb-31 
Mar 1943. 

Commanders. Unkn. 

Campaigns. European-African-Middle 
Eastern Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None, 



10th FIGHTER WING 




Constituted as loth Pursuit Wing on 19 
Oct 1940. Activated on 18 Dec 1940. In- 
activated on 7 Dec 1941. 

Redesignated loth Fighter Wing. Acti- 
vated on I Oct 1942. Assigned to Eighth 
AF but attached to Third AF for manning 
and training. No groups were assigned. 
Inactivated on i May 1943. Disbanded on 
I Dec 1943. 

Groups. 20th: 1940-1941. ^^th: 1940- 
1941. 

Stations. Hamilton Field, Calif, 18 
Dec 1940-7 Dec 1941. Drew Field, Fla, 
I Oct 1942-1 May 1943. 

Commanders. Col Michael F Davis, 
Dec 1940-1941. Maj William L Hayes Jr, 
Oct 1942-unkn. 

Campaigns. None. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: On an ultramarine 
blue disc a golden orange winged sunburst 
above two arrows of like color, crossed 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— IF/NGS 

salterwise and with points down, in front 
of a white cloud. (Approved i Oct 1941.) 



11th FIGHTER WING 

Constituted as nth Pursuit Wing on 19 
Oct 1940. Activated on 18 Dec 1940. 
Inactivated on i Oct 1941. 

Redesignated nth Fighter Wing. Ac- 
tivated on I Nov 1942. Assigned to 
Eighth AF but attached to Third AF for 
manning and training. No groups were 
assigned. Inactivated in the US on i May 
1943. Disbanded on i Dec 1943. 

Groups, ^^th: 1941. ^$th: 1941. 

Stations. Hamilton Field, Calif, 18 
Dec 1940; Portland, Ore, Jun-i Oct 1941. 
Drew Field, Fla, i Nov 1942-1 May 1943. 

Commanders. Unkn. 

Campaigns. None. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

12th BOMBARDMENT WING 

Constituted as 12th Pursuit Wing on 19 
Oct 1940. Activated in the Panama Canal 
Zone on 20 Nov 1940. Inactivated on 6 
Mar 1942. 

Redesignated 12th Bombardment Wing. 
Activated in the US on 8 Sep 1942. No 
groups were assigned. Moved to Eng- 
land, Nov-Dec 1942. Assigned to Eighth 
AF. All personnel and equipment were 
withdrawn in Jan 1943. Disbanded in 
England on 9 Oct 1944. 



381 




^^ QIP] ONE # 



Reconstituted, redesignated 12th Bom- 
bardment Wing (Light), and allotted to 
the reserve, on 3 Jul 1947. Activated in 
the US on 3 Aug 1947. Redesignated 12th 
Air Division (Bombardment) in Apr 1948. 
Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949. 

Redesignated 12th Air Division. Or- 
ganized on 10 Feb 1951. Assigned to 
Strategic Air Command. 

Components. Groups. i6th: 1940- 
1942. 52^; 1941-1942. ^yth: 1940-1942. 
^^d: 1941-1942. S2ist: 1947-1949. 522^; 
1947-1949. Wings. 22d Bombardment: 
195 1-. 4^h Bombardment: 195 1. io6th 
Bombardment: 1951-1952. 220th Bom- 
bardment: 1952-. 

Stations. Albrook Field, CZ, 20 Nov 
1940-6 Mar 1942. MacDill Field, Fla, 8 
Sep 1942-28 Nov 1943; Chelveston, Eng- 
land, c. 17 Dec 1942; Marks Hall, England, 
12 Jan 1943-9 O'^t 1944- Cleveland Mun 
Aprt, Ohio, 3 Aug 1947-27 Jun 1949. 
March AFB, Calif, 10 Feb 1951-. 



382 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Commanders. Brig Gen Adlai H Gil- 
keson, 20 Nov 1940-c. 6 Mar 1942. 2d Lt 
Leonard B Flemmons Jr, c. 10 Sep 1942; 
Maj George M Green, c. 24 Sep 1942; Maj 
Henry G Silleck, c. 17 Nov 1942; Maj 
Thomas L Dawson, c. 25 Nov 1942-c. 19 
Jan 1943. Brig Gen Wiley D Ganey, 10 
Feb 1951; Brig Gen Howell M Estes Jr, 

1 Mar 1952; Brig Gen Charles B Westover, 
23 Jul 1953-. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Euro- 
pean-African-Middle Eastern Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure (sky blue), in 
dexter chief a star argent, charged with a 
torteau, two fuzes of bomb or, encased 
with boxing gloves proper, in bend, gloves 
toward base, surrounded with indications 
of speed lines argent. Motto: THE OLD 
ONE TWO. (Approved 16 Apr 1952.) 

13th BOMBARDMENT WING 

Constituted as 13th Composite Wing on 

2 Oct 1940 and activated on 10 Oct. Moved 
to Puerto Rico at the end of the same 
month. Inactivated on 25 Oct 1941. 

Redesignated 13th Bombardment Wing. 
Activated in the US on i Oct 1942. As- 
signed to Eighth AF. Redesignated 13th 
Bombardment Wing (Medium) in Feb 
1943. Moved to England, May-Jun 1943. 
Redesignated 13th Combat Bombardment 
Wing (Heavy) in Aug 1943. Groups were 
assigned in Sep 1943 and the wing served 
in combat in the European theater until 
Apr 1945. Redesignated 13th Bombard- 



ment Wing (Heavy) in Jun 1945. Re- 
turned to the US in Aug 1945. Redesig- 
nated 13th Bombardment Wing (Very 
Heavy) in Aug 1945. Inactivated on 17 
Oct 1945. 

Groups. 2^th Bombardment: 1940- 
194 1. ^6th Pursuit: 194 1. 40th Bombard- 
ment: 1941. g$th Bombardment: 1943- 
1945. looth Bombardment: 1943-1945. 
^goth Bombardment: 1943-1945. 4gQth 
Bombardment: 1945. 4g^d Bombard- 
ment: 1945. 

Stations. Langley Field, Va, 10-26 Oct 
1940; Borinquen Field, PR, i Nov 1940; 
San Juan, PR, c. 6 Jan 1941; Borinquen 
Field, PR, c. i May-25 Oct 1941. MacDill 
Field, Fla, i Oct 1942-c. 10 May 1943; 
Marks Hall, England, c. 2 Jun 1943 ; Camp 
Blainey, England, c. 13 Jun 1943; Horham, 
England, 13 Sep 1943-c. 6 Aug 1945; Sioux 
Falls AAFld, SD, c. 15 Aug 1945; Peterson 
Field, Colo, 17 Aug-17 Oct 1945. 

Commanders. Capt Kenneth O San- 
born, c. 10 Oct 1940; Brig Gen Follett 
Bradley, c. i Nov 1940; Lt Col Robert V Ig- 
nico, c. 4 Aug 1941; Brig Gen Douglas B 
Netherwood, c. 7 Sep-25 Oct 1941. Maj 
Henry G Silleck, 1942-unkn; Col Alfred 
A Kessler Jr, 16 Sep 1943; Col Harold Q 
Huglin, c. 9 Feb-c. i Apr 1944; Col Edgar 
M Wittan, 17 Apr 1944; Col Karl Trues- 
dell Jr, 13 Sep 1944; Col Hunter Harris 
Jr, 25 Sep 1944; Brig Gen Alfred A Kessler 
Jr, 5 Nov 1944; Brig Gen Harold Q Hug- 
lin, 19 Nov 1944 ; Lt Col Clifton D Wright, 
18 Jul 1945-unkn; Lt Col Paul C Hutchins, 
31 Aug 1945-unkn. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— WINGS 



383 



Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes- Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

14th BOMBARDMENT WING 




Constituted as 14th Pursuit Wing on 
19 Oct 1940. Activated in Hawaii on i 
Nov 1940. Suffered heavy losses during 
the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 
7 Dec 194 1 but managed to shoot dovs^n 
several enemy aircraft. Inactivated in 
Hawaii on 23 Jan 1942. 

Redesignated 14th Bombardment Wing. 
Activated in the US on i Oct 1942. Re- 
designated 14th Bombardment Wing 
(Heavy) in Feb 1943. Moved to England, 
May-Jun 1943. Redesignated 14th Com- 
bat Bombardment Wing (Heavy) in Aug 
1943. Received groups in Sep 1943 and 
served in combat in the European theater 



until Apr 1945. Redesignated 14th Bom- 
bardment Wing (Heavy) in Jun 1945. 
Returned to the US in Aug. Inactivated 
on 7 Nov 1945. 

Redesignated 14th Air Division. Or- 
ganized on 10 Feb 1951. Assigned to 
Strategic Air Command. 

Components. Groups, i^th Pursuit: 
1940-1942. i&th Pursuit: 1940-1942. 44th 
Bombardment: 1943, 1943-1945. ^^h 
Bombardment: 1945. J92</ Bombard- 
ment: 1943-1945. 44']th Bombardment: 
1945. ^S6th Bombardment: 1945. 4S']th 
Bombardment: 1945. 4^1 st Bombard- 
ment: 1944-1945. 4g2d Bombardment: 
1944. Wings. $th Bombardment: 1951-. 
^th Bombardment: 1951-1953. 

Stations. Wheeler Field, TH, i Nov 
1940-23 Jan 1942. MacDill Field, Fla, i 
Oct 1942-c. 9 May 1943; Camp Lynn, 
England, c. 4 Jun 1943; Hethel, England, 
c. 9 Jun 1943; Camp Thomas, England, 
c. I Jul 1943; Shipdham, England, 13 Sep 
1943; Bury St Edmunds, England, 13 Jun- 
26 Aug 1945; McChord Field, Wash, 6 
Sep-7 Nov 1945. Travis AFB, Calif, 10 
Feb 1951-. 

CoMMANDERS. Col Harvey S Burwell, 
Nov 1940; Brig Gen Howard C Davidson, 
7 May 194 i-c. 23 Jan 1942. Maj Alan W 
Detweiler, 16 Dec 1942-unkn; Lt Col Rod- 
erick Ott, 1943; Brig Gen Leon W John- 
son, c. 14 Sep 1943; Brig Gen Robert W 
Burns, c, 16 Jun 1945; Lt Col Charles D 
Birdsall, c. 24 Jul 1945-unkn. Brig Gen 
J W Kelly, 10 Feb 1951; Col John M 
Sterling, 16 Sep 1951; Brig Gen Richard H 



384 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Carmichael, 22 Oct 195 1; Brig Gen Stan- 
ley J Donovan, 16 May 1953; Brig Gen 
Alfred F Kalberer, i Aug 1955- 

Campaigns. Central Pacific; Air Of- 
fensive, Europe; Normandy; Northern 
France; Rhineland; Ardennes- Alsace; 
Central Europe. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Quartered, azure and 
white; first quarter an atomic symbol of 
the second ; second quarter, an olive branch 
vert and a sword proper, hilt and pommel 
or, in saltire; superimposed over the third 
and fourth quarter, a silhouetted stylized 
heavy bomber sable in f ess, nose to the dex- 
ter, all within a diminutive border of the 
last. Motto: On a light pink scroll, 
edged and inscribed black, DAY AND 
NIGHT-PEACE OR WAR. (Approved 
10 May 1957.) 

15th BOMBARDMENT 
TRAINING WING 

Constituted as 15th Bombardment Wing 
on 19 Oct 1940. Activated on 18 Dec 1940. 
Apparently never had sufficient personnel 
to carry out effectively its mission of light 
bombardment operations and training. 
Inactivated on 3 Sep 1941. 

Activated on 23 Jun 1942. Assigned to 
Second AF. Redesignated 15th Bombard- 
ment Training Wing in Jan 1943, and 15th 
Bombardment Operational Training 
Wing in Apr 1943. Trained groups and 
heavy bombardment replacement crews 
until Feb 1945 when it ceased all activity. 




Inactivated on 9 Apr 1946. Disbanded on 

8 Oct 1948. 

Groups, ^jth: 1941. jfSth: 1941. (Var- 
ious groups assigned for training, 1942- 

I945-) 

Stations. March Field, Calif, 18 Dec 
1940; Fresno, Calif, c. 2 Aug-3 Sep 1941. 
Gowen Field, Idaho, 23 Jun 1942; Sioux 
City AAB, Iowa, Nov 1942; Gowen Field, 
Idaho, Jul 1943; Pueblo AAB, Colo, May 
1944; Colorado Springs, Colo, 18 Sep 1944- 

9 Apr 1946. 

Commanders. Unkn, 1940-1941. Col 
Ford J Lauer, c. 23 Jun 1942; Brig Gen 
Robert F Travis, 3 Sep 1942; Col Hugo 
P Rush, Jul 1943; Col Henry K Mooney, 
Jan 1944; Lt Col Willis G Carter, Jul 1944; 
Col Harold A McGinnis, c. i Sep 1944; 
Col Brooke E Allen, c. Oct 1944; Brig Gen 
Julius K Lacey, c. Jul 1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: On a light blue rec- 
tangle, long axis vertical, corners en- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— WINGS 



385 



grailed, a chevron inverted gold betw^een 
a gold stylized wing in chief and fifteen 
gold stars in base, all within a border of 
gold. (Approved 26 Mar 1943.) 

16th BOMBARDMENT 
TRAINING WING 

Constituted as i6th Bombardment Wing 
on 19 Oct 1940. Activated on 18 Dec 
1940. Apparently did not have sufficient 
personnel for effective training and oper- 
ations. Inactivated on i Sep 1941. 

Activated on 23 Jun 1942. Assigned to 
Second AF. Redesignated i6th Bombard- 
ment Training Wing in Jan 1943, i6th 
Bombardment Operational Training 
Wing in Apr 1943, and i6th Bombard- 
ment Operational Training Wing (Very 
Heavy) in May 1945. Began training 
heavy bombardment groups and person- 
nel in Jun 1942; later changed to very 
heavy bombardment training, which last- 
ed until operations ceased late in 1945. 
Inactivated on 9 Apr 1946. Disbanded 
on 8 Oct 1948. 

Groups. 4$th: 1941. 46th: 1941. (Var- 
ious groups assigned for training, 1942- 

I945-) 

Stations. Langley Field, Va, 18 Dec 
1940; Bowman Field, Ky, Mar-i Sep 1941. 
Wendover Field, Utah, 23 Jun 1942; Biggs 
Field, Tex, Nov 1942; Davis-Monthan 
Field, Ariz, c. i Jun 1943; Biggs Field, 
Tex, Oct 1943; Colorado Springs, Colo, 
Dec 1945-9 Apr 1946. 

Commanders. Brig Gen Junius W 
Jones, c. Apr-c. i Sep 1941. Col Ernest 



H Lawson, 23 Jun 1942; Brig Gen Robert 
B Williams, 4 Apr 1943; Col Walter R 
Agee, May 1943 ; Brig Gen Newton Long- 
fellow, II Oct 1943; Col Claude E Duncan, 
c. 25 Nov 1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

17th BOMBARDMENT 
TRAINING WING 

Constituted as 17th Bombardment Wing 
on 3 Oct 1940. Activated on 18 Dec 1940. 
Inactivated on i Sep 1941. 

Activated on 23 Jun 1942. Assigned to 
Second AF. Redesignated 17th Bombard- 
ment Training Wing in Jan 1943, and 
17th Bombardment Operational Training 
Wing in Apr 1943. Trained a number of 
heavy bombardment groups; also trained 
heavy bombardment crews. Inactivated 
on 15 Nov 1943. 

Redesignated 17th Bombardment Op- 
erational Training Wing (Very Heavy). 
Activated on 11 Mar 1944. Assigned to 
Second AF. Trained very heavy bombard- 
ment organizations and personnel. In- 
activated on 9 Apr 1946. Disbanded on 8 
Oct 1948. 

Groups, ^d Bombardment: 1940-1941. 
2']th Bombardment: 1940-1941. 

Stations. Savannah, Ga, 18 Dec 1940- 
I Sep 1941. Rapid City, SD, 23 Jun 1942; 
Walla Walla AAFld, Wash, c. i Jul-15 
Nov 1943. Smoky Hill AAFld, Kan, 11 
Mar 1944; Colorado Springs, Colo, Apr 
1944; Grand Island AAFld, Neb, May 



386 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



1944; Sioux City AAB, Iowa, Feb 1945; 
Ft Worth AAFld, Tex, Dec 1945-9 Apr 
1946. 

Commanders. Maj Gen Lewis H Brere- 
ton, Dec 1940-unkn; Col Asa N Duncan, 
c. 7 Aug-c. I Sep 1941. Brig Gen Walter 
R Peck, 5 Jul 1942; Col Allen W Reed, 
14 Sep-c. 15 Nov 1943. Brig Gen Frank 
A Armstrong Jr, 12 Apr 1944; Brig Gen 
Robert F Travis, c. 7 Nov 1944; Col Ker- 
mit D Stevens, Aug 1945; Brig Gen Hugo 
P Rush, 7 Sep 1945; Brig Gen Robert F 
Travis, 5 Nov 1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

18th REPLACEMENT WING 

Constituted as i8th Composite Wing on 
8 May 1929. Activated in Hawaii on i 
May 1931. Served as part of the defense 
force for the Hawaiian Islands. Redesig- 
nated iSth Wing in 1937, and iSth Bom- 
bardment Wing in 1940. Inactivated in 
Hawaii on 29 Jan 1942. 

Redesignated i8th Replacement Wing. 
Activated in the US on 23 Jun 1942. As- 
signed to Second AF. Processed personnel 
entering Second AF for assignments to 
units. Disbanded on 11 Apr 1944. 

Groups, ^th Bombardment: 1931-1942. 
nth Bombardment: 1940-1942. i8th 
Pursuit: 1931-1940. 

Stations. Ft Shatter, TH, i May 1931 ; 
Hickam Field, TH, 30 Oct 1937-29 Jan 
1942. Salt Lake City, Utah, 23 Jun 1942- 
II Apr 1944. 



Commanders. Lt Col Gerald C Brant, 
May 1931; Lt Col Delos C Emmons, Aug 
1934; Lt Col John C McDonnell, Jul 1936; 
Lt Col Hume Peabody, Jul 1936; Lt Col 
John C McDonnell, Jul 1936; Brig Gen 
Barton K Yount, Sep 1936; Col Millard F 
Harmon, Jul 1937; Brig Gen Barton K 
Yount, Jul 1937; Brig Gen Walter H 
Frank, Sep 1938; Col Shepler W Fitz- 
Gerald, Jul 1940; Col Howard C David- 
son, Oct 1940; Brig Gen Jacob H Rudolph, 
unkn ; Brig Gen Willis H Hale, 20-29 I^^i 

1942. Col Henry W Harms, 23 Jun 1942; 
Col Frank W Wright, 30 Jan 1944; Col 
Henry W Harms, 27 Mar-ii Apr 1944. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Cen- 
tral Pacific. 
Decorations. None. 
Insigne. None. 

20th BOMBARDMENT WING 

Constituted as 20th Bombardment Wing 
on 19 Oct 1940. Activated on 18 Dec 1940. 
Inactivated on i Sep 1941. 

Activated on i Nov 1942. Redesignated 
20th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) in Feb 

1943. Moved to England, May-Jun 1943, 
for duty with Eighth AF. Redesignated 
20th Combat Bombardment Wing 
(Heavy) in Aug 1943. Received its first 
groups in Nov 1943 and served in combat 
in the European theater from Dec 1943 
until Apr 1945. Redesignated 20th Bomb- 
ardment Wing (Heavy) in Jun 1945. Re- 
turned to the US in Aug 1945. Redesig- 
nated 20th Bombardment Wing (Very 
Heavy) in Aug, and VIII Bomber Com- 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— r/NG5 



387 



mand (Very Heavy) in Oct 1945. Appar- 
ently had no combat components assigned 
after Aug 1945. Inactivated on 10 Nov 
1946. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948. 

Groups, jth: 1940-1941. ^^h: 1945. 
42d: 1941. 93d: 1943-1945. s8sth: 1945. 
388th: 1945. 4/i6th: 1943-1945. 448th: 
194^-1945. 4^2d: 1945. 48gith: 1944. 

Stations. Ft Douglas, Utah, 18 Dec 
1940-1 Sep 1941. MacDill Field, Fla, i 
Nov 1942-C. 8 May 1943; Camp Lynn, 
England, c. 9 Jun 1943; Cheddington, 
England, c. i Jul 1943; Horsham St Faith, 
England, c. 14 Sep 1943; Hethel, England, 
24 Sep 1943; Hardwick, England, c. 7 Nov 
1943; Snettcrton Heath, England, c. 13 
Jun-6 Aug 1945; Sioux Falls AAFld, SD, 
c. 15 Aug 1945; Peterson Field, Colo, 17 
Aug 1945; MacDill Field, Fla, 14 May-io 
Nov 1946. 

Commanders. Col Shepler W Fitz- 
Gerald, 16 Jan 1941; Brig Gen Walter H 
Frank, 6 Feb 194 1 ; Brig Gen Ralph Royce, 
2 Mar 1941 ; Col Lowell H Smith, 6 May- 
c. I Sep 1941. Col John H Hayden, c. 30 
Oct 1943; Col Jack W Wood, 29 Dec 1943; 
Brig Gen Edward J Timberlake Jr, 25 Sep 
1944; Col Leland G Fiegel, 17 May 1945; 
Brig Gen Archie J Old Jr, 18 Jun 1945- 
unkn; Col Brooke E Allen, c. 18 Aug 1945; 
Col John W Warren, 22 Aug 1945; Brig 
Gen Hugo P Rush, 2 Nov 1945-unkn; Col 
Neil B Harding, 14 May 1946; Maj Gene 
A Nelson, 16 Aug 1946; Maj Leroy S Eng- 
lish, 10 Sep 1946; Lt Col Ermanno D 
Grana, 3-c. 10 Nov 1946. 

Campaigns. American Theater; Air 
Offensive, Europe; Normandy; Northern 



Ardennes- Alsace ; 



France; Rhineland; 
Central Europe. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 



21st BOMBARDMENT WING 




Constituted as 21st Bombardment Wing 
on 16 Dec 1942 and activated on 22 Dec. 
Assigned to Second AF. Functioned 
throughout the war as a staging wing, 
processing heavy bombardment crews and 
aircraft to prepare them for overseas move- 
ment; in Apr 1944 began processing men 
returning to the US from combat zones. 
Redesignated I Staging Command in Sep 
1945. Assigned to Fourth AF in Nov. In- 
activated on 3 Apr 1946. 

Redesignated 21st Bombardment Wing 
(Very Heavy). Allotted to the reserve. 
Activated on 20 Dec 1946. Redesignated 
2ist Air Division (Bombardment) in Apr 
1948. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949. 



388 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Redesignated 21st Air Division. Acti- 
vated on 16 Feb 1951. Assigned to 
Strategic Air Command. 

(This wing is not related to a 21st Bom- 
bardment Wing that was constituted on 19 
Oct 1940, activated at Barksdale Field on i 
Nov 1940, inactivated on i Nov 1941, and 
disbanded on 15 Dec 1942.) 

Components. Groups. g$th: 1947- 
1949, ^Sifih: 1947-1949. Wings. 44th 
Bombardment: 1951-1952. 5ph Recon- 
naissance: 1952-. goth Reconnaissance: 
1951-. 

Stations. Smoky Hill AB, Kan, 22 Dec 
1942; Topeka AAFld, Kan, May 1943; 
Merced AAFld, Calif, c. 7 Oct 1945-3 Apr 
1946. Memphis Mun Aprt, Tenn, 20 Dec 
1946-27 Jun 1949. Forbes AFB, Kan, 16 
Feb 1951-. 

CoMMANDERS. Brig Gcn Albert F 
Hegenberger, 22 Dec 1942; Col Henry W 
Harms, Feb 1944; Col Cornelius W Cous- 
land, 26 Dec 1944; Col Wallace S Dawson, 
21 Jan 1945; Col Ralph E Koon, 29 May 
1945; Brig Gen James M Fitzmaurice, 19 
Jul 1945-C. Apr 1946. Maj Gen David 
W Hutchison, 16 Mar 1951; Brig Gen 
Joseph D C Caldara, 4 Dec 1952; Brig Gen 
David Wade, 15 Apr 1954; Brig Gen 
Henry R Sullivan Jr, 25 Jul 1955-. 

Campaigns. American Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Per bend enhanced, 
azure and argent, in base a branch of olive 
proper, over all a sword bend sinisterwise 
proper, hilt and pommel or, point to dex- 
ter base, in chief five stars or, encircling 



the hilt and pommel of the sword, three 
and two. (Approved 17 Jul 1952.) 

24th COMPOSITE WING 

Constituted as 24th Composite Wing on 
19 Nov 1942. Activated in Iceland on 25 
Dec 1942. Served in the defense of Ice- 
land. Disbanded on 15 Jun 1944. 

Reconstituted on 5 Aug 1946 and acti- 
vated in Puerto Rico on 25 Aug. Assigned 
to Caribbean Air Command. No tactical 
groups were assigned, but the wing super- 
vised various air force units and bases in 
the Antilles. Inactivated in Puerto Rico 
on 28 Jul 1948. 

Groups. 3^2^: 1942-1944. 

Stations. Iceland, 25 Dec 1942-15 Jun 
1944. Borinquen Field, PR, 25 Aug 1946- 
28 Jul 1948. 

Commanders. Brig Gen George P 
Tourtellot, c. 25 Dec 1942; Brig Gen Early 
E W Duncan, c. 5-15 Jun 1944. Brig Gen 
John A Samford, c. Jan 1947-c. 28 Jul 1948. 

Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME 
Theater. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

25th ANTISUBMARINE WING 

Constituted as 25th Antisubmarine 
Wing on 17 Nov 1942 and activated on 20 
Nov. Assigned to AAF Antisubmarine 
Command and later (Aug 1943) to First 
AF. Conducted patrols, primarily off the 
eastern coast of the US. Disbanded on 15 
Oct 1943. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— ir/NG5 



389 



Squadrons, ist: 1942^1943. 2d (for- 
merly 523d Bombardment): 1942-1943. 
^d: 1942-1943. ^h: 1942-1943. $th: 
1942-1943. 6th: 1942-1943. nth: 1942- 
1943. i2th: 1942-1943. iph: 1942-1943. 
i^h: 1942-1943. i6th (formerly 521st 
Bombardment): 1942-1943. i8th: 1942- 
1943. igth: 1942-1943. 20th: 1943. 
22^; 1943. 24th: 1943. 

Stations. New York, NY, 20 Nov 
1942-15 Oct 1943. 

Commanders. Col Howard Moore, 20 
Nov 1942; Col Wallace E Whitson, 22 Dec 
1942; Col Chester A Charles, 8 Jun 1943; 
Col Ephraim M Hampton, 20 Aug 1943- 
unkn. 

Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater. 

Decxjrations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

26th ANTISUBMARINE WING 

Constituted as 26th Antisubmarine 
Wing on 17 Nov 1942 and activated on 20 
Nov. Assigned to AAF Antisubmarine 
Command and later (Aug 1943) to First 
AF. Flew patrols in the Gulf of Mexico 
and the Caribbean Sea. Disbanded on 15 
Oct 1943. 

Squadrons, jth: "1942-1943. 8th: 
1942-1943. gth: 1942-1943. loth: 1942- 
1943. isth: 1942-1943. 17th: 1942-1943. 
2ist: 1943. 2^d: 1943. 2^th: 1943 

Stations. Miami, Fla, 20 Nov 1942-15 
Oct 1943. 

Commanders. Col Harry A Halverson, 
c. 20 Nov 1942-1943. 



Campaigns. Antisubmarine, American 
Theater. 
Decorations. None. 
Insigne. None. 

40th BOMBARDMENT WING 




Constituted as 40th Bombardment Wing 
on 15 Jan 1943 and activated on 21 Jan. 
Redesignated 40th Bombardment Wing 
(Heavy) in May 1943. Moved to Eng- 
land, May-Jun 1943, for duty with Eighth 
AF. Redesignated 40th Combat Bom- 
bardment Wing (Heavy) in Aug 1943, 
and 40th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) 
in Jun 1945. Served in combat in the 
European theater from Sep 1943 until Apr 
1945, receiving a DUC for an attack on 
aircraft factories in central Germany on 
II Jan 1944. Remained in Europe after 
the war as part of United States Air Forces 
in Europe. Inactivated in Germany on 
25 Dec 1946. 

Redesignated 40th Air Division. Or- 
ganized in the US on 14 Mar 1951. As- 
signed to Strategic Air Command. 



390 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 



Components. Groups. 2d: 1945-1946. 
g2d: 1943-1946. 30Sth: 1943-1945, 1945- 
1946. ^o6th: 1943-1945, 1945-1946. ^84t.h: 
1945-1946. 4g2d: 1944-1945. Wings, 
^ist Fighter: 1951-. io8th Fighter: 1951. 
146th Fighter: 1951. 50&A Fighter: 1952-. 

Stations. MacDill Field, Fla, 21 Jan- 
c. 17 May 1943; Brampton Grange, Eng- 
land, Jun 1943; Thurleigh, England, c. 16 
Sep 1943; Istres, France, 26 Jun 1945; 
Erlangen, Germany, 15 Nov 1945-25 Dec 
1946. Turner AFB, Ga, 14 Mar 195 1-. 

Commanders. Maj Charles Normand, 
1943-unkn ; Brig Gen Howard M Turner, 
16 Sep 1943; Col Anthony Q Mustoe, 22 
Oct 1944; Brig Gen Emil C Kiel, i Mar-c. 
I Dec 1946. Col Eugene H Suavely, 14 
Mar 195 1 ; Brig Gen Thayer S Olds, i Jun 
195 1 ; Col Hubert Zemke, 11 Oct 1955-. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes- Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Germany, 11 Jan 1944. 

Insigne. Shield: Azure, in dexter chief 
a stylized comet gules, bordered argent, 
with tail of stripes, gules, argent, and gules 
curved toward base edge, overall four 
lightning flashes or,, bend sinisterwise, one 
above the other. (Approved 14 Apr 1952.) 

41st BOMBARDMENT WING 

Constituted as 41st Bombardment Wing 
(Heavy) on 29 Jan 1943. Activated on 16 
Feb 1943. Moved to England in Jul 1943 
for duty with Eighth AF. Redesignated 
41st Combat Bombardment Wing 



(Heavy) in Aug 1943. Served in the 
European theater from Sep 1943 to Apr 
1945, receiving a DUC for a raid on air- 
craft factories in central Germany on 11 
Jan 1944. Disbanded in England on 18 
Jun 1945. 

Groups. 305^; 1943-1945. SJgth: 1943- 
1945. skt^h: 1943-1945. 

Stations. Salt Lake City AAB, Utah, 
16 Feb 1943; Rapid City AAB, SD, Mar-c. 
4 Jul 1943; Brampton Grange, England, 
c. 26 July 1943; Molesworth, England, c. 
16 Sep 1943-18 Jun 1945. 

Commanders. Lt Col Donald S Gra- 
ham, 1943-unkn; Brig Gen Robert F 
Travis, 16 Sep 1943 ; Col Maurice A Pres- 
ton, II Oct 1944; Col Lewis E Lyle, May 
1945-unkn. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; 
Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe. 

Decorations. Distinguished Unit Cita- 
tion: Germany, 11 Jan 1944. 

Insigne. None. 

42d BOMBARDMENT WING 

Constituted as 42d Bombardment Wing 
(Dive) on 8 Feb 1943 and activated on 16 
Feb. Redesignated ^id Bombardment 
Wing (Medium), transferred overseas 
without personnel and equipment, and as- 
signed to Twelfth AF, on 31 Jul 1943. 
Received groups in Aug 1943 and served 
in combat in the Mediterranean and Euro- 
pean theaters until the end of the war. 
Returned to the US in Oct 1945. Inacti- 
vated on 25 Oct 1945. 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— WINGS 



391 



Redesignated ^id Air Division. Organ- 
ized on 10 Mar 195 1. Assigned to Strate- 
gic Air Command. 

Components. Groups, ist Fighter: 
1943. ijth Bombardment: 1943-1945. 
5/9/A Bombardment: 1943-1944. 520/A 
Bombardment: 1943-1945. 525M Fighter: 
1943. Wings, ist Fighter: 1951-. 2jth 
Fighter: 1951-. i^ist Fighter: 1951. 

Stations. Birmingham AAB, Ala, 16 
Feb-31 Jul 1943; North Africa, 31 Jul 
1943; Ariana, Tunisia, 21 Aug 1943; El- 
mas, Sardinia, 15 Nov 1943; Borgo, Cor- 
sica, 21 Sep 1944; Dijon, France, 24 Nov 
1944; Reims, France, Jul-c. Oct 1945; 
Camp Shanks, NY, 24-25 Oct 1945. Berg- 
strom AFB, Tex, 10 Mar 1951-. 

Commanders. Brig Gen Robert M 
Webster, 24 Aug 1943; Brig Gen John P 
Doyle, I Sep 1944-1945. Brig Gen Clar- 
ence T Edwinson, c. 15 Mar 195 1- 

Campaigns. Naples-Foggia; Anzio; 
Rome-Arno; Southern France; North 
Apennines; Rhineland; Central Europe. 

Decorations. French Croix de Guerre 
with Palm: Apr-Jun 1944, 

Insigne. None. 

45th BOMBARDMENT WING 

Constituted as 45th Bombardment Wing 
(Medium) on 15 Feb 1943. Activated on 
I Apr 1943. Redesignated 45th Bombard- 
ment Wing (Heavy). Moved to England 
in Aug 1943 for duty with Eighth AF. 
Redesignated 45th Combat Bombardment 
Wing (Heavy). Groups were assigned in 
Sep 1943 and the wing participated in 



combat in the European theater until Apr 
1945. Disbanded in England on 18 Jun 
1945. 

Reconstituted and redesignated 45th Air 
Division, on 24 Sep 1954. Activated in the 
US on 8 Oct 1954. Assigned to Strategic 
Air Command. 

Components. Groups. 34th: 1945. 
g6th: 1943-1945. 385th: 1945. jSSM; 
1943-1945. 452d: 1944-1945. Wings, ^zd 
Bombardment: 1954-. 

Stations. MacDill Field, Fla, i Apr-c. 
3 Aug 1943; Brampton Grange, England, 
c. 25 Aug 1943; Snetterton Heath, Eng- 
land, 13 Sep 1943-18 Jun 1945. Loring, 
AFB, Maine, 8 Oct 1954-. 

Commanders. Maj Carl L Liles, c. Apr 
1943-unkn; Col Archie J Old Jr, 14 Sep 
1943; Brig Gen Charles P Cabell, c. i Dec 
1943; Brig Gen Archie J Old Jr, 12 Apr 
1944-18 Jun 1945. Brig Gen Bertram C 
Harrison, 8 Oct 1954; Brig Gen William 
K Martin, 18 Jun 1955-. 

Campaigns. Air Offensive, Europe; 
Normandy; Northern France ; Rhineland ; 
Ardennes- Alsace ; Central Europe. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. None. 

47th BOMBARDMENT WING 

Constituted as 7th Pursuit Wing on 19 
Oct 1940. Activated on 18 Dec 1940. In- 
activated on 31 Aug 1941. 

Redesignated 7th Fighter Wing. Acti- 
vated on 7 Jun 1942. Moved to North 
Africa, Oct-Nov 1942, to operate with 
Twelfth AF. Redesignated 47th Bom- 



392 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 




bardment Wing (Medium) in Feb 1943. 
Assigned to Fifteenth AF in Nov 1943 
and afterward operated as a heavy bom- 
bardment organization until the war 
ended. Redesignated 47th Bombardment 
Wing (Heavy) in Apr 1945. Returned to 
the US in May. Redesignated 47th Bom- 
bardment Wing (Very Heavy) in Jun. 
Inactivated on 15 Oct 1945. 

Redesignated 47th Air Division. Or- 
ganized on 10 Feb 1951. Assigned to Stra- 
tegic Air Command. 

Components. Groups. 8th Pursuit: 
1940-1941. ijth Bombardment: 1943. 
33d Fighter: 1940-1941; 1942-1943, 1943. 
SJth Pursuit: 1940-1941. 81 st Fighter: 
1942-1943. 82d Fighter: 1943-1944, g8th 
Bombardment: 1943, 1943-1945. 310th 
Bombardment: 1943. 5/9M Bombard- 
ment: 1943. 320th Bombardment: 1943. 
321st Bombardment: 1943. 525/A Fighter: 
1943- 376th Bombardment: 1943, 1943- 
1945. 44gth Bombardment: 1944-1945. 
4$oth Bombardment: 1944-1945. 4^1 st 
Bombardment: 1944. 48gth Bombard- 



ment: 1945. Wings. 6th Bombardment: 
195 1-. ^ogth Bombardment: 195 1-. 

Stations. Mitchel Field, NY, 18 Dec 
1940-31 Aug 1941. Harrisburg Mun Aprt, 
Pa, 7 Jun-Oct 1942; Casablanca, French 
Morocco, Nov 1942; Chateaudun, Algeria, 
Jan 1943; El Guerrah, Algeria, c. i i>»— 
1943; Souk-el-Arba, Tunisia, 8 Jun 1943; 
Hammamet, Tunisia, 7 Aug 1943; Man- 
duria, Italy, 11 Nov 1943-May 1945; Sioux 
Falls, SD, May 1945; Sioux City AAB, 
Iowa, Jul-15 Oct 1945. Walker AFB, 
NM, 10 Feb 1951-. 

CoMMANDERs. Lt Col Edwatd M Mor- 
ris, 194 1. Maj Eugene Berglund, 7 Jun 
1942; Col John C Crosthwaite, 14 Sep 
1942; Brig Gen Carlyle H Ridenour, 14 
Jan 1943; Brig Gen Joseph H Atkinson, 11 
Feb 1944; Brig Gen Hugo P Rush, 5 Mar 
1944-7 Oct 1945. Brig Gen Hunter Har- 
ris Jr, 10 Feb 1951; Col William H Blan- 
chard, c. Dec 1951; Brig Gen Thomas C 
Musgrave Jr, 7 Apr 1952; Brig Gen Charles 
W Scott, 7 Jul 1954-. 

Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME Thea- 
ter; Air Offensive, Europe; Algeria-French 
Morocco; Tunisia; Sicily; Naples-Foggia; 
Rome-Arno; Normandy; Northern 
France; Southern France; North Apen- 
nines; Rhineland; Central Europe; Po 
Valley. 

Decorations. None. 

Insigne. Shield: Sable, an atomic cloud 
proper (shades of red, orange and yellow) 
rising from base to chief, surmounted by 
a bend argent charged with a sword prop- 
er (blade silver, hilt and pommel gold). 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS— IF/NG5 



393 



the blade entwined with a branch of oUve 
vert. (Approved 6 Sep 1956.) 

49th BOMBARDMENT WING 




Constituted as 49th Bombardment Op- 
erational Training Wing (Medium) on 
17 Mar 1943 and activated on 31 Mar. Re- 
designated 49th Bombardment Wing (Me- 
dium) in Oct 1943, and 49th Bombard- 
ment Wing (Heavy) in Dec. Moved to 
Italy (Feb-Apr 1944) where groups were 
assigned. Operated with Fifteenth AF in 
the Mediterranean and European theaters 
from Apr 1944 until May 1945. Inacti- 
vated in Italy on 16 Oct 1945. 

Redesignated 49th Bombardment Wing 
(Very Heavy). Allotted to the reserve. 
Activated in the US on 20 Dec 1946. Re- 
designated 49th Air Division (Bombard- 
ment) in Apr 1948. Inactivated on 27 Jun 
1949. 

Redesignated 49th Air Division. Acti- 
vated on 7 Nov 1951. Assigned to Tactical 
Air Command. Redesignated 49th Air 
Division (Operational) in Apr 1952. 



Moved to England, May-Jun 1952, and as- 
signed to United States Air Forces in Eu- 
rope. No combat elements were assigned 
but wings were attached for operations. 

Groups. looth: 1946-1949. ^8oth: 
1946-1949. 4pst: 1944-1945. 461st: 1944- 
1945. 484th: 1944-1945. 

Stations. Columbia AAB, SC, 31 Mar 
1943; Greenville AAB, SC, c. 28 Apr 1943- 
2 Feb 1944; Italy, Apr 1944-16 Oct 1945. 
Miami AAFld, Fla, 20 Dec 1946-27 Jun 
1949. Langley AFB, Va, 7 Nov 1951-May 
1952; Sculthorpe RAF Station, England, 
Jun 1952-. 

Commanders. Brig Gen William L Lee, 
c. 31 Mar 1943; Col Robert F Worden, 4 
Aug-c. Oct 1945. Col James D Jones, 7 
Nov 195 1 ; Brig Gen John D Stevenson, 
Feb 1952; Brig Gen James F Whisenand, 
26 Feb 1955-. 

Campaigns. Air Combat, EAME Thea- 
ter; Air Offensive, Europe; Rome-Arno; 
Normandy; Northern France; Southern 
France; North Apennines; Rhineland; 
Central Europe; Po Valley. 

Decorations. None. 
Insigne. Shield: Quarterly argent and 
sable, rising from base the outline of an 
atomic cloud counterchanged, overall a 
lightning flash issuing from sinister chief 
and striking to dexter base or. (Approved 
23 Dec 1953.) 

50th TROOP CARRIER WING 

Constituted as 50th Transport Wing on 
8 Jan 1941 and activated on 14 Jan. As- 
signed to Office, Chief of the Air Corps. 



394 



AIR FORCE COMBAT UNITS OF WORLD WAR II 




Transported personnel, supplies, and ma- 
teriel in the US, Alaska, and the Carib- 
bean area. Assigned to Air Transport 
Command (later I Troop Carrier Com- 
mand) in Apr 1942. Redesignated 50th 
Troop Carrier Wing in Jul 1942. Func- 
tioned as a training organization. Moved 
overseas, Sep-Oct 1943, and assigned to 
Ninth AF. Operated in the European and 
Mediterranean theaters until after the war. 
Transferred, without personnel and equip- 
ment, to the US in Sep 1945. Remanned